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Africa and the Slave Trade

Arabs and their Muslim allies were the first to make use of large numbers of sub-Saharan black Africans. They developed a long-distance slave trade, which began in the seventh century and lasted into the twentieth. It delivered many millions of Africans across the Sahara Desert, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean to North Africa, the Mediterranean, and Persian Gulf. Although over a much longer period of time and comprising far more females, the number of Africans exported via these trans-Saharan or Indian Ocean slave trades probably equaled, or even outmatched, those of its transatlantic counterpart. The preexistence of these export trades facilitated Atlantic trade: systems of slave marketing were already in place. So numerous were black Africans at certain times and in certain places that they were able to launch massive slave revolts—in 869, for instance, in what is now southern Iraq, where the so-called Zanj (who came from the Swahili Coast and lands further north) worked in large gangs draining marshlands. While the Quran and Islamic law were essentially color-blind and while Muslims enslaved many so-called "white" people, medieval Arabs came to associate the most degrading forms of labor with black slaves. The Arabic word for slave, Kit & Ace blue gray full potential shorts,Betsey Johnson Purple Butterfly Dangle Post Earrings NWT,

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The Atlantic Slave System

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As slavery underwent a resurgence in southern Europe, it gradually disappeared from the northwestern part of the continent. Economic changes help to explain this development, but perhaps more important were cultural constraints. Over the course of the Middle Ages, Christians always committed awful atrocities on each other, but increasingly they avoided enslaving one another. Apparently, a sense of unity had emerged in Christian Europe that effectively barred the enslavement of those deemed fellow Europeans. Christianity's long struggle with Islam no doubt played a major role in this development. That from 1500 to 1800 Muslims enslaved well over a million Western Europeans, many of whom were subsequently ransomed and celebrated as symbols of freedom, was a major element in the growing sense that Europeans should never be slaves. Nevertheless, these so-called free labor nations would develop some of the harshest slave regimes in the Americas. As David Brion Davis puts it, "it is an astonishing paradox that the first nations in the world to free themselves of chattel slavery—such nations as England, France, Holland, and even the Scandinavian states—became leaders during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in supporting plantation colonies based on African slave labor." He likens this divide to a primitive Mason-Dixon line, "drawn somewhere in the Atlantic, separating free soil master-states from tainted slave soil dependencies" (8).

This paradox illumines the unpredictability of events in the Americas. No European nation embarked on New World ventures with the intention of enslaving anyone. They had no blueprint but rather proceeded haphazardly and pragmatically. Their first resort was to forced Indian labor (the encomiendaNEW Yumi Kim Salmon Pink Claudia Silk Draped Fold Over Collar Belted Jacket L,

Consequently, Europeans faced a huge labor shortage. The Ottoman Turkish empire blocked access to Black Sea or Baltic captives. European nations no longer enslaved Christian prisoners of war. Some dreamers talked of enslaving the poor or other marginal groups, but the practical and principled problems of reviving European slavery were considerable. Another expedient was the transportation of convicts, but their numbers were never sufficient. Temporary bondage—indentured servitude—was the most obvious and most widely used other option, particularly in the early years, but servants, if they survived, eventually became free, and in any case most servants would not travel to the areas where most labor was needed. Thus, almost by default, African slaves proved by far the best available labor supply. Consequently, from 1500 to 1820 almost 9 million African slaves left for the New World, compared to less than 3 million whites. In terms of migration, the New World was more black than white (10).

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New World slavery's other most distinctive aspect was its highly commercial character. While it is true that plantations—that is, large agricultural enterprises, managed for profit, producing a crop for export, with a hierarchically stratified labor organization—existed outside the New World, they reached their apogee there. The economies of scale, the expansion in unit size, the almost exclusive use of black slaves, a highly regimented and commodified labor force, and a system of close management all raised profit levels significantly. Such a productive system placed enormous demands on its laborers. As early as the 1630s a visitor to a Jesuit-owned sugar plantation in Brazil vividly described the unbearable horror of what had transpired: "People the color of the very night, working briskly and moaning at the same time without a moment of peace or rest, whoever sees all the confused and noisy machinery and apparatus of this Babylon, even if they have seen Mt. Etna and Vesuvius will say that this indeed is the image of Hell" (13).

