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Africa and the Slave Trade

Arabs and their Muslim allies were the first to make use of large numbers of sub-Saharan black Africans. They developed a long-distance slave trade, which began in the seventh century and lasted into the twentieth. It delivered many millions of Africans across the Sahara Desert, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean to North Africa, the Mediterranean, and Persian Gulf. Although over a much longer period of time and comprising far more females, the number of Africans exported via these trans-Saharan or Indian Ocean slave trades probably equaled, or even outmatched, those of its transatlantic counterpart. The preexistence of these export trades facilitated Atlantic trade: systems of slave marketing were already in place. So numerous were black Africans at certain times and in certain places that they were able to launch massive slave revolts—in 869, for instance, in what is now southern Iraq, where the so-called Zanj (who came from the Swahili Coast and lands further north) worked in large gangs draining marshlands. While the Quran and Islamic law were essentially color-blind and while Muslims enslaved many so-called "white" people, medieval Arabs came to associate the most degrading forms of labor with black slaves. The Arabic word for slave, Forever 21 Distressed Crop Jean, 29,Trifari vintage gold tone choker necklace, bracelet and earrings set.,

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The Atlantic Slave System

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As slavery underwent a resurgence in southern Europe, it gradually disappeared from the northwestern part of the continent. Economic changes help to explain this development, but perhaps more important were cultural constraints. Over the course of the Middle Ages, Christians always committed awful atrocities on each other, but increasingly they avoided enslaving one another. Apparently, a sense of unity had emerged in Christian Europe that effectively barred the enslavement of those deemed fellow Europeans. Christianity's long struggle with Islam no doubt played a major role in this development. That from 1500 to 1800 Muslims enslaved well over a million Western Europeans, many of whom were subsequently ransomed and celebrated as symbols of freedom, was a major element in the growing sense that Europeans should never be slaves. Nevertheless, these so-called free labor nations would develop some of the harshest slave regimes in the Americas. As David Brion Davis puts it, "it is an astonishing paradox that the first nations in the world to free themselves of chattel slavery—such nations as England, France, Holland, and even the Scandinavian states—became leaders during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in supporting plantation colonies based on African slave labor." He likens this divide to a primitive Mason-Dixon line, "drawn somewhere in the Atlantic, separating free soil master-states from tainted slave soil dependencies" (8).

This paradox illumines the unpredictability of events in the Americas. No European nation embarked on New World ventures with the intention of enslaving anyone. They had no blueprint but rather proceeded haphazardly and pragmatically. Their first resort was to forced Indian labor (the encomiendaGucci Vintage 1970’s Wallet w/coin pocket,

Consequently, Europeans faced a huge labor shortage. The Ottoman Turkish empire blocked access to Black Sea or Baltic captives. European nations no longer enslaved Christian prisoners of war. Some dreamers talked of enslaving the poor or other marginal groups, but the practical and principled problems of reviving European slavery were considerable. Another expedient was the transportation of convicts, but their numbers were never sufficient. Temporary bondage—indentured servitude—was the most obvious and most widely used other option, particularly in the early years, but servants, if they survived, eventually became free, and in any case most servants would not travel to the areas where most labor was needed. Thus, almost by default, African slaves proved by far the best available labor supply. Consequently, from 1500 to 1820 almost 9 million African slaves left for the New World, compared to less than 3 million whites. In terms of migration, the New World was more black than white (10).

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New World slavery's other most distinctive aspect was its highly commercial character. While it is true that plantations—that is, large agricultural enterprises, managed for profit, producing a crop for export, with a hierarchically stratified labor organization—existed outside the New World, they reached their apogee there. The economies of scale, the expansion in unit size, the almost exclusive use of black slaves, a highly regimented and commodified labor force, and a system of close management all raised profit levels significantly. Such a productive system placed enormous demands on its laborers. As early as the 1630s a visitor to a Jesuit-owned sugar plantation in Brazil vividly described the unbearable horror of what had transpired: "People the color of the very night, working briskly and moaning at the same time without a moment of peace or rest, whoever sees all the confused and noisy machinery and apparatus of this Babylon, even if they have seen Mt. Etna and Vesuvius will say that this indeed is the image of Hell" (13).

