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Africa and the Slave Trade

Arabs and their Muslim allies were the first to make use of large numbers of sub-Saharan black Africans. They developed a long-distance slave trade, which began in the seventh century and lasted into the twentieth. It delivered many millions of Africans across the Sahara Desert, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean to North Africa, the Mediterranean, and Persian Gulf. Although over a much longer period of time and comprising far more females, the number of Africans exported via these trans-Saharan or Indian Ocean slave trades probably equaled, or even outmatched, those of its transatlantic counterpart. The preexistence of these export trades facilitated Atlantic trade: systems of slave marketing were already in place. So numerous were black Africans at certain times and in certain places that they were able to launch massive slave revolts—in 869, for instance, in what is now southern Iraq, where the so-called Zanj (who came from the Swahili Coast and lands further north) worked in large gangs draining marshlands. While the Quran and Islamic law were essentially color-blind and while Muslims enslaved many so-called "white" people, medieval Arabs came to associate the most degrading forms of labor with black slaves. The Arabic word for slave, Sz.2 Lululemon Embrace Inkwell skinny tights,Ruby Red Coach Handbag,

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The Atlantic Slave System

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As slavery underwent a resurgence in southern Europe, it gradually disappeared from the northwestern part of the continent. Economic changes help to explain this development, but perhaps more important were cultural constraints. Over the course of the Middle Ages, Christians always committed awful atrocities on each other, but increasingly they avoided enslaving one another. Apparently, a sense of unity had emerged in Christian Europe that effectively barred the enslavement of those deemed fellow Europeans. Christianity's long struggle with Islam no doubt played a major role in this development. That from 1500 to 1800 Muslims enslaved well over a million Western Europeans, many of whom were subsequently ransomed and celebrated as symbols of freedom, was a major element in the growing sense that Europeans should never be slaves. Nevertheless, these so-called free labor nations would develop some of the harshest slave regimes in the Americas. As David Brion Davis puts it, "it is an astonishing paradox that the first nations in the world to free themselves of chattel slavery—such nations as England, France, Holland, and even the Scandinavian states—became leaders during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in supporting plantation colonies based on African slave labor." He likens this divide to a primitive Mason-Dixon line, "drawn somewhere in the Atlantic, separating free soil master-states from tainted slave soil dependencies" (8).

This paradox illumines the unpredictability of events in the Americas. No European nation embarked on New World ventures with the intention of enslaving anyone. They had no blueprint but rather proceeded haphazardly and pragmatically. Their first resort was to forced Indian labor (the encomiendaFree people necklace,

Consequently, Europeans faced a huge labor shortage. The Ottoman Turkish empire blocked access to Black Sea or Baltic captives. European nations no longer enslaved Christian prisoners of war. Some dreamers talked of enslaving the poor or other marginal groups, but the practical and principled problems of reviving European slavery were considerable. Another expedient was the transportation of convicts, but their numbers were never sufficient. Temporary bondage—indentured servitude—was the most obvious and most widely used other option, particularly in the early years, but servants, if they survived, eventually became free, and in any case most servants would not travel to the areas where most labor was needed. Thus, almost by default, African slaves proved by far the best available labor supply. Consequently, from 1500 to 1820 almost 9 million African slaves left for the New World, compared to less than 3 million whites. In terms of migration, the New World was more black than white (10).

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New World slavery's other most distinctive aspect was its highly commercial character. While it is true that plantations—that is, large agricultural enterprises, managed for profit, producing a crop for export, with a hierarchically stratified labor organization—existed outside the New World, they reached their apogee there. The economies of scale, the expansion in unit size, the almost exclusive use of black slaves, a highly regimented and commodified labor force, and a system of close management all raised profit levels significantly. Such a productive system placed enormous demands on its laborers. As early as the 1630s a visitor to a Jesuit-owned sugar plantation in Brazil vividly described the unbearable horror of what had transpired: "People the color of the very night, working briskly and moaning at the same time without a moment of peace or rest, whoever sees all the confused and noisy machinery and apparatus of this Babylon, even if they have seen Mt. Etna and Vesuvius will say that this indeed is the image of Hell" (13).