Patterns of New World Slavery

Variations over time and space existed within New World slavery. Three stand out. First, although all New World regions imported more African men than women (thereby in part explaining the harshness of New World slavery because of the policing problems associated with large gangs of men), over time the gender ratio among New World slaves became increasingly balanced. In that regard, the North American slave population is most notable, because, as its number of slave women increased the most rapidly, so it became one of the few self-reproducing slave populations in world history. This early and rapid natural increase explains why North America received such a small percentage of the overall transatlantic slave trade—about 5 percent. Second, North America was also distinctive in being much less tolerant of racial intermixture than Latin America or the Caribbean. Once again demography—particularly the ratio of white men to white women (more balanced in North America than in Latin America and the Caribbean) and the availability of black women—was a crucial part of the explanation, but also important were the role of the Church and cultural mores, based as much in Old World patterns of racial coexistence or segregation. The Spanish had mixed with Muslims for centuries; the English had created a Pale in their settlement of Ireland. Only in North America did the extremely arbitrary concept of "Negro"—denoting anyone with allegedly visible African ancestry—assume such a marked stigma. Third, the chances of gaining freedom varied from one society to the next. Except for the period surrounding the American Revolution, the North American colonies, and later the states, imposed the severest restrictions on the chances of a slave becoming free. Again, demography—the proportions of whites and blacks in the population—has some explanatory power as do economic and cultural forces (14).

North American slavery itself was hardly of a piece. The range encompasses New England's intimate "family slavery"; the Mid-Atlantic's mixed forms of slavery and servitude; the Chesapeake's patriarchal, small plantation, mixed farming and tobacco, heavily native-born form of slavery; and the low country's impersonal, large plantation, rice and indigo, more heavily African system of slavery. In addition, various borderland forms existed: from a fluid world of interracial alliances in the Lower Mississippi Valley to a flexible one of fugitives and ex-slaves in Spanish Florida to one in which Indian slaves were transformed from symbols of alliance into commodities of exchange in French Canada (15).

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  1. UGG Duffield robe size small,The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-bellum South (New York: Knopf, 1956).

  2. FWRD Denim & Co. Jeans. Size 44 inseam 32, NWOT.,International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, ed. David L. Sills and Robert King Merton (New York: Macmillan, 1968), 14: 307-13; Finley, Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology, reprint (Hammondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980), 9, 96, 102, 111, 113-14; Keith Hopkins, Retro 2005 Adidas Reversible Basketball Shorts Navy Green White Stripes,Large Swarovski Crystal Hanging Earrings Gold-Tone Oval Faceted Yellow Citrine,BLACK HARLEY JEANS MENS 38/30 RELAXED FIT, 138 (1993): 3-27; Keith Bradley, Slavery and Society at RomeVans Off The Wall Checkered Long Sleeve Top Smal Black Fleece Pullover Y2K Skate,Say Yes to the Prom Junior Dress,Vintage Victoria’s Secret 100% floral silk robe,The Problem of Slavery in Western CultureWhite and Gold prom dress!!,Nudie Jeans Washed Denim,{Pierre Hardy} Canvas & Leather Cubed Print Espadrille Wedges,

  3. Ralph A. Austen, "The Trans-Saharan Slave Trade: A Tentative Census," Ralph Lauren floral king comforter set,, ed. Henry A. Gemery and Jan S. Hogendorn (New York: Academic Press, 1979), 23-76; Austen, "The Mediterranean Islamic Slave Trade out of Africa: A Tentative Census," Pet TeePee Bedding with Pillow (Beige / White),Cross Sportswear Activewear Hoodie,Encyclopedia of Africa South of the SaharaVS Miraculous Bombshell Strapless Bra 32A satin smooth,International Journal of African Historical Studies 10 (1977): 443-61; Alexandre Popovic, The Revolt of African Slaves in Iraq in the IIIrd-IXth CenturyLevi Men’s ORANGE TAB 1970s 550 Relaxed fit,Tory Burch Color Block Cream/Black Wedge Espadrille,Maroon Gold 7-Piece Jacquard Floral Comforter Set,Dsquared espadrilles, (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998); Shaun E. Marmon, ed., Gucci Shearling Gloves, (Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener, 1998); Minra Tora and John Edward Philips, eds., Slave Elites in the Middle East and Africa: A Comparative StudyRae Dunn "WEEKEND" Hooded Sweatshirt,The African Diaspora in the Mediterranean Lands of IslamVICTORIA'S SECRET Very Sexy Push Up Bra 32C,Slavery on the Frontiers of IslamVia spiga laser cut casual loafers 7.5,

  4. Suzanne Miers and Igor Kopytoff, eds., Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological PerspectivesSterling Silver And Clear Rhinestone Sun And Moon Earrings NWOT,Betsey Johnson Sweet N Fun Heart N Bow Pink N Gold Earrings NWOT, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990); John Thornton, Mink mitt,Woven Jacquard Pet Teepee With Pillow- Handcrafted (Light Blue / White Stripes),Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in AfricaAg Jeans sz 26 The Merlot Bootcut Jeans,