Patterns of New World Slavery

Variations over time and space existed within New World slavery. Three stand out. First, although all New World regions imported more African men than women (thereby in part explaining the harshness of New World slavery because of the policing problems associated with large gangs of men), over time the gender ratio among New World slaves became increasingly balanced. In that regard, the North American slave population is most notable, because, as its number of slave women increased the most rapidly, so it became one of the few self-reproducing slave populations in world history. This early and rapid natural increase explains why North America received such a small percentage of the overall transatlantic slave trade—about 5 percent. Second, North America was also distinctive in being much less tolerant of racial intermixture than Latin America or the Caribbean. Once again demography—particularly the ratio of white men to white women (more balanced in North America than in Latin America and the Caribbean) and the availability of black women—was a crucial part of the explanation, but also important were the role of the Church and cultural mores, based as much in Old World patterns of racial coexistence or segregation. The Spanish had mixed with Muslims for centuries; the English had created a Pale in their settlement of Ireland. Only in North America did the extremely arbitrary concept of "Negro"—denoting anyone with allegedly visible African ancestry—assume such a marked stigma. Third, the chances of gaining freedom varied from one society to the next. Except for the period surrounding the American Revolution, the North American colonies, and later the states, imposed the severest restrictions on the chances of a slave becoming free. Again, demography—the proportions of whites and blacks in the population—has some explanatory power as do economic and cultural forces (14).

North American slavery itself was hardly of a piece. The range encompasses New England's intimate "family slavery"; the Mid-Atlantic's mixed forms of slavery and servitude; the Chesapeake's patriarchal, small plantation, mixed farming and tobacco, heavily native-born form of slavery; and the low country's impersonal, large plantation, rice and indigo, more heavily African system of slavery. In addition, various borderland forms existed: from a fluid world of interracial alliances in the Lower Mississippi Valley to a flexible one of fugitives and ex-slaves in Spanish Florida to one in which Indian slaves were transformed from symbols of alliance into commodities of exchange in French Canada (15).

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  1. NEW Zac Posen tote!!,The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-bellum South (New York: Knopf, 1956).

  2. adidas Top Ten Hi 40th Anniversary Men size 11,International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, ed. David L. Sills and Robert King Merton (New York: Macmillan, 1968), 14: 307-13; Finley, Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology, reprint (Hammondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980), 9, 96, 102, 111, 113-14; Keith Hopkins, Nature Breeze thigh high black velour boots 8.5,Unisex Suede Boots,Anthropologie Lilka Ettie Textured Jacquard Chemise Dress, NWT, S Black/Grey, 138 (1993): 3-27; Keith Bradley, Slavery and Society at RomeNorlender Svalbard Original Fisherman Sweater XXL,Michael Kors Mens Sweater Pullover Crew Neck New,Vintage COOGI Australia Crew Neck Sweater Size XL,The Problem of Slavery in Western CultureGray and red laced heeled boots. Only worn twice. Like new.,Authentic Kobe bryant highschool Nba jersey,Bangle cross body bag purse,

  3. Ralph A. Austen, "The Trans-Saharan Slave Trade: A Tentative Census," Auth Rare Vintage Gucci Ophidia Web GG Large Tote,, ed. Henry A. Gemery and Jan S. Hogendorn (New York: Academic Press, 1979), 23-76; Austen, "The Mediterranean Islamic Slave Trade out of Africa: A Tentative Census," BDG high rise Seam Jean skinny jeggings 26,2017 Air Jordan 1 High All Star Chameleon sz 10.5,Encyclopedia of Africa South of the SaharaAdidas Yeezy boost 350 V2 Linen,International Journal of African Historical Studies 10 (1977): 443-61; Alexandre Popovic, The Revolt of African Slaves in Iraq in the IIIrd-IXth Century2 pc Pink Camo Ring Set Cubic Zirconia Engagement Ring,T by Alexander wang Womens grey crop hoodie,tall glossy hunter boots,NIB STRIDE RITE Black Riding Boots Valerie 8.5 M, (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998); Shaun E. Marmon, ed., ERMENEGILDO ZEGNA 100% Cashmere Sweater XXL 56 EUC, (Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener, 1998); Minra Tora and John Edward Philips, eds., Slave Elites in the Middle East and Africa: A Comparative StudyNike 305 Miami jersey,The African Diaspora in the Mediterranean Lands of IslamAmerican Eagle Blue High Rise Raw Hem Mom Jeans Women’s size 2 Short,Slavery on the Frontiers of IslamCeCe Dress Puff Sleeve Blush Pink Size Medium,

  4. Suzanne Miers and Igor Kopytoff, eds., Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological PerspectivesLilly Pulitzer Black Velvet Clutch,Brand new Dooney & Bourke, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990); John Thornton, FREE PEOPLE Faded Black Cropped Crop Ankle Cotton Blend Skinny Jeans 29 W29 FLAW,Citizens of Humanity Rocket - Black Skinny Jean,Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in AfricaGrey metal mesh balenciaga city bag,

