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Antecedents and Models

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Africa and the Slave Trade

Arabs and their Muslim allies were the first to make use of large numbers of sub-Saharan black Africans. They developed a long-distance slave trade, which began in the seventh century and lasted into the twentieth. It delivered many millions of Africans across the Sahara Desert, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean to North Africa, the Mediterranean, and Persian Gulf. Although over a much longer period of time and comprising far more females, the number of Africans exported via these trans-Saharan or Indian Ocean slave trades probably equaled, or even outmatched, those of its transatlantic counterpart. The preexistence of these export trades facilitated Atlantic trade: systems of slave marketing were already in place. So numerous were black Africans at certain times and in certain places that they were able to launch massive slave revolts—in 869, for instance, in what is now southern Iraq, where the so-called Zanj (who came from the Swahili Coast and lands further north) worked in large gangs draining marshlands. While the Quran and Islamic law were essentially color-blind and while Muslims enslaved many so-called "white" people, medieval Arabs came to associate the most degrading forms of labor with black slaves. The Arabic word for slave, THE NORTH FACE Crop Hoodie,NWOT Levi’s Premium 511 Slim Stretch Jeans 33x32,

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The Atlantic Slave System

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As slavery underwent a resurgence in southern Europe, it gradually disappeared from the northwestern part of the continent. Economic changes help to explain this development, but perhaps more important were cultural constraints. Over the course of the Middle Ages, Christians always committed awful atrocities on each other, but increasingly they avoided enslaving one another. Apparently, a sense of unity had emerged in Christian Europe that effectively barred the enslavement of those deemed fellow Europeans. Christianity's long struggle with Islam no doubt played a major role in this development. That from 1500 to 1800 Muslims enslaved well over a million Western Europeans, many of whom were subsequently ransomed and celebrated as symbols of freedom, was a major element in the growing sense that Europeans should never be slaves. Nevertheless, these so-called free labor nations would develop some of the harshest slave regimes in the Americas. As David Brion Davis puts it, "it is an astonishing paradox that the first nations in the world to free themselves of chattel slavery—such nations as England, France, Holland, and even the Scandinavian states—became leaders during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in supporting plantation colonies based on African slave labor." He likens this divide to a primitive Mason-Dixon line, "drawn somewhere in the Atlantic, separating free soil master-states from tainted slave soil dependencies" (8).

This paradox illumines the unpredictability of events in the Americas. No European nation embarked on New World ventures with the intention of enslaving anyone. They had no blueprint but rather proceeded haphazardly and pragmatically. Their first resort was to forced Indian labor (the encomiendaSAG HARBOR CRM WOOL/POLYESTER BLAZER SZ 14,

Consequently, Europeans faced a huge labor shortage. The Ottoman Turkish empire blocked access to Black Sea or Baltic captives. European nations no longer enslaved Christian prisoners of war. Some dreamers talked of enslaving the poor or other marginal groups, but the practical and principled problems of reviving European slavery were considerable. Another expedient was the transportation of convicts, but their numbers were never sufficient. Temporary bondage—indentured servitude—was the most obvious and most widely used other option, particularly in the early years, but servants, if they survived, eventually became free, and in any case most servants would not travel to the areas where most labor was needed. Thus, almost by default, African slaves proved by far the best available labor supply. Consequently, from 1500 to 1820 almost 9 million African slaves left for the New World, compared to less than 3 million whites. In terms of migration, the New World was more black than white (10).

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New World slavery's other most distinctive aspect was its highly commercial character. While it is true that plantations—that is, large agricultural enterprises, managed for profit, producing a crop for export, with a hierarchically stratified labor organization—existed outside the New World, they reached their apogee there. The economies of scale, the expansion in unit size, the almost exclusive use of black slaves, a highly regimented and commodified labor force, and a system of close management all raised profit levels significantly. Such a productive system placed enormous demands on its laborers. As early as the 1630s a visitor to a Jesuit-owned sugar plantation in Brazil vividly described the unbearable horror of what had transpired: "People the color of the very night, working briskly and moaning at the same time without a moment of peace or rest, whoever sees all the confused and noisy machinery and apparatus of this Babylon, even if they have seen Mt. Etna and Vesuvius will say that this indeed is the image of Hell" (13).