  5. Adidas Condivo 21 Mens Soccer Goalkeeper Shorts Blue GT8406 NEW Multi Sz,Archivum latinitatis medii aeviMiss Me Easy Boot JE5342EL Jeans Size 26,L'Esclavage dans l'Europe médiévale, vol. 1, Pénisule Ibérique—France (Bruges: De Tempel, 1955); vol. 2, Italie, Colonies Italiennes du Levant, Levant Latin, Empire Bysantin (Ghent: 1977); and Verlinden, The Beginnings of Modern Colonization: Eleven Essays with an IntroductionVictoria's Secret DREAM ANGELS Mini Lace Bustier,Slavery and Society in Medieval ScandinaviaBlue prom dres,Isabel Marant Black Studded “Caleen” Boots Sz 37, (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 1995); Steven Epstein, Speaking of Slavery: Color, Ethnicity, and Human Bondage in Italy (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2001); and Sally McKee, "Inherited Status and Slavery in Late Medieval Italy and Venetian Crete," Prom dress size 1/2 (navy, beaded-bodice),Vntg: Screw back Earrings,

  6. VTG Silver Gold Tone Twist Circle Dangle Earrings,St. Agni Nao Leather Mules in Black Size 7, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982); Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440-1870 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997), 21-24, 48-86.

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  8. Rainbow Amber Hoodie Lularoe,American Historical ReviewVS Black/White Lace Sexy Little things 32B Bra,Sterling Silver 925 Faux Pearl Stud Earrings, (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003), 14; Robert C. Davis, Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500-1800 (Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave MacMillan, 2003). For more on the development of freedom and slavery, see David Eltis, The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), and Sue Peabody, There Are No Slaves in France: The Political Culture of Race and Slavery in the Ancien RégimeBurberry Gold Metallic Leather,

  9. Sweater vest/skirt set,The Early Spanish MainWAYF Rachel Off the Shoulder Gored Maxi Dress,Nandog Watermelon Pet Bed NWT, (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1992); William L. Sherman, Forced Native Labor in Sixteenth-Century Central AmericaMen’s Brand new Hermes calfskin and ostrich,Guess sunglasses by marciano,Madewell Harper Mule 9,The Indian Slave Trade: The Rise of the English Empire in the American South, 1670-1717NEW 5 PC Comforter Set,Mens gucci sunglasses,, ed. Elizabeth Mancke and Carole Shammas (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005), 75-121. For a recent discussion of Indian population decline, see David S. Jones, "Virgin Soils Revisited," COPY - Ugg clogs mules leather Sz 6 Brand New,, 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 703-42.

  10. David Galenson, White Servitude in Colonial America: An Economic Analysis-Men’s Joes Denim Jeans,Versace Ballers club scarf,Adidas Colorblock Full-Zip Hoody Scarlet/Blue S,William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 58 (January 2001): 17-46. Two good microhistories of the transatlantic slave trade are Robert Harms, Authentic Jimmy Choo boot,Bottega Veneta Gloves,The Two Princes of Calabar: An Eighteenth-Century Atlantic Odyssey (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004).

  11. David Eltis and William G. Clarence-Smith, "White Servitude," Vtg 90s United States Navy Rules The Sea Jersey,Anichini by Quagliotti White Grapevine Coverlet and 2 Euro Shams. Queen.,Wacoal 34C bra, (London: Longman, 1996); Stanley L. Engerman, ed., Terms of Labor: Slavery, Serfdom, and Free Labor (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1999); and Bush, Pippa and Julie top and tutu, (Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2000).

  12. Frank M. Snowden Jr., Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1970); Snowden, 2/ RARE VARSITY VINTAGE CHAMPION SWEATSHIRT•PERFECT CONDITION•NWOT•READ ⬇️,Cheetah bummie set,The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2004); Jean Devisse and Michel Mollat, eds., The Image of the Black in Western Art, vol. 2, 4 pieces Best Friends by Sheri Pet Igloo in Sherpa,2-piece prom dress size 1 (grey and white),Images of the Medieval PeasantMatilda Jane size 2 BUNDLE,White boho spaghetti strap maxi Vneck beach Summer dress,Fashion Wedding Bridal Jewelry Sets For Women,White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812Lafayette 148 Ivory & Brown Geometric Blazer,Race: The History of an Idea in the West (Washington, D.C.: The Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1996); the essays in "Constructing Race: Differentiating Peoples in the Early Modern World," William and Mary QuarterlyVictoria's Secret Bombshell Strapless Push-Up Bra 34C Beige Tan,The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2003). The best account is David Brion Davis, "The Origins of Anti-Black Racism in the New World," chap. 3 in Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World Slavery✨ J.Crew Large Pearl Rhinestones Crystal Drop Dangle Wedding Bridal Earrings ✨,

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  14. Frank Tannenbaum, Slave and Citizen: The Negro in the AmericasBetsey Johnson Front & Behind Ear Colorful Rhinestone/GoldToneSnake Earrings NIB,Neither Black Nor White: Slavery and Race Relations in Brazil and the United States (New York: Macmillan, 1971).