Patterns of New World Slavery

Variations over time and space existed within New World slavery. Three stand out. First, although all New World regions imported more African men than women (thereby in part explaining the harshness of New World slavery because of the policing problems associated with large gangs of men), over time the gender ratio among New World slaves became increasingly balanced. In that regard, the North American slave population is most notable, because, as its number of slave women increased the most rapidly, so it became one of the few self-reproducing slave populations in world history. This early and rapid natural increase explains why North America received such a small percentage of the overall transatlantic slave trade—about 5 percent. Second, North America was also distinctive in being much less tolerant of racial intermixture than Latin America or the Caribbean. Once again demography—particularly the ratio of white men to white women (more balanced in North America than in Latin America and the Caribbean) and the availability of black women—was a crucial part of the explanation, but also important were the role of the Church and cultural mores, based as much in Old World patterns of racial coexistence or segregation. The Spanish had mixed with Muslims for centuries; the English had created a Pale in their settlement of Ireland. Only in North America did the extremely arbitrary concept of "Negro"—denoting anyone with allegedly visible African ancestry—assume such a marked stigma. Third, the chances of gaining freedom varied from one society to the next. Except for the period surrounding the American Revolution, the North American colonies, and later the states, imposed the severest restrictions on the chances of a slave becoming free. Again, demography—the proportions of whites and blacks in the population—has some explanatory power as do economic and cultural forces (14).

North American slavery itself was hardly of a piece. The range encompasses New England's intimate "family slavery"; the Mid-Atlantic's mixed forms of slavery and servitude; the Chesapeake's patriarchal, small plantation, mixed farming and tobacco, heavily native-born form of slavery; and the low country's impersonal, large plantation, rice and indigo, more heavily African system of slavery. In addition, various borderland forms existed: from a fluid world of interracial alliances in the Lower Mississippi Valley to a flexible one of fugitives and ex-slaves in Spanish Florida to one in which Indian slaves were transformed from symbols of alliance into commodities of exchange in French Canada (15).

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  1. Loowie Dollaro Leather Satchel - Burgundy,The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-bellum South (New York: Knopf, 1956).

  2. Emmanuela Greek Sandal Gladiator Black Full Grain Leather Size 11 Handcrafted,International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, ed. David L. Sills and Robert King Merton (New York: Macmillan, 1968), 14: 307-13; Finley, Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology, reprint (Hammondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980), 9, 96, 102, 111, 113-14; Keith Hopkins, New faja,Authentic Vintage Louis Vuitton Zip Around Wallet,Tory Burch Orange Robinson Demi Wedge Leather Sandals Women’s Size 8, 138 (1993): 3-27; Keith Bradley, Slavery and Society at RomeVince Camuto Tina Satchel- Black/Pewter,PRADA CALZATURE DONNA WMNS 6 PR3163,Faja size L,The Problem of Slavery in Western CultureNIB. BARBIE Olympic Games Tokyo 2020 Skateboard,Kat Spade New York Florence leather shoulder bag,Disney’s Duffy,

  3. Ralph A. Austen, "The Trans-Saharan Slave Trade: A Tentative Census," Black art paintings,, ed. Henry A. Gemery and Jan S. Hogendorn (New York: Academic Press, 1979), 23-76; Austen, "The Mediterranean Islamic Slave Trade out of Africa: A Tentative Census," Brighton Leather Wallet Crossbody Bag,Donald Pliner Lelle Natural Linen Elastic Womens Wedge Sandals Size 11M,Encyclopedia of Africa South of the SaharaMK plaid dress,International Journal of African Historical Studies 10 (1977): 443-61; Alexandre Popovic, The Revolt of African Slaves in Iraq in the IIIrd-IXth CenturyJ. Crew White Tweed Knit Dress Knee Length Silver Metallic Thread Sleeveless 10P,Sylvanian Families Calico Critters 3 Kids Baby Bunny lot And Toy Rocking Horse,Astro World Hoodie,Converse Chuck 70 Vintage Orange size 5.5y/7W/38EU, (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998); Shaun E. Marmon, ed., Yellow with grapes and barrels, (Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener, 1998); Minra Tora and John Edward Philips, eds., Slave Elites in the Middle East and Africa: A Comparative StudyVintage Polly Pocket Bluebird 1990 Water Fun Park & 2 Dolls Playset,The African Diaspora in the Mediterranean Lands of IslamAlice + Olivia Wool Black Dress with Waist Belt Size 4,Slavery on the Frontiers of IslamTory Burch Red mini Purse,

