WILDFOX Black & White “Sans Emploi” Low Back Swim

Antecedents and Models

David’s Bridal Bridesmaid Dress Merlot Size 16,

Fila | bodysuit size small,Mickey Inc VTG Donald Duck Disney T Shirt 90s L/XL,Dolfie Suede Leather Trainers,2 mini vintage Vernon Ward floral print hanging plaques with matte/ glass, (a partial and temporary capacity to enjoy a range of goods), the common pattern of making fugitive slaves wear a metal collar, to clothing domestic slaves in special liveries or uniforms. The NWT Agent Provocateur Tanya Black Brief,Smugglers Moon Maurauders Red White Black Sweater,Chanel Knit Sweater Mini Dress Size 38, slaves (2).

Africa and the Slave Trade

Arabs and their Muslim allies were the first to make use of large numbers of sub-Saharan black Africans. They developed a long-distance slave trade, which began in the seventh century and lasted into the twentieth. It delivered many millions of Africans across the Sahara Desert, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean to North Africa, the Mediterranean, and Persian Gulf. Although over a much longer period of time and comprising far more females, the number of Africans exported via these trans-Saharan or Indian Ocean slave trades probably equaled, or even outmatched, those of its transatlantic counterpart. The preexistence of these export trades facilitated Atlantic trade: systems of slave marketing were already in place. So numerous were black Africans at certain times and in certain places that they were able to launch massive slave revolts—in 869, for instance, in what is now southern Iraq, where the so-called Zanj (who came from the Swahili Coast and lands further north) worked in large gangs draining marshlands. While the Quran and Islamic law were essentially color-blind and while Muslims enslaved many so-called "white" people, medieval Arabs came to associate the most degrading forms of labor with black slaves. The Arabic word for slave, Vintage Yellow Tulip Glasses (3),Bernard Zins Angora Blazer,

Esplar in Extra White Veja 38,

MV Sport Property of Budweiser Grey Crew Neck Size Large,BCBG MaxAzria cocktail purple dress size 8,, became the origin of the word slave in English (and in French Abyss By Abby Alexa Dress - size SMALL,⭐️RARE! Adidas Hypersleek Houndstooth Sneakers size 7,SKIMS Ribbed Stretch Cotton Bodysuit XS NWT,, and in German Topo Designs Commuter Briefcase,NWT Max Mara Mino Waist Belt in black. Size L,servusTori Praver NEW Andie Plunge Leopard Sz,

ADIDAS QT RACER SPORT RUNNING SHOES WMNS,

The Atlantic Slave System

Berry colored bridesmaid dress,

anthropologie headband set,

As slavery underwent a resurgence in southern Europe, it gradually disappeared from the northwestern part of the continent. Economic changes help to explain this development, but perhaps more important were cultural constraints. Over the course of the Middle Ages, Christians always committed awful atrocities on each other, but increasingly they avoided enslaving one another. Apparently, a sense of unity had emerged in Christian Europe that effectively barred the enslavement of those deemed fellow Europeans. Christianity's long struggle with Islam no doubt played a major role in this development. That from 1500 to 1800 Muslims enslaved well over a million Western Europeans, many of whom were subsequently ransomed and celebrated as symbols of freedom, was a major element in the growing sense that Europeans should never be slaves. Nevertheless, these so-called free labor nations would develop some of the harshest slave regimes in the Americas. As David Brion Davis puts it, "it is an astonishing paradox that the first nations in the world to free themselves of chattel slavery—such nations as England, France, Holland, and even the Scandinavian states—became leaders during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in supporting plantation colonies based on African slave labor." He likens this divide to a primitive Mason-Dixon line, "drawn somewhere in the Atlantic, separating free soil master-states from tainted slave soil dependencies" (8).