  15. LifeStride Comfy Black Wedge Heels,Black Yankees: The Development of an Afro-American Subculture in Eighteenth-Century New England (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988); Graham Russell Hodges, Root and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1613-1863Vintage Cottage Core Crochet Bedspread coverlet,Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and LowcountryWHITE BAROQUE SUNGLASSES,7 FOR ALL MANKIND Jeans Size 32,Vintage Collectors Versace X67s,Girls cocomelon bells,Blush prom/bridesmaid dress. Great condition!,William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 777-808. To this list might be added other forms of aboriginal slavery: see Theda Perdue, Duke University jersey Reddish#2, (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1979); William A. Starna and Ralph Watkins, "Northern Iroquoian Slavery," adidas Men's 3G Speed X Shorts - 3XL NWT GRAY, 38 (Winter 1991): 34-57; and Leland Donald, Aboriginal Slavery on the Northwest Coast of North America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).

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Sources

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  • Davis, David Brion. Calvin Klein snake skin wedges.,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003. The first short essay in the volume is a superb introduction to the origins of New World slavery, but it should be complemented by a number of other books by this great historian of New World slavery. I particularly recommend his NEW Taos Woolderness 2 Clogs in Cranberry Size 42,Morgan Lane Allie Satin Robe S/M White & Pink Floral SMALL MEDIUM NEW WITH TAG,
  • Davis, Robert C. AG Adriano Goldschmeid The Hero Relaxed Jean 31x31,Vintage AS Sport Ohio State sweatshirt Sz XL Women,
  • PAPER DENIM & CLOTH Bridgette Low Rise Boot Cut 27,A Historical Guide to World Slavery. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. A useful reference work that covers most regions where slavery was important, together with topical examinations of the subject.
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  • Finley, M. I. In bloom velvet & satin black full length robe size Medium,. Reprint. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980. An exploration of the emergence, functioning, and decline of the slave societies of classical Greece and classical Italy, with comparisons to New World slavery, by the greatest historian of ancient slavery.
  • Fredrickson, George M. Racism: A Short HistoryHandmade Rocketeer Hoodie and Jogger Set,
  • Carter’s baby bundle,Athleta Womens Dark Purple Twist Front Pullover Sweatshirt Size S Athletic Crop. Contains about 1,000 pictorial images of slavery in Africa and the Americas, arranged thematically.
  • 1 LEFT!! TAYLOR SWIFT RED VINYL EARRINGS,CASTANER BLACK BLUMA ESPADRILLES 8 NIB,. New York: Hill and Wang, 1993. A good general account by a historian alert to comparative history.
  • Mavi Mindy Bootcut Midrise Distressed Jeans 28x32,Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. A good survey of slavery and the evolution of racial prejudice in the Islamic world.
  • Miers, Suzanne, and Igor Kopytoff, eds. Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977. The long introduction on slavery as an "institution of marginality" is a classic, and many of the individual essays on particular regions and groups are stimulating.
  • Miller, Joseph. C., ed. Slavery and Slaving in World History: A Bibliography, 1900-1996. 2 vols. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1999. The most comprehensive work of its kind. Annual updates are available in the journal NWT J.Crew MENS Jean's 36x30,. The entire bibliography is being prepared for Internet access as a searchable database by the Virginia Center for Digital History at the University of Virginia.
  • Morgan, Philip D. "African Americans." In A Companion to Colonial AmericaTory Burch- Gathered Suede Slingback Espadrille, in “Wind”, Size 8,
  • Patterson, Orlando. Gucci Leather platform knee boots,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982. The best general survey of slave systems in 66 societies, written by a sociologist.
  • Vintage Beau Sure Basila Quilted Robe Housecoat Duster Hollywood Glam NOS.,Tory Burch- Suede Minnie Ballet Espadrille in Olive, wrap around ankle straps, 9,. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1985. A useful account that focuses on slavery in medieval Europe, the world of Islam, and the rise of the Atlantic slave system.
  • Thornton, John. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1800Vintage Clip-on Earrings Rhinestone Multi Strand Dangle Silver tone,

Philip D. Morgan is the Sydney and Ruth Lapidus Professor in the American Revolutionary Era at Princeton University. He is the author of Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998) and coeditor (with Sean Hawkins) of Black Experience and the Empire: The Oxford History of the British Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004). He would like to acknowledge in particular the assistance of David Brion Davis, who generously sent him two early chapters from his forthcoming manuscript, "Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World Slavery."

Authored by

  • Philip D. Morgan
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    Princeton, New Jersey