  5. Paint the Lily handbag,Archivum latinitatis medii aeviOcean Jasper & Sterling Silver Handcrafted Ring Size 9.5”,L'Esclavage dans l'Europe médiévale, vol. 1, Pénisule Ibérique—France (Bruges: De Tempel, 1955); vol. 2, Italie, Colonies Italiennes du Levant, Levant Latin, Empire Bysantin (Ghent: 1977); and Verlinden, The Beginnings of Modern Colonization: Eleven Essays with an IntroductionNWT Ann Taylor Floral Ruffle Flare Dress,Slavery and Society in Medieval ScandinaviaBaby Phat Womens size 1 Capris Rolled Dark Wash Gold Stitching,Valentino vintage silk tie., (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 1995); Steven Epstein, Speaking of Slavery: Color, Ethnicity, and Human Bondage in Italy (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2001); and Sally McKee, "Inherited Status and Slavery in Late Medieval Italy and Venetian Crete," Dooney & Bourne vintage Cognac Handbag,Sail to sable long sleeve dress NWT,

  6. Vintage Panhandle Slim plaid pearl snap shirt,Jade silver ring adorned with 2 garnets, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982); Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440-1870 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997), 21-24, 48-86.

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  9. Men’s selvedge he raw denim by crate,The Early Spanish MainNWOT Diamonique emerald cut ring,Levis 501 button fly highwaist jean shorts, (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1992); William L. Sherman, Forced Native Labor in Sixteenth-Century Central AmericaFaconnable classic fit button down shirt size m,Intertwined Statement Ring,Athletic David Yurman Albion Earrings,The Indian Slave Trade: The Rise of the English Empire in the American South, 1670-1717Polo Ralph Lauren men’s shirt,Rachel Zoe Luxe Olive Green Genuine Suede Handbag,, ed. Elizabeth Mancke and Carole Shammas (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005), 75-121. For a recent discussion of Indian population decline, see David S. Jones, "Virgin Soils Revisited," Lace up canvas 16inx20in,, 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 703-42.

  10. David Galenson, White Servitude in Colonial America: An Economic AnalysisBrand new White House Black Market pants,Stunning canyon picture 24 x 12 in Giclee Print,Advanced Night Repair Eye Supercharged Complex New,William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 58 (January 2001): 17-46. Two good microhistories of the transatlantic slave trade are Robert Harms, New Miss Sixty Capri Jeans 30,NWOT Diamonique emerald cut ring.,The Two Princes of Calabar: An Eighteenth-Century Atlantic Odyssey (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004).

  11. David Eltis and William G. Clarence-Smith, "White Servitude," Luana Italy Eggplant color leather bag,Doja Cat x BH Cosmetics,Vntg CARPET Bag FLORAL Tapestry NEEDLEPOINT Bag, (London: Longman, 1996); Stanley L. Engerman, ed., Terms of Labor: Slavery, Serfdom, and Free Labor (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1999); and Bush, VNTG FLORAL VELVET Chenille CARPET BAG HANDBAG, (Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2000).

  12. Frank M. Snowden Jr., Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1970); Snowden, Skinny Jeans 29x32,Men’s Balenciaga arena sneakers,The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2004); Jean Devisse and Michel Mollat, eds., The Image of the Black in Western Art, vol. 2, Brown Lace Up Boots! Brand New- never worn! Perfect Condition. Size 7.,Wild Pair Over Knee Wedge Boots Sz6.5,Images of the Medieval PeasantEye Shadow Palette!,Ivivva soft vest,lanvin men's black and blue round neck sweater,White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812Pull&Bear Petite high waist mom jeans in black Size 8,Race: The History of an Idea in the West (Washington, D.C.: The Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1996); the essays in "Constructing Race: Differentiating Peoples in the Early Modern World," William and Mary QuarterlyFINAL PRICE DROP Supreme Fw17 Andres Serrano Blood and Semen Hoodie,The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2003). The best account is David Brion Davis, "The Origins of Anti-Black Racism in the New World," chap. 3 in Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World SlaveryHenry Ferrera over the knee boots,

  13. Not Your Daughter’s white cropped jeans,Longchamp Leather Carpet Bag - Cognac, (New York: Norton, 1989); Schwartz, ed., Black woman hand painted artwork,, 3.

  14. Frank Tannenbaum, Slave and Citizen: The Negro in the AmericasTory Burch Grecian Sandals,Neither Black Nor White: Slavery and Race Relations in Brazil and the United States (New York: Macmillan, 1971).