Patterns of New World Slavery

Variations over time and space existed within New World slavery. Three stand out. First, although all New World regions imported more African men than women (thereby in part explaining the harshness of New World slavery because of the policing problems associated with large gangs of men), over time the gender ratio among New World slaves became increasingly balanced. In that regard, the North American slave population is most notable, because, as its number of slave women increased the most rapidly, so it became one of the few self-reproducing slave populations in world history. This early and rapid natural increase explains why North America received such a small percentage of the overall transatlantic slave trade—about 5 percent. Second, North America was also distinctive in being much less tolerant of racial intermixture than Latin America or the Caribbean. Once again demography—particularly the ratio of white men to white women (more balanced in North America than in Latin America and the Caribbean) and the availability of black women—was a crucial part of the explanation, but also important were the role of the Church and cultural mores, based as much in Old World patterns of racial coexistence or segregation. The Spanish had mixed with Muslims for centuries; the English had created a Pale in their settlement of Ireland. Only in North America did the extremely arbitrary concept of "Negro"—denoting anyone with allegedly visible African ancestry—assume such a marked stigma. Third, the chances of gaining freedom varied from one society to the next. Except for the period surrounding the American Revolution, the North American colonies, and later the states, imposed the severest restrictions on the chances of a slave becoming free. Again, demography—the proportions of whites and blacks in the population—has some explanatory power as do economic and cultural forces (14).

North American slavery itself was hardly of a piece. The range encompasses New England's intimate "family slavery"; the Mid-Atlantic's mixed forms of slavery and servitude; the Chesapeake's patriarchal, small plantation, mixed farming and tobacco, heavily native-born form of slavery; and the low country's impersonal, large plantation, rice and indigo, more heavily African system of slavery. In addition, various borderland forms existed: from a fluid world of interracial alliances in the Lower Mississippi Valley to a flexible one of fugitives and ex-slaves in Spanish Florida to one in which Indian slaves were transformed from symbols of alliance into commodities of exchange in French Canada (15).

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  1. IT Cosmetics Heavenly Luxe Dual Airbrush Concealer Brush #2,The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-bellum South (New York: Knopf, 1956).

  2. ZARA Metallic Pencil Skirt Sz Medium,International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, ed. David L. Sills and Robert King Merton (New York: Macmillan, 1968), 14: 307-13; Finley, Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology, reprint (Hammondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980), 9, 96, 102, 111, 113-14; Keith Hopkins, La Perla Bikini,Stella & Dot Hayes Tassel black hobo purse,LIMITED EDITION LEVI SHORTS, 138 (1993): 3-27; Keith Bradley, Slavery and Society at RomeUnionbay Sea-foam Green Corduroy Elastic Waistband Shorts Size XL,Bebe Lace Bralett/ Crop Top,Clip and Zip Latex Waist Trainer Vest,The Problem of Slavery in Western CultureDerek Lam 10 Crosby denim,Crochet baby outfit,Shupaca Alpaca Scarf Wild Wasabi Striped,

  3. Ralph A. Austen, "The Trans-Saharan Slave Trade: A Tentative Census," Revolve We Wore What Clouds One Piece Swimsuit,, ed. Henry A. Gemery and Jan S. Hogendorn (New York: Academic Press, 1979), 23-76; Austen, "The Mediterranean Islamic Slave Trade out of Africa: A Tentative Census," J 10,Smoke Gray Fabric Slip On Fisherman Loafer Flat,Encyclopedia of Africa South of the SaharaBrown leather boot,International Journal of African Historical Studies 10 (1977): 443-61; Alexandre Popovic, The Revolt of African Slaves in Iraq in the IIIrd-IXth CenturyAnthropologie Bimini Pendant Necklace,HP LF bandeau tops,Brighton Delio black loafers size 6M,Relic brown leather hobo bag with twisted shoulder straps, (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998); Shaun E. Marmon, ed., NWOT BlackMilk Galaxy Dress, (Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener, 1998); Minra Tora and John Edward Philips, eds., Slave Elites in the Middle East and Africa: A Comparative StudyPj salvage black lace affair top, size s,The African Diaspora in the Mediterranean Lands of IslamROMEO & JULIET Couture Summer Floral Wrap Dress size M,Slavery on the Frontiers of IslamChicos so slimming jeans sz 1 regular,

  4. Suzanne Miers and Igor Kopytoff, eds., Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological PerspectivesY2k black Obama hoodie,Draper James Magnolia Love Circle Dress, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990); John Thornton, NWT formal cardigan with sheer ruffles,Tommy Hilfiger Trousers,Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in AfricaReformation Ditsy Floral Black Sleeveless Button Front Layer Dress,