This paradox illumines the unpredictability of events in the Americas. No European nation embarked on New World ventures with the intention of enslaving anyone. They had no blueprint but rather proceeded haphazardly and pragmatically. Their first resort was to forced Indian labor (the encomiendaL.L. Bean Beansport shoe lace up size 7 1/2 women,

Consequently, Europeans faced a huge labor shortage. The Ottoman Turkish empire blocked access to Black Sea or Baltic captives. European nations no longer enslaved Christian prisoners of war. Some dreamers talked of enslaving the poor or other marginal groups, but the practical and principled problems of reviving European slavery were considerable. Another expedient was the transportation of convicts, but their numbers were never sufficient. Temporary bondage—indentured servitude—was the most obvious and most widely used other option, particularly in the early years, but servants, if they survived, eventually became free, and in any case most servants would not travel to the areas where most labor was needed. Thus, almost by default, African slaves proved by far the best available labor supply. Consequently, from 1500 to 1820 almost 9 million African slaves left for the New World, compared to less than 3 million whites. In terms of migration, the New World was more black than white (10).

❤Rare Agent Provocateur Lindie Brief with Red Beads,

Reed & Barton Coffee/Tea Set,

New World slavery's other most distinctive aspect was its highly commercial character. While it is true that plantations—that is, large agricultural enterprises, managed for profit, producing a crop for export, with a hierarchically stratified labor organization—existed outside the New World, they reached their apogee there. The economies of scale, the expansion in unit size, the almost exclusive use of black slaves, a highly regimented and commodified labor force, and a system of close management all raised profit levels significantly. Such a productive system placed enormous demands on its laborers. As early as the 1630s a visitor to a Jesuit-owned sugar plantation in Brazil vividly described the unbearable horror of what had transpired: "People the color of the very night, working briskly and moaning at the same time without a moment of peace or rest, whoever sees all the confused and noisy machinery and apparatus of this Babylon, even if they have seen Mt. Etna and Vesuvius will say that this indeed is the image of Hell" (13).

Patterns of New World Slavery

Variations over time and space existed within New World slavery. Three stand out. First, although all New World regions imported more African men than women (thereby in part explaining the harshness of New World slavery because of the policing problems associated with large gangs of men), over time the gender ratio among New World slaves became increasingly balanced. In that regard, the North American slave population is most notable, because, as its number of slave women increased the most rapidly, so it became one of the few self-reproducing slave populations in world history. This early and rapid natural increase explains why North America received such a small percentage of the overall transatlantic slave trade—about 5 percent. Second, North America was also distinctive in being much less tolerant of racial intermixture than Latin America or the Caribbean. Once again demography—particularly the ratio of white men to white women (more balanced in North America than in Latin America and the Caribbean) and the availability of black women—was a crucial part of the explanation, but also important were the role of the Church and cultural mores, based as much in Old World patterns of racial coexistence or segregation. The Spanish had mixed with Muslims for centuries; the English had created a Pale in their settlement of Ireland. Only in North America did the extremely arbitrary concept of "Negro"—denoting anyone with allegedly visible African ancestry—assume such a marked stigma. Third, the chances of gaining freedom varied from one society to the next. Except for the period surrounding the American Revolution, the North American colonies, and later the states, imposed the severest restrictions on the chances of a slave becoming free. Again, demography—the proportions of whites and blacks in the population—has some explanatory power as do economic and cultural forces (14).

North American slavery itself was hardly of a piece. The range encompasses New England's intimate "family slavery"; the Mid-Atlantic's mixed forms of slavery and servitude; the Chesapeake's patriarchal, small plantation, mixed farming and tobacco, heavily native-born form of slavery; and the low country's impersonal, large plantation, rice and indigo, more heavily African system of slavery. In addition, various borderland forms existed: from a fluid world of interracial alliances in the Lower Mississippi Valley to a flexible one of fugitives and ex-slaves in Spanish Florida to one in which Indian slaves were transformed from symbols of alliance into commodities of exchange in French Canada (15).

DOONEY & BOURKE EMBLEM WRISTLET,

CALVIN KLEIN Ombre Crewnweck Sweater EUC,

  1. Jessica Simpson Mixed-Stripe Cutout Cheeky 1-Piece,The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-bellum South (New York: Knopf, 1956).

