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Africa and the Slave Trade
Arabs and their Muslim allies were the first to make use of large numbers of sub-Saharan black Africans. They developed a long-distance slave trade, which began in the seventh century and lasted into the twentieth. It delivered many millions of Africans across the Sahara Desert, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean to North Africa, the Mediterranean, and Persian Gulf. Although over a much longer period of time and comprising far more females, the number of Africans exported via these trans-Saharan or Indian Ocean slave trades probably equaled, or even outmatched, those of its transatlantic counterpart. The preexistence of these export trades facilitated Atlantic trade: systems of slave marketing were already in place. So numerous were black Africans at certain times and in certain places that they were able to launch massive slave revolts—in 869, for instance, in what is now southern Iraq, where the so-called Zanj (who came from the Swahili Coast and lands further north) worked in large gangs draining marshlands. While the Quran and Islamic law were essentially color-blind and while Muslims enslaved many so-called "white" people, medieval Arabs came to associate the most degrading forms of labor with black slaves. The Arabic word for slave, Nike Outfit leggings and sweatshirt,Vintage Stafford Tweed Blazer Jacket Sport Coat Wool Suede Elbow Patch Size 46 L,
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The Atlantic Slave System
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This paradox illumines the unpredictability of events in the Americas. No European nation embarked on New World ventures with the intention of enslaving anyone. They had no blueprint but rather proceeded haphazardly and pragmatically. Their first resort was to forced Indian labor (the encomiendaFREE PEOPLE INTIMATELY FREE COZY COOL GIRL GOOD VIBES LOUNGE PANTS nwt XS,
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Piano Figurine,International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, ed. David L. Sills and Robert King Merton (New York: Macmillan, 1968), 14: 307-13; Finley, Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology, reprint (Hammondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980), 9, 96, 102, 111, 113-14; Keith Hopkins, Vivienne Westwood Wool Cardigan,Rustic wooden lanterns. Homemade mason jar with lights that work! EUC,Marlies Dekkers dame de Paris balcony bra., 138 (1993): 3-27; Keith Bradley, Slavery and Society at RomeDiane Von Furstenberg Key Hole Blouse,Ignite Evenings Ombre Satin Boat Neck 3/4 Sleeve Tie Waist Pocketed Ball Gown,Lululemon Circuit Breaker Skirt,The Problem of Slavery in Western CultureParadise Collection Vtg Knit Sweatshirt Pullover Cotton Muted Red XXL,Solid Satin Finish 21K Yellow Gold Clear CZ Wedding Engagement Ring Size 5.5,Free People Bella Print Tunic Top in Sky Blue Medium Long Sleeve Bell,
Ralph A. Austen, "The Trans-Saharan Slave Trade: A Tentative Census," Mens Sz 11 Grey Teva Rocky Terrain Sandals,, ed. Henry A. Gemery and Jan S. Hogendorn (New York: Academic Press, 1979), 23-76; Austen, "The Mediterranean Islamic Slave Trade out of Africa: A Tentative Census," Alyce B’dazzle prom dress,Louis vuitton,Encyclopedia of Africa South of the SaharaRainbow NEON led light stand,International Journal of African Historical Studies 10 (1977): 443-61; Alexandre Popovic, The Revolt of African Slaves in Iraq in the IIIrd-IXth CenturyADIDAS 1/4 Zip Up Mock Neck Long Sleeve Black,Tan Ted Baker purse,Nike Dri fit running racer back tank - Small,Free People Chiffon Meredith Maxi Dress Size:XS, (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998); Shaun E. Marmon, ed., Stamped S925(sterling silver) baguettes, marquises, (Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener, 1998); Minra Tora and John Edward Philips, eds., Slave Elites in the Middle East and Africa: A Comparative StudyA.L.C. Jerry Lace Panel Polka Dot Silk Top,The African Diaspora in the Mediterranean Lands of IslamBurberry long sleeve button down collard shirt,Slavery on the Frontiers of IslamCITIZENS OF HUMANITY WHITE JEANS,
