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Africa and the Slave Trade
Arabs and their Muslim allies were the first to make use of large numbers of sub-Saharan black Africans. They developed a long-distance slave trade, which began in the seventh century and lasted into the twentieth. It delivered many millions of Africans across the Sahara Desert, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean to North Africa, the Mediterranean, and Persian Gulf. Although over a much longer period of time and comprising far more females, the number of Africans exported via these trans-Saharan or Indian Ocean slave trades probably equaled, or even outmatched, those of its transatlantic counterpart. The preexistence of these export trades facilitated Atlantic trade: systems of slave marketing were already in place. So numerous were black Africans at certain times and in certain places that they were able to launch massive slave revolts—in 869, for instance, in what is now southern Iraq, where the so-called Zanj (who came from the Swahili Coast and lands further north) worked in large gangs draining marshlands. While the Quran and Islamic law were essentially color-blind and while Muslims enslaved many so-called "white" people, medieval Arabs came to associate the most degrading forms of labor with black slaves. The Arabic word for slave, JS Collections Navy Satin Ball Gown,ARA Naturform 8 Slip On Loafers Brown Leather Croc,
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The Atlantic Slave System
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This paradox illumines the unpredictability of events in the Americas. No European nation embarked on New World ventures with the intention of enslaving anyone. They had no blueprint but rather proceeded haphazardly and pragmatically. Their first resort was to forced Indian labor (the encomiendaNWT Anthropologie Ranna Gill Cabaret Maxi Dress Floral Print Size M,
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Ralph A. Austen, "The Trans-Saharan Slave Trade: A Tentative Census," Spell and Gypsy blue skies reversible kimono new,, ed. Henry A. Gemery and Jan S. Hogendorn (New York: Academic Press, 1979), 23-76; Austen, "The Mediterranean Islamic Slave Trade out of Africa: A Tentative Census," MARC BY MARC JACOBS 'Classic Q Huge Hillier' Hobo,J.Crew Pants Womens 27 Petite Berry Wine Skinny Cargo Ankle Zipper Stretch,Encyclopedia of Africa South of the SaharaFarm Rio macaw mix maxi dress,International Journal of African Historical Studies 10 (1977): 443-61; Alexandre Popovic, The Revolt of African Slaves in Iraq in the IIIrd-IXth CenturyMadewell Skinny Ankle Pants,New Big Star Jean shorts,☀️Bleach Out,Kirstie Kelly Signature | Coral Sweetheart Wedding Dress Sz 16, (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998); Shaun E. Marmon, ed., Vintage 1996 Looney Tunes SYLVESTER Cat Teal Green T-Shirt Sleep One Size, (Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener, 1998); Minra Tora and John Edward Philips, eds., Slave Elites in the Middle East and Africa: A Comparative StudyNWOT Adidas Primegreen Sleek Spacer Mesh Top,The African Diaspora in the Mediterranean Lands of IslamVTG Candi Jones Womens 9 Light Blue Tiered Ruffle,Slavery on the Frontiers of IslamBaroque Blouse,
Suzanne Miers and Igor Kopytoff, eds., Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological PerspectivesVera Bradley MSU Front Zip Wristlet,Kay Unger White Green Floral Leaf Formal Maxi Dress, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990); John Thornton, Hopeless Romantic Pink Velvet Lace Renaissance Princess Maxi Dress,BRAND NEW Ball Gown Long Sleeve Wedding Dress,Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in AfricaMurano glass CZ S925 sterling silver cross pendant chain,
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AEO Midi Jean Shorts American Eagle Super Super Stretch Midi Denim X Cafe Denim,Gucci Sandals Black Size 39, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982); Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440-1870 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997), 21-24, 48-86.
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David’s Brudal Wedfing Dress,American Historical ReviewShow Me Your Mumu Bianca Jumpsuit,Makia Grey and White Striped Pocket Classic Tshirt, (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003), 14; Robert C. Davis, Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500-1800 (Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave MacMillan, 2003). For more on the development of freedom and slavery, see David Eltis, The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), and Sue Peabody, There Are No Slaves in France: The Political Culture of Race and Slavery in the Ancien Régime100% Genuine Tahitian Black Pearl Choker 14-15 MM Necklace on Brown Leather Cord,
JCrew Italian Blazer SiZe 16 Tall,The Early Spanish MainGap Womens XL Blue Double Breasted Trench Coat Outer Jacket Peacoat,J. Crew Marlow Huarache Woven Leather Mule Sandals Tan Brown, (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1992); William L. Sherman, Forced Native Labor in Sixteenth-Century Central AmericaThe Handmade Heifer minky blanket,Midnight Rider Willie Nelson Texas Rocker Tee XL Unisex white NWOT,Splendid | M,The Indian Slave Trade: The Rise of the English Empire in the American South, 1670-1717Gray chunky blanket with pink border,Chaser Star Tee,, ed. Elizabeth Mancke and Carole Shammas (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005), 75-121. For a recent discussion of Indian population decline, see David S. Jones, "Virgin Soils Revisited," Trader Bay Aztec Tribal Print Slip On Sling Back Elastic 11,, 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 703-42.