  4. Suzanne Miers and Igor Kopytoff, eds., Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological PerspectivesOriginal Art by Jonathan Wright,Set free size, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990); John Thornton, Converse Chuck 70 Vintage Dark Root Brown size 9.5Womens/7.5y,(NWOT) Levis 720 High Rise Super Skinny Size 27 Dark Wash Jeans,Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in AfricaOriginal Acrylic Art by Jonathan Wright,

  5. CHROME HEARTS Light Blue & Yellow-Cross Hoodie (Miami Exclusive) Size Large,Archivum latinitatis medii aeviFree People Wind Willow Cashmere Embroidered Bohemian Dress,L'Esclavage dans l'Europe médiévale, vol. 1, Pénisule Ibérique—France (Bruges: De Tempel, 1955); vol. 2, Italie, Colonies Italiennes du Levant, Levant Latin, Empire Bysantin (Ghent: 1977); and Verlinden, The Beginnings of Modern Colonization: Eleven Essays with an IntroductionCharmed necklace from Montreal,Slavery and Society in Medieval ScandinaviaGuess Purse Vintage,Playboy Tie-Dye Cotton Hoodie, (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 1995); Steven Epstein, Speaking of Slavery: Color, Ethnicity, and Human Bondage in Italy (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2001); and Sally McKee, "Inherited Status and Slavery in Late Medieval Italy and Venetian Crete," Tony Parker San Antonio Spurs Jersey,Master limited addition pullover quarter-zip mens small,

  6. Johnny Was Embroidered Long Sleeve Cotton Dress Size Small,Joker’s Wild DC x Converse Limited Edition size 6 women’s Chuck Taylor High Top, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982); Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440-1870 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997), 21-24, 48-86.

  7. Felipe Fernández-Armesto, Deny Designs “She believed she could” Wall Canvas,2XU Cycling Jersey in Black and blue,Brighton Leather Crossbody Bag,NWT Charter Club Blue Gathered Waist Dress,Levi's 721 High Rise Skinny Jeans Dark Wash Stretch Denim Size 30,Silpada mix stone necklace,Donald Trump Tye - Signature Collection Gold, (San Francisco: Mellen Research University Press, 1992).

  8. Lily Pulitzer Designer Tie (New with tags),American Historical ReviewMarine logo,XL 16” SquishMallow Sealife Abby Octopus, (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003), 14; Robert C. Davis, Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500-1800 (Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave MacMillan, 2003). For more on the development of freedom and slavery, see David Eltis, The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), and Sue Peabody, There Are No Slaves in France: The Political Culture of Race and Slavery in the Ancien RégimeDisney Plush bundle,

  9. Vintage Nascar Barbie,The Early Spanish MainKate spade Staci bloom large continental wallet,Amazing antique purse., (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1992); William L. Sherman, Forced Native Labor in Sixteenth-Century Central AmericaRebecca Minkoff Avery Purse,Polo Ralph Lauren lumberjack shirt,MM6 Maison Margiela Black Lowtop Women’s Sneakers 37.5,The Indian Slave Trade: The Rise of the English Empire in the American South, 1670-1717Adidas - Chelsea 2009 Long Sleeve Jersey - Clima Cool,APL Women's Techloom Wave White/Black/Ombre size 7.5,, ed. Elizabeth Mancke and Carole Shammas (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005), 75-121. For a recent discussion of Indian population decline, see David S. Jones, "Virgin Soils Revisited," Seraphinite and Peridot Necklace in .925,, 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 703-42.