Suzanne Miers and Igor Kopytoff, eds., Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological PerspectivesVintage NIKE Air Max Size 7.5,Lilly Pulitzer pink butterfly bathing suit, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990); John Thornton, Tory Burch Amanda Eastwest tote bag,Fairly New JustFab Black Heeled Leather Boots,Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in AfricaUrban Decay Nocturnal Shadow Box,
Ladies Lauren Ralph Lauren jacket 4,Archivum latinitatis medii aeviCarter's Baby Girl's 7 piece Bundle 12m,L'Esclavage dans l'Europe médiévale, vol. 1, Pénisule Ibérique—France (Bruges: De Tempel, 1955); vol. 2, Italie, Colonies Italiennes du Levant, Levant Latin, Empire Bysantin (Ghent: 1977); and Verlinden, The Beginnings of Modern Colonization: Eleven Essays with an IntroductionAUTHENTIC Vintage Black Gucci Sunglasses,Slavery and Society in Medieval ScandinaviaTimberland Fleece Zip-up Jacket,Burberry Medium Zip Tote Black, (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 1995); Steven Epstein, Speaking of Slavery: Color, Ethnicity, and Human Bondage in Italy (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2001); and Sally McKee, "Inherited Status and Slavery in Late Medieval Italy and Venetian Crete," Steve Madden Jubilee Sandal Heel,Boys Camo dress shirt (polo),
NWT Levi's Jean Jacket,NBW Rebecca Taylor Moto jacket, Size 10, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982); Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440-1870 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997), 21-24, 48-86.
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NWT CINCINNATI BENGALS baseball crewneck,American Historical ReviewMichael Kors White Denim Jacket,cheetah high top platform converse with some marks on soles but not noticeable, (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003), 14; Robert C. Davis, Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500-1800 (Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave MacMillan, 2003). For more on the development of freedom and slavery, see David Eltis, The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), and Sue Peabody, There Are No Slaves in France: The Political Culture of Race and Slavery in the Ancien RégimePortable Warm Light LED Lamp Color Cyad 3 Intensit,
Comme Des Garçons PLAY x CONVERSE,The Early Spanish MainVintage Shorts,REEF Men's Lightweight Black with Plaid Straps Phantom Flip Flop Sandals Size 10, (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1992); William L. Sherman, Forced Native Labor in Sixteenth-Century Central AmericaNIB J. Crew pointed toe Sadie boot in size 7.5,Ladies’ Preview Collection Blazer (PS),Banana Republic Sweater Mens Small V-Neck Pullover,The Indian Slave Trade: The Rise of the English Empire in the American South, 1670-1717UNDER ARMOUR Full Zip Up Long Sleeve Gray Hooded,Rebecca Taylor Tweed Zipper Skirt,, ed. Elizabeth Mancke and Carole Shammas (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005), 75-121. For a recent discussion of Indian population decline, see David S. Jones, "Virgin Soils Revisited," .19ct 10K Yellow Gold Diamond Pear Shape ring 6.5,, 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 703-42.
David Galenson, White Servitude in Colonial America: An Economic AnalysisBeautiful red formal Le Gala dress,Brassiere from Bluebella,Fitbits,William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 58 (January 2001): 17-46. Two good microhistories of the transatlantic slave trade are Robert Harms, Rag & Bone Cate Mid Rise Skinny Coal,Retired Authentic Pandora Purple Murano Stepping Stones Charm,The Two Princes of Calabar: An Eighteenth-Century Atlantic Odyssey (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004).
David Eltis and William G. Clarence-Smith, "White Servitude," Michael Kors Large Purple Gold Hardware Wristlet,Speedo Power Plus Girls 10/26 open back tech suit,NWT Lilly Pulitzer dress, (London: Longman, 1996); Stanley L. Engerman, ed., Terms of Labor: Slavery, Serfdom, and Free Labor (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1999); and Bush, Banana Republic Dress pants, (Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2000).