  2. Si les interesa manden msj para la dirección y el precio,International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, ed. David L. Sills and Robert King Merton (New York: Macmillan, 1968), 14: 307-13; Finley, Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology, reprint (Hammondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980), 9, 96, 102, 111, 113-14; Keith Hopkins, NWT VYB Tropical One Piece Swimsuit,NWT Saddlebred Sage Fern Sweater,NIB Vionic Women Kani Suede Slip On Sneaker Size 8.5 Coral Perforated Shoe, 138 (1993): 3-27; Keith Bradley, Slavery and Society at RomeVintage rainbow Calsilica ring,Vintage 7 Logo 49ers Jersey Shirt Large Red NFL Football Single Stitch,Show Me Your MuMu dress size XS,The Problem of Slavery in Western CultureZeynep Arcay mini spaghetti wool dress,Emilio Pucci Runway silk dress IT 38,Beautiful TruthandPride XS 100% silk blazer!,

  3. Ralph A. Austen, "The Trans-Saharan Slave Trade: A Tentative Census," Tear drop ring. 3 piece set as pictured.,, ed. Henry A. Gemery and Jan S. Hogendorn (New York: Academic Press, 1979), 23-76; Austen, "The Mediterranean Islamic Slave Trade out of Africa: A Tentative Census," Coach Crosby leather floral satchel with rivets,J Crew cocktail Strapless Lace black dress 4P,Encyclopedia of Africa South of the SaharaPriya metallic bodysuit,International Journal of African Historical Studies 10 (1977): 443-61; Alexandre Popovic, The Revolt of African Slaves in Iraq in the IIIrd-IXth CenturyVTG. BIG DOGS 2X HAWAIIAN 100% COTTON SHIRT,Pick A Place Stretch Cotton Paisley Bodysuit S,Nespresso Wood Dray with Rubber Handles,Custom size Med dress, (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998); Shaun E. Marmon, ed., NWT Agent Provocateur Essie White Brief AP4, (Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener, 1998); Minra Tora and John Edward Philips, eds., Slave Elites in the Middle East and Africa: A Comparative StudyNWOT Clear, Bluish Glass Drop Earrings,The African Diaspora in the Mediterranean Lands of IslamColumbia Mens Rapid Rivers Long Sleeve Button Down Shirt Red Multi Plaid,Slavery on the Frontiers of IslamNWT Agent Provocateur Ismerelda Big Brief AP4,

  4. Suzanne Miers and Igor Kopytoff, eds., Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological PerspectivesCiroa White Ceramic Entertainers Serving Tray with Bamboo Cutting Board 11.5",NBD - Charlie Mini Dress, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990); John Thornton, Patagonia Performance Baselayer Merino Wool Shirt Mens Large Black 36580,PAIGE - White Ripped Brigitte Boyfriend Jeans,Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in AfricaWeatherproof Men's Pullover Sweater XL NWT,

  5. Lovers + Friends Black Destroyed Knit Mini Dress,Archivum latinitatis medii aeviUntuckit Size M Blue and Pink Plaid Cotton Button Front Shirt,L'Esclavage dans l'Europe médiévale, vol. 1, Pénisule Ibérique—France (Bruges: De Tempel, 1955); vol. 2, Italie, Colonies Italiennes du Levant, Levant Latin, Empire Bysantin (Ghent: 1977); and Verlinden, The Beginnings of Modern Colonization: Eleven Essays with an IntroductionZara Animal Print Coat with Belt,Slavery and Society in Medieval ScandinaviaNWT Agent Provocateur Rozlyn Pink Thong,LONGCHAMP PINK LE PLIAGE TOTE VALENTINE HEART MED, (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 1995); Steven Epstein, Speaking of Slavery: Color, Ethnicity, and Human Bondage in Italy (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2001); and Sally McKee, "Inherited Status and Slavery in Late Medieval Italy and Venetian Crete," Jovani blush pink prom dress,New XL Roberto Cavalli Black Designer Lion T-shirt,

  6. Pick A Place Stretch Cotton Paisley Bodysuit M,GOTTEX BREEZE ADJUSTABLE AND REMOVABLE STRAPS SWIM, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982); Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440-1870 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997), 21-24, 48-86.

  7. Felipe Fernández-Armesto, Skinny Rag & Bone Jeans,Cold shoulder , long sleeves, black dress,Weatherproof Vintage Men's Raglan Sweater, Size L, NwT L701AFA,Nike Womens Waffle Racer 2X Shoe Sneaker Summit White Volt Casual sz 10,Vintage Black White Polka Dot Waist Puff 3/4 Sleeve Pencil Mini Dress Size 10,Coach Vintage Thompson Executive Black Leather Laptop Men's Briefcase,Vintage Tartan Cable Fisherman Knit Sweater Green Size Large 100% Cotton, (San Francisco: Mellen Research University Press, 1992).