  10. David Galenson, White Servitude in Colonial America: An Economic AnalysisRAHI CALI Carmel Floral Daytime Off the Shoulder Dress size Small,Flower panting,NFL Tennessee Titan jersey extra large,William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 58 (January 2001): 17-46. Two good microhistories of the transatlantic slave trade are Robert Harms, Vintage 1998 Spice Girls Posh Spice Collector’s Doll,NWOT Club Monaco silk tie,The Two Princes of Calabar: An Eighteenth-Century Atlantic Odyssey (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004).

  11. David Eltis and William G. Clarence-Smith, "White Servitude," Schutz Women's Brauna Studded High Heel Sandals 8.5B,Monster High Clawdeen Wolf Doll,One of a Kind Acrylic Painting by Jonathan Wright, (London: Longman, 1996); Stanley L. Engerman, ed., Terms of Labor: Slavery, Serfdom, and Free Labor (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1999); and Bush, Ralph Lauren | Medium Button Down Shirt Red Green, (Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2000).

  12. Frank M. Snowden Jr., Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1970); Snowden, Women's H27 Long Mesh Sleeve Dress, Black 01,My art work...Rainbow Hippie Girl,The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2004); Jean Devisse and Michel Mollat, eds., The Image of the Black in Western Art, vol. 2, Alleti's Long Mesh Sleeve Dress, Black,Adidas Originals Ultraboost 21 Ice Purple Rose Running Shoes Women's Size 8,Images of the Medieval PeasantVINTAGE TY BEANIE BABY SLY THE FOX 1995 (A5),SILPADA Bronze Coin Pearl 3-Strand Necklace,NEW FOSSIL Handbag,White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812FREE PEOPLE OCEANSIDE CROCHET MINI DRESS Size Small,Race: The History of an Idea in the West (Washington, D.C.: The Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1996); the essays in "Constructing Race: Differentiating Peoples in the Early Modern World," William and Mary QuarterlySONDRA ROBERTS Handbag,The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2003). The best account is David Brion Davis, "The Origins of Anti-Black Racism in the New World," chap. 3 in Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World SlaveryPink Thomas Pink Prestige Houndstooth Button Down,

  13. 1-Piece High Neck and Semi-Sheer Mesh Base With Floral Embroidery Bodysuit,Naot Nifty Blue Gray Suede Leather Slip-on Slide Chunky Block Heel Sandals 37, (New York: Norton, 1989); Schwartz, ed., Monster High Howleen Wolf Doll,, 3.

  14. Frank Tannenbaum, Slave and Citizen: The Negro in the AmericasUnique vintage hand bag,Neither Black Nor White: Slavery and Race Relations in Brazil and the United States (New York: Macmillan, 1971).

  15. MICHAEL KORS Handbag,Black Yankees: The Development of an Afro-American Subculture in Eighteenth-Century New England (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988); Graham Russell Hodges, Root and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1613-1863Large amber colored glass beads With coppertoned beads and balls chain necklace,Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry4FUNKY FLAVOURS I Shall Not Be Moved Dress NWT XS,Vintage Black Flys 1990s Brown Skateboarding Long Sleeve,Nike LunarGlide LunarLon Dynamic Support Teal SF Edition Sneakers,Gianni Versace 100% silk Signature Medusa head tie,Men Nike x Billie Eilish hoodie,William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 777-808. To this list might be added other forms of aboriginal slavery: see Theda Perdue, ELLEN TRACY Handbag, (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1979); William A. Starna and Ralph Watkins, "Northern Iroquoian Slavery," Vintage Minnesota Vikings Randy Moss Starter jersey, 38 (Winter 1991): 34-57; and Leland Donald, Aboriginal Slavery on the Northwest Coast of North America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).

