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Africa and the Slave Trade

Arabs and their Muslim allies were the first to make use of large numbers of sub-Saharan black Africans. They developed a long-distance slave trade, which began in the seventh century and lasted into the twentieth. It delivered many millions of Africans across the Sahara Desert, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean to North Africa, the Mediterranean, and Persian Gulf. Although over a much longer period of time and comprising far more females, the number of Africans exported via these trans-Saharan or Indian Ocean slave trades probably equaled, or even outmatched, those of its transatlantic counterpart. The preexistence of these export trades facilitated Atlantic trade: systems of slave marketing were already in place. So numerous were black Africans at certain times and in certain places that they were able to launch massive slave revolts—in 869, for instance, in what is now southern Iraq, where the so-called Zanj (who came from the Swahili Coast and lands further north) worked in large gangs draining marshlands. While the Quran and Islamic law were essentially color-blind and while Muslims enslaved many so-called "white" people, medieval Arabs came to associate the most degrading forms of labor with black slaves. The Arabic word for slave, NWT Beach Bunny Sugar Magnolia Bandeau Top,Mark Cross vintage handbag /briefcase style,

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The Atlantic Slave System

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As slavery underwent a resurgence in southern Europe, it gradually disappeared from the northwestern part of the continent. Economic changes help to explain this development, but perhaps more important were cultural constraints. Over the course of the Middle Ages, Christians always committed awful atrocities on each other, but increasingly they avoided enslaving one another. Apparently, a sense of unity had emerged in Christian Europe that effectively barred the enslavement of those deemed fellow Europeans. Christianity's long struggle with Islam no doubt played a major role in this development. That from 1500 to 1800 Muslims enslaved well over a million Western Europeans, many of whom were subsequently ransomed and celebrated as symbols of freedom, was a major element in the growing sense that Europeans should never be slaves. Nevertheless, these so-called free labor nations would develop some of the harshest slave regimes in the Americas. As David Brion Davis puts it, "it is an astonishing paradox that the first nations in the world to free themselves of chattel slavery—such nations as England, France, Holland, and even the Scandinavian states—became leaders during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in supporting plantation colonies based on African slave labor." He likens this divide to a primitive Mason-Dixon line, "drawn somewhere in the Atlantic, separating free soil master-states from tainted slave soil dependencies" (8).

This paradox illumines the unpredictability of events in the Americas. No European nation embarked on New World ventures with the intention of enslaving anyone. They had no blueprint but rather proceeded haphazardly and pragmatically. Their first resort was to forced Indian labor (the encomiendaPrada Button Down - 41 | 16US,

Consequently, Europeans faced a huge labor shortage. The Ottoman Turkish empire blocked access to Black Sea or Baltic captives. European nations no longer enslaved Christian prisoners of war. Some dreamers talked of enslaving the poor or other marginal groups, but the practical and principled problems of reviving European slavery were considerable. Another expedient was the transportation of convicts, but their numbers were never sufficient. Temporary bondage—indentured servitude—was the most obvious and most widely used other option, particularly in the early years, but servants, if they survived, eventually became free, and in any case most servants would not travel to the areas where most labor was needed. Thus, almost by default, African slaves proved by far the best available labor supply. Consequently, from 1500 to 1820 almost 9 million African slaves left for the New World, compared to less than 3 million whites. In terms of migration, the New World was more black than white (10).

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New World slavery's other most distinctive aspect was its highly commercial character. While it is true that plantations—that is, large agricultural enterprises, managed for profit, producing a crop for export, with a hierarchically stratified labor organization—existed outside the New World, they reached their apogee there. The economies of scale, the expansion in unit size, the almost exclusive use of black slaves, a highly regimented and commodified labor force, and a system of close management all raised profit levels significantly. Such a productive system placed enormous demands on its laborers. As early as the 1630s a visitor to a Jesuit-owned sugar plantation in Brazil vividly described the unbearable horror of what had transpired: "People the color of the very night, working briskly and moaning at the same time without a moment of peace or rest, whoever sees all the confused and noisy machinery and apparatus of this Babylon, even if they have seen Mt. Etna and Vesuvius will say that this indeed is the image of Hell" (13).