  5. HP LuLaRoe Carly Gold/Black Dress, Size 3XL,Archivum latinitatis medii aeviDiesel Watch Black Only The Brave,L'Esclavage dans l'Europe médiévale, vol. 1, Pénisule Ibérique—France (Bruges: De Tempel, 1955); vol. 2, Italie, Colonies Italiennes du Levant, Levant Latin, Empire Bysantin (Ghent: 1977); and Verlinden, The Beginnings of Modern Colonization: Eleven Essays with an IntroductionVintage GAP Streetwear Double Pocket Shirt Jacket,Slavery and Society in Medieval ScandinaviaOutdoor Voices Springs Leggings Gray Navy Graphite 7/8 Length Size XS,Light Wash Paige Men’s Jeans, (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 1995); Steven Epstein, Speaking of Slavery: Color, Ethnicity, and Human Bondage in Italy (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2001); and Sally McKee, "Inherited Status and Slavery in Late Medieval Italy and Venetian Crete," NIKE WOMENS FREE RN 5.0 WHITE (AQ1316-101) - SIZE 7,Skip Hop Diaper Bag w/ Pad,

  6. Anthropologie The Upside Python Bike Short Legging Blue Black Size XS New ,Mickey Mouse ties (3), (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982); Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440-1870 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997), 21-24, 48-86.

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  8. AG Yvette High Rise Wide Leg JeanS 25 NEW,American Historical ReviewNew Balance shoes men’s size 11.5 US. Brand new in box burgundy,Torrid Platform Wedge Black Strappy Sandals Size 10, (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003), 14; Robert C. Davis, Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500-1800 (Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave MacMillan, 2003). For more on the development of freedom and slavery, see David Eltis, The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), and Sue Peabody, There Are No Slaves in France: The Political Culture of Race and Slavery in the Ancien RégimeReiss Hettie Jacket,

  9. "BUNDLE" your "LIKES" for a SPECIAL OFFER,The Early Spanish MainNEW WITH TAG ORDERPLUS Men’s Top Shirt XL,NWT Men's plaid shorts, (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1992); William L. Sherman, Forced Native Labor in Sixteenth-Century Central AmericaRebecca Minkoff Tan Leather Hobo Handbag,Midnight Velvet Lightening Bolt Heeled Boots - 8W,h. grey off shoulder two tone top,The Indian Slave Trade: The Rise of the English Empire in the American South, 1670-1717Gymshark x Whitney Simmons Black Long Sleeve Crop,MILLY Neon Floret Webbing Skirt,, ed. Elizabeth Mancke and Carole Shammas (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005), 75-121. For a recent discussion of Indian population decline, see David S. Jones, "Virgin Soils Revisited," Real Taxidermy Alligator Gator Head Open Mouth 6",, 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 703-42.

  10. David Galenson, White Servitude in Colonial America: An Economic AnalysisRose Gold Sequin Bell Bottom Flare Pants,Made For You Coach Tote,Sheer Mini Dress,William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 58 (January 2001): 17-46. Two good microhistories of the transatlantic slave trade are Robert Harms, Alice & Trixie Beautiful Colorful Silk Mini Slip Strappy Dress size XS,Chicos Zenergy size 1 regular,The Two Princes of Calabar: An Eighteenth-Century Atlantic Odyssey (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004).

  11. David Eltis and William G. Clarence-Smith, "White Servitude," Vintage sterling silver 925 necklace Amethyst stone,Taryn Rose "Tricia' Black Leather Riding Boots 7.5,Chicago Bears Vintage 2006 NFL Football Team Conference Champs Sweatshirt Large, (London: Longman, 1996); Stanley L. Engerman, ed., Terms of Labor: Slavery, Serfdom, and Free Labor (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1999); and Bush, Michael Kors IPhone 5s Wallet Case, (Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2000).

  12. Frank M. Snowden Jr., Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1970); Snowden, MNM Couture Champagne Beaded Gown,J 6 B,The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2004); Jean Devisse and Michel Mollat, eds., The Image of the Black in Western Art, vol. 2, Marsell Ladies slip on mules/ boot.,Baby girl onesie lot of 48,Images of the Medieval PeasantMen's Huck Thermal Waffle-Knit Hoodie NEW,Juicy Couture Luxe Soft Hooded Robe Sz L/XL Pink JC Old English JC3310X NWT,Burberry triangle studded string bikini xs black with pewter silver checked,White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812Two Mustard Pie Dresses Pink & Blue,Race: The History of an Idea in the West (Washington, D.C.: The Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1996); the essays in "Constructing Race: Differentiating Peoples in the Early Modern World," William and Mary QuarterlyCorso Como Leopard Flats,The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2003). The best account is David Brion Davis, "The Origins of Anti-Black Racism in the New World," chap. 3 in Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World SlaveryCUTTER & BUCK Quarter Zip Ribbed Navy Sweater,

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  14. Frank Tannenbaum, Slave and Citizen: The Negro in the AmericasArmani Jeans 100% Virgin Wool sweater Size XL,Neither Black Nor White: Slavery and Race Relations in Brazil and the United States (New York: Macmillan, 1971).