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Sources

  • Jack Rogers Jackie Cork White Leather Sandals,The Making of New World Slavery: From the Baroque to the Modern, 1492-1800ATP Atelier All Tomorows Parties Astrid Toe Strap Flat Leather Sandal Black 38,
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  • Vintage Robin Woods Envelope Ensemble Doll,Children of God's Fire: A Documentary History of Black Slavery in BrazilVintage L, Cutout Rhinestone Studded Dress,
  • Davis, David Brion. Nike Air Jordan 1 Mid White Red,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003. The first short essay in the volume is a superb introduction to the origins of New World slavery, but it should be complemented by a number of other books by this great historian of New World slavery. I particularly recommend his Paw Patrol Teeny Beanie Boos,VTG Orange coralbeads necklace,
  • Davis, Robert C. MICHEAL KORS QUILTED SMALL HANDBAG/SHOULDERBAG,Men’s Ties - 10,
  • VTG Agate Stone gold feather necklace,A Historical Guide to World Slavery. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. A useful reference work that covers most regions where slavery was important, together with topical examinations of the subject.
  • NBA Lebron James LA Lakers Licensed Jersey,The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas️Ralph Lauren medium leather satchel,
  • Supreme Small Box Logo Hoodie Blk (Medium),Women's H27 Long Mesh Sleeve Dress, Green,MASHANavajo Kokopelli sterling silver pendant,
  • Sun Drenched Yellow Floral Wrap Mini Dress,Macmillan Encyclopedia of World SlaveryVINTAGE Champion NFL Miami Dolphins jersey,
  • Finley, M. I. EEYORE BUNDLE,. Reprint. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980. An exploration of the emergence, functioning, and decline of the slave societies of classical Greece and classical Italy, with comparisons to New World slavery, by the greatest historian of ancient slavery.
  • Fredrickson, George M. Racism: A Short HistoryAir max 270 multi Swarovski crystals,
  • Urban Outfitters Elodie Mesh dress,THE NORTH FACE Canyonlands Fleece Lined Pullover Purple 1/2 Zip Hiking. Contains about 1,000 pictorial images of slavery in Africa and the Americas, arranged thematically.
  • Lulus Swoon-er or Later Black Long Sleeve Lace Mini Dress Sz S NWT,Vtg 90s Russell Athletic #21 Sanders Cowboys Football Jersey USA Made Size 40,. New York: Hill and Wang, 1993. A good general account by a historian alert to comparative history.
  • Princess Highway ModCloth 8 Dress Pinafore Prep School Plaid Shift Mini Tank Red,Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. A good survey of slavery and the evolution of racial prejudice in the Islamic world.
  • Miers, Suzanne, and Igor Kopytoff, eds. Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977. The long introduction on slavery as an "institution of marginality" is a classic, and many of the individual essays on particular regions and groups are stimulating.
  • Miller, Joseph. C., ed. Slavery and Slaving in World History: A Bibliography, 1900-1996. 2 vols. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1999. The most comprehensive work of its kind. Annual updates are available in the journal My Life As 18” Doll Gold Medal GYMNAST Blonde w Blue Eyes Red White Blue Leotard,. The entire bibliography is being prepared for Internet access as a searchable database by the Virginia Center for Digital History at the University of Virginia.
  • Morgan, Philip D. "African Americans." In A Companion to Colonial AmericaVersace Silk Neck Tie,
  • Patterson, Orlando. 18k rose gold white topaz heart necklace,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982. The best general survey of slave systems in 66 societies, written by a sociologist.
  • New Balance Women's 9 2E Extra Wide (Mens 7.5 2E) 990v5 W990BK5 Black Silver,Plaid ruffle hem lantern sleeve blouse plum,. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1985. A useful account that focuses on slavery in medieval Europe, the world of Islam, and the rise of the Atlantic slave system.
  • Thornton, John. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1800Women's H27 Long Mesh Sleeve Dress, Black 02,

Philip D. Morgan is the Sydney and Ruth Lapidus Professor in the American Revolutionary Era at Princeton University. He is the author of Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998) and coeditor (with Sean Hawkins) of Black Experience and the Empire: The Oxford History of the British Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004). He would like to acknowledge in particular the assistance of David Brion Davis, who generously sent him two early chapters from his forthcoming manuscript, "Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World Slavery."

Authored by

  • Philip D. Morgan
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    Princeton, New Jersey