  15. Marc Jacob Tee,Black Yankees: The Development of an Afro-American Subculture in Eighteenth-Century New England (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988); Graham Russell Hodges, Root and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1613-1863American eagle mom jeans stretch size 0,Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and LowcountryBurberry spring color stripes sweater,Copy! Large red dome bag,Cabbage patch preemie African American doll with purple paci,Henri Bendel LE Liz Satchel,Falorni Italia Le Borse Mink Tote,William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 777-808. To this list might be added other forms of aboriginal slavery: see Theda Perdue, Michael Kors SELMA Pinkgrapefruit Satchel, (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1979); William A. Starna and Ralph Watkins, "Northern Iroquoian Slavery," Orange Human Made Mens Large Crewneck Sweatshirt, 38 (Winter 1991): 34-57; and Leland Donald, Aboriginal Slavery on the Northwest Coast of North America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).

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Sources

  • Colombia bodysuit,The Making of New World Slavery: From the Baroque to the Modern, 1492-1800Michael Kors Cynthia SM NS Blossom Satchel,
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  • Fresno Vintage High-Waisted Mom Jeans,Children of God's Fire: A Documentary History of Black Slavery in BrazilNEW Clear Quartz Necklace In 925 Sterling Silver.,
  • Davis, David Brion. NWOT Brighton Genoa Messenger Bag,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003. The first short essay in the volume is a superb introduction to the origins of New World slavery, but it should be complemented by a number of other books by this great historian of New World slavery. I particularly recommend his skinny biker jeans,Coach signature Crosby Carryall New with Tags,
  • Davis, Robert C. Vintage 90s Perry Ellis America Large Faded Spell Out Crewneck Sweatshirt Brown,One Teaspoon Rollers Distressed Denim Shorts Sz 29 Low Waist Long Rise Raw Hem,
  • TURQUOISE AND COPPER NEW 925 PENDANT & CHAIN,A Historical Guide to World Slavery. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. A useful reference work that covers most regions where slavery was important, together with topical examinations of the subject.
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  • Finley, M. I. Michael Kors Knit Pullover Sweater Burgundy New,. Reprint. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980. An exploration of the emergence, functioning, and decline of the slave societies of classical Greece and classical Italy, with comparisons to New World slavery, by the greatest historian of ancient slavery.
  • Fredrickson, George M. Racism: A Short HistoryNew Eloquii Striped Cardigan Sweater Dress 14/16,
  • Zara Sz/Medium Jacquard Dress,Pisces ♓️ necklace. Contains about 1,000 pictorial images of slavery in Africa and the Americas, arranged thematically.
  • Silver Ring Enlayed With Multiple Gemstones,1988 Effanbee HUMPHREY BOGART Doll 15” Figurine w/ Original Tag/Box,. New York: Hill and Wang, 1993. A good general account by a historian alert to comparative history.
  • PCA skin sheer tint eye triple complex full size,Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. A good survey of slavery and the evolution of racial prejudice in the Islamic world.
  • Miers, Suzanne, and Igor Kopytoff, eds. Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977. The long introduction on slavery as an "institution of marginality" is a classic, and many of the individual essays on particular regions and groups are stimulating.
  • Miller, Joseph. C., ed. Slavery and Slaving in World History: A Bibliography, 1900-1996. 2 vols. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1999. The most comprehensive work of its kind. Annual updates are available in the journal Fade style jeans,. The entire bibliography is being prepared for Internet access as a searchable database by the Virginia Center for Digital History at the University of Virginia.
  • Morgan, Philip D. "African Americans." In A Companion to Colonial America14k Gold Pink Enamel Cz Heart Necklace,
  • Patterson, Orlando. Calico Critters Sylvanian Families Castle Playground Train set and Candy Cart,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982. The best general survey of slave systems in 66 societies, written by a sociologist.
  • Express 0 Red Velvet Puff Long Sleeve Plunge Neckline Mini Dress,Juicy Couture Faux Leopard Vest,. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1985. A useful account that focuses on slavery in medieval Europe, the world of Islam, and the rise of the Atlantic slave system.
  • Thornton, John. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1800Burberry Vintage tie,

Philip D. Morgan is the Sydney and Ruth Lapidus Professor in the American Revolutionary Era at Princeton University. He is the author of Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998) and coeditor (with Sean Hawkins) of Black Experience and the Empire: The Oxford History of the British Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004). He would like to acknowledge in particular the assistance of David Brion Davis, who generously sent him two early chapters from his forthcoming manuscript, "Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World Slavery."

Authored by

  • Philip D. Morgan
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    Princeton, New Jersey