David Galenson, White Servitude in Colonial America: An Economic AnalysisCoach Legacy Ali Signature Jacquard Bronze Handbag,NWOT Franchi Clutch Bag w/hidden gunmetal shoulder strap,Ralph Lauren Men's Overcoat,William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 58 (January 2001): 17-46. Two good microhistories of the transatlantic slave trade are Robert Harms, Eileen Fisher Woven Tencel Grain Stripe Pants,New Take Forgive Arizona Hoodie,The Two Princes of Calabar: An Eighteenth-Century Atlantic Odyssey (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004).
David Eltis and William G. Clarence-Smith, "White Servitude," Zara Embroidered Wide Leg Trousers,Prom Taupe Dress size 4,Men’s Snapon tool hat, (London: Longman, 1996); Stanley L. Engerman, ed., Terms of Labor: Slavery, Serfdom, and Free Labor (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1999); and Bush, NEW 12/9M Halabaloo Sparkly Silver Floral Baby Girl Dress 12m lk 9M Holiday, (Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2000).
Frank M. Snowden Jr., Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1970); Snowden, ABS Allen Schwartz | Anthropologie | Faux Leather Trim Stretch Denim Shorts,Authentic Hermes Aloha Rubber Sandals Rose Baie Size 38,The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2004); Jean Devisse and Michel Mollat, eds., The Image of the Black in Western Art, vol. 2, Free People Lille Printed Tie-Back Maxi Dress XSMALL,Teva Ysidro Leather Wedge Sandals Black Sz 11,Images of the Medieval PeasantClub Monaco Silk Razor back NWT XLG,NWT J.Crew Cropped Jean,Lucky Brand Emmie Red Ballet Flat,White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812Mystree fashion pants,Race: The History of an Idea in the West (Washington, D.C.: The Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1996); the essays in "Constructing Race: Differentiating Peoples in the Early Modern World," William and Mary QuarterlyBeautiful designer chandelier earrings,The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2003). The best account is David Brion Davis, "The Origins of Anti-Black Racism in the New World," chap. 3 in Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World SlaveryChampion Toddler University Unisex Plush Slippers Slip On Size 10,
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Frank Tannenbaum, Slave and Citizen: The Negro in the AmericasStella McCartney Womens Buckle White Faux Leather Ankle Strap Flats Shoes NWT,Neither Black Nor White: Slavery and Race Relations in Brazil and the United States (New York: Macmillan, 1971).
NWT NIKE DRI-FIT WOMEN’S STRIPE FAIRWAY POLO XS,Black Yankees: The Development of an Afro-American Subculture in Eighteenth-Century New England (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988); Graham Russell Hodges, Root and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1613-1863Black Slim Fit Trench Coat - Size Small,Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and LowcountryWomen SB Fanny Pack Lightweight Black,Vintage Native American Sterling Stamped Silver Dog Puppy Fishhook Earrings,LIKE NEW Melissa Sweet cap sleeve wedding gown,UGG Kids Logo Sheepskin Slippers,Travis Scott x Mc Donald’s Cactus Pack Blanket,William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 777-808. To this list might be added other forms of aboriginal slavery: see Theda Perdue, New Ferragamo Vera bow charm, (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1979); William A. Starna and Ralph Watkins, "Northern Iroquoian Slavery," G-Star Raw Bronson Wide Leg Trousers NWOT SIZE 12, 38 (Winter 1991): 34-57; and Leland Donald, Aboriginal Slavery on the Northwest Coast of North America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).
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- Davis, David Brion. London Fog Trench cost with removable linen,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003. The first short essay in the volume is a superb introduction to the origins of New World slavery, but it should be complemented by a number of other books by this great historian of New World slavery. I particularly recommend his AUTHENTIC Salvatore Ferragamo size 34.5,Michael kors men’s jacket,
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- LIFE IS GOOD " HAPPY CAMPER" HOODIE,A Historical Guide to World Slavery. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. A useful reference work that covers most regions where slavery was important, together with topical examinations of the subject.
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- Finley, M. I. Vintage Coach Brown Leather 9047 Hobo Purse,. Reprint. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980. An exploration of the emergence, functioning, and decline of the slave societies of classical Greece and classical Italy, with comparisons to New World slavery, by the greatest historian of ancient slavery.
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- Cute White Rhinestone Embellished Clutch,Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. A good survey of slavery and the evolution of racial prejudice in the Islamic world.
- Miller, Joseph. C., ed. Slavery and Slaving in World History: A Bibliography, 1900-1996. 2 vols. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1999. The most comprehensive work of its kind. Annual updates are available in the journal Beautiful Vince camuto sleek gold earrings,. The entire bibliography is being prepared for Internet access as a searchable database by the Virginia Center for Digital History at the University of Virginia.
- Morgan, Philip D. "African Americans." In A Companion to Colonial AmericaCalvin Klein Red Leather Purse,
- Patterson, Orlando. Deadstock Vintage Footjoy Hat,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982. The best general survey of slave systems in 66 societies, written by a sociologist.
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- Thornton, John. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1800925 Sterling Silver and Turquoise Necklace,