Frank M. Snowden Jr., Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1970); Snowden, Gucci sunglasses case,Pant and top set,The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2004); Jean Devisse and Michel Mollat, eds., The Image of the Black in Western Art, vol. 2, MK Cream & Tan Leather Wristlet w/Silver Hrdware,John Mark Khaki Linen Tunic Swing Top,Images of the Medieval PeasantVintage Bird T Shirt Large 22x28 Advice From A Raven,Vintage Oscar De La Renta Studio Blazer Brown Wool Jacket Dress Coat Suit 42R,Flax Linen Tank Top- P (4-6),White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812Levi’s Wedgie Fit Straight Jeans,Race: The History of an Idea in the West (Washington, D.C.: The Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1996); the essays in "Constructing Race: Differentiating Peoples in the Early Modern World," William and Mary QuarterlyStunning Carolyne Barton Night Silk & Sequin Top,The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2003). The best account is David Brion Davis, "The Origins of Anti-Black Racism in the New World," chap. 3 in Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World SlaveryJordan 1 mids - carter,
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Frank Tannenbaum, Slave and Citizen: The Negro in the AmericasNWT! Zara basic medium loose fit S/S side tie tee.,Neither Black Nor White: Slavery and Race Relations in Brazil and the United States (New York: Macmillan, 1971).
POLO RALPH LAUREN CLASSIC FIT LETTERMAN POLO SHIRT,Black Yankees: The Development of an Afro-American Subculture in Eighteenth-Century New England (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988); Graham Russell Hodges, Root and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1613-1863Baby Lulu Fuchsia Floral Wrap Set 6M,Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and LowcountryEVERLY FORMAL SLEEVELESS GLITTER MERMAID DRESS.,NEW TIMEX SILVER,PINK BLOSSOM LEATHER BAND,SWAROVSKI CRYSTALS WATCH-TW2R82200,Nike Air Max 90 Sd Gradient Purple Sneakers Sz US 9,Oakley SuperCoil 4.1 Slide Sandals 101720DM-001,Rainbow distressed jean jacket made to order,William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 777-808. To this list might be added other forms of aboriginal slavery: see Theda Perdue, Janie and jack shirt, (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1979); William A. Starna and Ralph Watkins, "Northern Iroquoian Slavery," SKIMS VELOUR wide leg PANT: SIENNA nwt, 38 (Winter 1991): 34-57; and Leland Donald, Aboriginal Slavery on the Northwest Coast of North America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).
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- Davis, David Brion. DISNEY MICKEY Graphic Zip Up Blue Hooded,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003. The first short essay in the volume is a superb introduction to the origins of New World slavery, but it should be complemented by a number of other books by this great historian of New World slavery. I particularly recommend his Anika White Ruffled Strapless Bodycon Dress,Small round cubic Zirconia Rose gold filled RING,
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- Finley, M. I. Tous Black Leather purse with handles and orange interior,. Reprint. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980. An exploration of the emergence, functioning, and decline of the slave societies of classical Greece and classical Italy, with comparisons to New World slavery, by the greatest historian of ancient slavery.
- Fredrickson, George M. Racism: A Short HistoryVince Camuto Watercolor Blouse,
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- Ofra Mini Mix Palette “Good to Go”,Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. A good survey of slavery and the evolution of racial prejudice in the Islamic world.
- Miller, Joseph. C., ed. Slavery and Slaving in World History: A Bibliography, 1900-1996. 2 vols. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1999. The most comprehensive work of its kind. Annual updates are available in the journal Vintage Blue HandWorks “Fifi” Pink Poodle Metal Sculpture Art Lumineria,. The entire bibliography is being prepared for Internet access as a searchable database by the Virginia Center for Digital History at the University of Virginia.
- Morgan, Philip D. "African Americans." In A Companion to Colonial AmericaReebok Mens Black Sweater M NWOT,
- Patterson, Orlando. TEVA Minam Water Sport Sandals F27119C,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982. The best general survey of slave systems in 66 societies, written by a sociologist.
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- Thornton, John. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1800American Apparel Black Disco Shorts,