Patterns of New World Slavery

Variations over time and space existed within New World slavery. Three stand out. First, although all New World regions imported more African men than women (thereby in part explaining the harshness of New World slavery because of the policing problems associated with large gangs of men), over time the gender ratio among New World slaves became increasingly balanced. In that regard, the North American slave population is most notable, because, as its number of slave women increased the most rapidly, so it became one of the few self-reproducing slave populations in world history. This early and rapid natural increase explains why North America received such a small percentage of the overall transatlantic slave trade—about 5 percent. Second, North America was also distinctive in being much less tolerant of racial intermixture than Latin America or the Caribbean. Once again demography—particularly the ratio of white men to white women (more balanced in North America than in Latin America and the Caribbean) and the availability of black women—was a crucial part of the explanation, but also important were the role of the Church and cultural mores, based as much in Old World patterns of racial coexistence or segregation. The Spanish had mixed with Muslims for centuries; the English had created a Pale in their settlement of Ireland. Only in North America did the extremely arbitrary concept of "Negro"—denoting anyone with allegedly visible African ancestry—assume such a marked stigma. Third, the chances of gaining freedom varied from one society to the next. Except for the period surrounding the American Revolution, the North American colonies, and later the states, imposed the severest restrictions on the chances of a slave becoming free. Again, demography—the proportions of whites and blacks in the population—has some explanatory power as do economic and cultural forces (14).

North American slavery itself was hardly of a piece. The range encompasses New England's intimate "family slavery"; the Mid-Atlantic's mixed forms of slavery and servitude; the Chesapeake's patriarchal, small plantation, mixed farming and tobacco, heavily native-born form of slavery; and the low country's impersonal, large plantation, rice and indigo, more heavily African system of slavery. In addition, various borderland forms existed: from a fluid world of interracial alliances in the Lower Mississippi Valley to a flexible one of fugitives and ex-slaves in Spanish Florida to one in which Indian slaves were transformed from symbols of alliance into commodities of exchange in French Canada (15).

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  1. Cupshe Amaris Teal V-neck O-ring High Waisted Bikini (L) (Brand New),The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-bellum South (New York: Knopf, 1956).

  2. Montce Chevron Hunter Triangle Bikini Top,International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, ed. David L. Sills and Robert King Merton (New York: Macmillan, 1968), 14: 307-13; Finley, Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology, reprint (Hammondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980), 9, 96, 102, 111, 113-14; Keith Hopkins, New Gymshark Flex Shorts Purple Marl Pebble Grey Size XS,Beautiful Infinity Ring,Fleo Amazon Emerald High Rise Original CrossFit Shorts Size Medium, 138 (1993): 3-27; Keith Bradley, Slavery and Society at RomeISO!!!! Pink valentines day Ice Nine Kills hoodie,Derek Lam > Long Sleeve Cream Dress > 6,Polka Dot VS Two Piece Bikini,The Problem of Slavery in Western CultureMlle Gabrielle Tie Dye Chain Neck High-Low Summer Dress,Burberry nylon Nova tote,ONIA Misha Bikini Bottom,

  3. Ralph A. Austen, "The Trans-Saharan Slave Trade: A Tentative Census," Columbia Waterproof Quilted Snow Boots Like New Purple 200 Grams size 6,, ed. Henry A. Gemery and Jan S. Hogendorn (New York: Academic Press, 1979), 23-76; Austen, "The Mediterranean Islamic Slave Trade out of Africa: A Tentative Census," NWOT Tory Burch Crystal gold flower ring,NIB Jeffrey Campbell multi platform sneakers,Encyclopedia of Africa South of the SaharaMarvel Tee Shirt Black 2008 New Mad Engine Iron Man Men's T-Shirt Medium,International Journal of African Historical Studies 10 (1977): 443-61; Alexandre Popovic, The Revolt of African Slaves in Iraq in the IIIrd-IXth CenturyNew eShakti Dress 4,White House Black Market black pencil skirt S,Ryka Women’s Snaeaker,House of Harlow Bikini, (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998); Shaun E. Marmon, ed., Supreme White Desert Camo Hoodie FW16, (Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener, 1998); Minra Tora and John Edward Philips, eds., Slave Elites in the Middle East and Africa: A Comparative StudyRALPH LAUREN IVORY LABEL TWO TIER RUFFLE HIGH WAIST MIDI SKIRT 2,The African Diaspora in the Mediterranean Lands of IslamTommy Hilfigher V-Neck Pullover T-Shirt Short Sleeve Green Men's Size Large,Slavery on the Frontiers of IslamOne Size open stitch wrap poncho knit crochet,

  4. Suzanne Miers and Igor Kopytoff, eds., Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives❤️Tory Burch Tote❤️,Medelita Mens Summit Scrub Pants Navy M, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990); John Thornton, NWT Wide calf + extra wide width burgundy boots,Gorgeous white lace Alexis dress! NWOT,Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in AfricaVINCE Trim fit linen sport shirt,

  5. Denim Work Shirt-Indigo Wash,Archivum latinitatis medii aevi⚜️ VERSACE ⚜️,L'Esclavage dans l'Europe médiévale, vol. 1, Pénisule Ibérique—France (Bruges: De Tempel, 1955); vol. 2, Italie, Colonies Italiennes du Levant, Levant Latin, Empire Bysantin (Ghent: 1977); and Verlinden, The Beginnings of Modern Colonization: Eleven Essays with an IntroductionNWT VINCE Stripe half sleeve button up shirt,Slavery and Society in Medieval ScandinaviaNWT Tularosa Darla Top in Heartbreaker - Small,Black Tory Burch bag- good condition!, (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 1995); Steven Epstein, Speaking of Slavery: Color, Ethnicity, and Human Bondage in Italy (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2001); and Sally McKee, "Inherited Status and Slavery in Late Medieval Italy and Venetian Crete," NWT SEAFOLLY OCEAN ROSE SIZE 12 RETRO BOTTOMS,Duck Head Chambray Work Shirt,

  6. Leather hand bag, cowhide new,[The Bikini Lab] Rib-Thym Bikini Set Hot Coral, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982); Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440-1870 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997), 21-24, 48-86.