  15. Nutribaby Babymoov With Mums 5 Functions Baby Food Processor,Black Yankees: The Development of an Afro-American Subculture in Eighteenth-Century New England (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988); Graham Russell Hodges, Root and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1613-1863PAPPAGALLO Erin Pink Palms Printed Midi Dress,Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and LowcountryBeyond Yoga Ombré Midi Leggings,Givenchy Vintage Logo Earrings Gold Plated,Levis 501 Shorts in Bring to Light NWT Rare,Buttery Cream color hobo bag,Levis Strauss & Co. 510 Womens Straight Jeans,William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 777-808. To this list might be added other forms of aboriginal slavery: see Theda Perdue, Adapt Animal Seamless Cycling Shorts, (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1979); William A. Starna and Ralph Watkins, "Northern Iroquoian Slavery," RENA ROWAN WOOL CREAM SING. BRSTD BLAZER SZ 6, 38 (Winter 1991): 34-57; and Leland Donald, Aboriginal Slavery on the Northwest Coast of North America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).

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  • Davis, David Brion. Nike Woman’s Air Jordan 1 High Zip 'Partical Beige,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003. The first short essay in the volume is a superb introduction to the origins of New World slavery, but it should be complemented by a number of other books by this great historian of New World slavery. I particularly recommend his NWOB Unisex Saucony Silver Jazz DST Sizes-Men 10/ Womens 11.5 Model S70528-10,Vintage YSL blazer,
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  • Nixon Movin Out The Kensington,A Historical Guide to World Slavery. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. A useful reference work that covers most regions where slavery was important, together with topical examinations of the subject.
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  • Finley, M. I. Bralette/bandeau sets,. Reprint. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980. An exploration of the emergence, functioning, and decline of the slave societies of classical Greece and classical Italy, with comparisons to New World slavery, by the greatest historian of ancient slavery.
  • Fredrickson, George M. Racism: A Short HistoryPaige Men’s Jeans,
  • Frame shirt,14K yellow gold bracelet. Contains about 1,000 pictorial images of slavery in Africa and the Americas, arranged thematically.
  • LATEX WAIST TRAINER,Grey's Anatomy navy scrubs,. New York: Hill and Wang, 1993. A good general account by a historian alert to comparative history.
  • French Connection Orielle knitted puff sleeve jumper.,Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. A good survey of slavery and the evolution of racial prejudice in the Islamic world.
  • Miers, Suzanne, and Igor Kopytoff, eds. Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977. The long introduction on slavery as an "institution of marginality" is a classic, and many of the individual essays on particular regions and groups are stimulating.
  • Miller, Joseph. C., ed. Slavery and Slaving in World History: A Bibliography, 1900-1996. 2 vols. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1999. The most comprehensive work of its kind. Annual updates are available in the journal TAHARI ARTHUR LEVINE Navy Rhinestone Evening Gown,. The entire bibliography is being prepared for Internet access as a searchable database by the Virginia Center for Digital History at the University of Virginia.
  • Morgan, Philip D. "African Americans." In A Companion to Colonial AmericaUrban Outfitters Blue Polka Dot Floral Wrap Dress Sz Medium,
  • Patterson, Orlando. RARE Retired James Avery Fleur De Lis Earrings,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982. The best general survey of slave systems in 66 societies, written by a sociologist.
  • Body Art - Urban Decay Starlight Glitter body Art,Case mate brilliance case-iPhone 6,. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1985. A useful account that focuses on slavery in medieval Europe, the world of Islam, and the rise of the Atlantic slave system.
  • Thornton, John. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1800Womens Silver Boot Cut jeans,

Philip D. Morgan is the Sydney and Ruth Lapidus Professor in the American Revolutionary Era at Princeton University. He is the author of Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998) and coeditor (with Sean Hawkins) of Black Experience and the Empire: The Oxford History of the British Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004). He would like to acknowledge in particular the assistance of David Brion Davis, who generously sent him two early chapters from his forthcoming manuscript, "Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World Slavery."

Authored by

  • Philip D. Morgan
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    Princeton, New Jersey