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  8. Vintage Christian Dior Wool Pencil Skirt Silk Lined,American Historical ReviewTwelve by Twelve Black Satin Dress with beading,J.Crew Rayner Wide Leg Cropped Pants., (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003), 14; Robert C. Davis, Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500-1800 (Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave MacMillan, 2003). For more on the development of freedom and slavery, see David Eltis, The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), and Sue Peabody, There Are No Slaves in France: The Political Culture of Race and Slavery in the Ancien RégimeISO!!! Ice nine kills valentines hoodie,

  9. Harley Davidson Orange Ft Myers Florida Graphic Tee Shirt Motorcycle XL,The Early Spanish MainFW16 Supreme Desert Camo Hoodie,PilyQ bikini bathing suit, (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1992); William L. Sherman, Forced Native Labor in Sixteenth-Century Central AmericaLongchamp Black Long Sleeve Blouson Dress Size 38 (US 10),Tommy Bahama Twist Front Bandeau Swim Top Beach Glass Blue,Platinum by Dorothy Schoelen Blue Button Down Skirt Women's Size 14 VTG,The Indian Slave Trade: The Rise of the English Empire in the American South, 1670-1717STONE COLD FOX RISE DRESS - WHITE,Sea Level Riviera Rib High Waist bottoms,, ed. Elizabeth Mancke and Carole Shammas (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005), 75-121. For a recent discussion of Indian population decline, see David S. Jones, "Virgin Soils Revisited," Vintage Ysl women’s sweater,, 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 703-42.

  10. David Galenson, White Servitude in Colonial America: An Economic AnalysisVintage Single Stitch White Sox Black T-Shirt Team Rated Size XL,Doen Floral Print Mini Dress,NWT SEAFOLLY WATERGARDEN SIZE 6 12 HIPSTER BOTTOMS,William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 58 (January 2001): 17-46. Two good microhistories of the transatlantic slave trade are Robert Harms, Paige Verdugo Ankle Jeans sz 28,Converse Chuck Taylor Suede Sherpa High Top Sneakers,The Two Princes of Calabar: An Eighteenth-Century Atlantic Odyssey (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004).

  11. David Eltis and William G. Clarence-Smith, "White Servitude," Prada Leather Trimmed Canapa Bag,Rare luxurious coach bag. Perfect condition.,Gucci Blue Sunglasses w Gold Detailing ✨, (London: Longman, 1996); Stanley L. Engerman, ed., Terms of Labor: Slavery, Serfdom, and Free Labor (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1999); and Bush, Prada Baroque Tortoiseshell Sunglasses - LIKE NEW, (Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2000).

  12. Frank M. Snowden Jr., Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1970); Snowden, NWT plus size Calia 2 pc bikini,Tory Burch Pyramid Stud Citrus Dome Tote,The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2004); Jean Devisse and Michel Mollat, eds., The Image of the Black in Western Art, vol. 2, Kate Spade Leather Tote - New with Tags includes Dust Bag in Watermelon/Red,Vintage Wilson’s Leather Maxima Jacket with Rabbit fur trim in Pink size Small,Images of the Medieval PeasantSimon Miller Mid Rise Indigo Wash Bleach Splatter Casper Skinny Jeans,Vintage distressed washed out black 501 Levi jeans crop flare,Moschino Cheap and Chic Pencil Skirt Black,White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812Gucci embroidered hoodie,Race: The History of an Idea in the West (Washington, D.C.: The Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1996); the essays in "Constructing Race: Differentiating Peoples in the Early Modern World," William and Mary QuarterlyLes Copains Dark Navy Zipper Skirt Size 8,The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2003). The best account is David Brion Davis, "The Origins of Anti-Black Racism in the New World," chap. 3 in Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World SlaveryKemper Performance Waterproof Hooded Shell Sz XL,

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  14. Frank Tannenbaum, Slave and Citizen: The Negro in the AmericasVintage San Francisco 49ers Graphic Tee~T-Shirt~Striped~Size L~Made in the U.S.A,Neither Black Nor White: Slavery and Race Relations in Brazil and the United States (New York: Macmillan, 1971).

  15. Vtg Adidas Golf Pullover Jacket - Men's Size Large,Black Yankees: The Development of an Afro-American Subculture in Eighteenth-Century New England (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988); Graham Russell Hodges, Root and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1613-1863Madewell Midi Denim Skirt Button Fly NWT,Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and LowcountryCream Dakota Dress 40 Rose Dust 3/4 sleeve BOHO,Cazal Model 915,Chico’s Striped Black and White Ankle Pants Size 0.5,FIGS Men’s Cairo Cargo Scrub Pants | Royal Blue | Size Large,Betsy & Adam Vintage Sexy Black Body Con 1980s Stretchy Cocktail Dress, Small,William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 777-808. To this list might be added other forms of aboriginal slavery: see Theda Perdue, NWT size XL Calia 2pc bikini, (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1979); William A. Starna and Ralph Watkins, "Northern Iroquoian Slavery," Maggie London Scoop Neck V Back Beaded Floral Bodycon Dress in 14 NWT, 38 (Winter 1991): 34-57; and Leland Donald, Aboriginal Slavery on the Northwest Coast of North America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).

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Sources

  • Women’s XS long pea coat,The Making of New World Slavery: From the Baroque to the Modern, 1492-1800NWOT Equestrian Milo Red Stretch Pant | Small,
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  • Dress The Population Mineral Blue Clara Long Sleeve Crochet Lace Dress,Children of God's Fire: A Documentary History of Black Slavery in BrazilChrome Hearts Thermal Lined Zip Up Hoodie,
  • Davis, David Brion. Peter Nygard Black Faux Leather and Metallic Gold Tweed Jacket Women's Size 14,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003. The first short essay in the volume is a superb introduction to the origins of New World slavery, but it should be complemented by a number of other books by this great historian of New World slavery. I particularly recommend his Lululemon Speed Short Size 8-EUC Black/White,Dior "Reflected" Sunglasses,
  • Davis, Robert C. True Religion 28 Skinny Flap Midnight Dark Jeans,Ramy Brook Embellished Dress,
  • Vena Cava Rare Abstract Print Silk Tiered Pencil Skirt size 2,A Historical Guide to World Slavery. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. A useful reference work that covers most regions where slavery was important, together with topical examinations of the subject.
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  • Finley, M. I. Supreme reflective cutout hooded sweatshirt. New,. Reprint. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980. An exploration of the emergence, functioning, and decline of the slave societies of classical Greece and classical Italy, with comparisons to New World slavery, by the greatest historian of ancient slavery.
  • Fredrickson, George M. Racism: A Short HistoryFurla Metropolis Large Handbag Tote Fuscia,
  • Uggs brand new without tags.,Gorgeous kaftan maxi in pink boho. Contains about 1,000 pictorial images of slavery in Africa and the Americas, arranged thematically.
  • Vintage 517 Levi’s jeans,Size 5 new in box ring sterling silver with pearl,. New York: Hill and Wang, 1993. A good general account by a historian alert to comparative history.
  • Rothco Men's Pants Beige Size XL 39-43 Tactical Multiple Pockets Cargo NWT,Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. A good survey of slavery and the evolution of racial prejudice in the Islamic world.
  • Miers, Suzanne, and Igor Kopytoff, eds. Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977. The long introduction on slavery as an "institution of marginality" is a classic, and many of the individual essays on particular regions and groups are stimulating.
  • Miller, Joseph. C., ed. Slavery and Slaving in World History: A Bibliography, 1900-1996. 2 vols. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1999. The most comprehensive work of its kind. Annual updates are available in the journal Cult of Individuality Teaser Crop Skinny Mint NEW,. The entire bibliography is being prepared for Internet access as a searchable database by the Virginia Center for Digital History at the University of Virginia.
  • Morgan, Philip D. "African Americans." In A Companion to Colonial AmericaCÉLINE ALL SOFT TOTE ⭐️Final Price Drop⭐️,
  • Patterson, Orlando. NWT plus size 2X Calia 2 pc bikini,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982. The best general survey of slave systems in 66 societies, written by a sociologist.
  • Alice + Olivia Austin Goddess Draped Dress,EILEEN FISHER Pants Petite Medium Pull On Crop 30x25,. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1985. A useful account that focuses on slavery in medieval Europe, the world of Islam, and the rise of the Atlantic slave system.
  • Thornton, John. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1800Max Studio Lace Skirt - Size 4,

Philip D. Morgan is the Sydney and Ruth Lapidus Professor in the American Revolutionary Era at Princeton University. He is the author of Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998) and coeditor (with Sean Hawkins) of Black Experience and the Empire: The Oxford History of the British Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004). He would like to acknowledge in particular the assistance of David Brion Davis, who generously sent him two early chapters from his forthcoming manuscript, "Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World Slavery."

Authored by

  • Philip D. Morgan
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    Princeton, New Jersey