  8. Nat Nast Hawaiian Shirt Sz Large L Silk Blend Short Sleeve Button Down Gray,American Historical ReviewNWT CHRLDR Sailing Away Low Back One Piece,ASOS Design - Maroon Split Sleeve Dipped Hem Maxi Dress w/ Tie Shoulder (size 6), (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003), 14; Robert C. Davis, Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500-1800 (Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave MacMillan, 2003). For more on the development of freedom and slavery, see David Eltis, The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), and Sue Peabody, There Are No Slaves in France: The Political Culture of Race and Slavery in the Ancien RégimeWedding Bridal Hair Décor Accessory,

  9. NWT 7 for All Mankind “Crop Roxanne” Jeans,The Early Spanish MainMen's Chaps Red ,Navy Blue Sweater~ Sz- M.,Mandolin slicer set, (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1992); William L. Sherman, Forced Native Labor in Sixteenth-Century Central AmericaVintage All Sport Mens Curious George T Shirt Sz S,Aquatalia Avery Waterproof Embossed-leather Sneaker,Cartier briefcase top handle authentic vintage,The Indian Slave Trade: The Rise of the English Empire in the American South, 1670-1717Vintage Wrangler Western Shirts Pearl Snap Pastel Plaid Men's Shirt | XL,Pacsafe RFID Blocking & Card Purse,, ed. Elizabeth Mancke and Carole Shammas (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005), 75-121. For a recent discussion of Indian population decline, see David S. Jones, "Virgin Soils Revisited," Bugatchi Uomo Shirt Men's Size XL Long Sleeve Striped Flip Cuff Cotton Button Up,, 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 703-42.

  10. David Galenson, White Servitude in Colonial America: An Economic AnalysisNWT Free People ‘Easy Peasy’ Green Bodysuit,New Large Roberto Cavalli Designer T-shirt,TUMI 26160D4 BLACK BALLISTIC ALPHA BRIEFCASE,William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 58 (January 2001): 17-46. Two good microhistories of the transatlantic slave trade are Robert Harms, Puma Womens Size 9 Trace Block Platform Winetasting Flame Casual Sneakers Shoes,BETSEY JOHNSON Black Multi Floral Wristlet Clutch Purse Heart Logo,The Two Princes of Calabar: An Eighteenth-Century Atlantic Odyssey (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004).

  11. David Eltis and William G. Clarence-Smith, "White Servitude," NWT Agent Provocateur Andrina Red Brief AP3 Medium,Prom Dress ( Only worn once),Roller Rabbit Verdun Lucy Top Size Medium Floral Cotton Silk Flowy Lightweight., (London: Longman, 1996); Stanley L. Engerman, ed., Terms of Labor: Slavery, Serfdom, and Free Labor (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1999); and Bush, Jack Georges University Computer Concealed Triple Gusset Flap Over Brief, (Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2000).

  12. Frank M. Snowden Jr., Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1970); Snowden, Fame and Partners BHLDN Rosabel Dress 6 NWT,Green Gold Ring 8,The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2004); Jean Devisse and Michel Mollat, eds., The Image of the Black in Western Art, vol. 2, Queen Lace Bohemian Czech Hand cut Glass Crystal Bowl Dish Plate 6" Clear VTG,LAST CHANCE SALE NEW Vintage Victorias Secret Silk Tunic Sleep Shirt Blue Medium,Images of the Medieval PeasantNWOT Lauren Ralph Lauren Wool Brown Stripe 3 Button Blazer Jacket Pants Suit 6,Current Elliott 27 The Kick Jean Fiery red W hem,Michael Kors | Cotton Striped Sweater Purple Charcoal,White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812UNSIGNED VINTAGE BARBIE PINK FAUX MOONSTONE CABOCHON CLIP ON EARRINGS,Race: The History of an Idea in the West (Washington, D.C.: The Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1996); the essays in "Constructing Race: Differentiating Peoples in the Early Modern World," William and Mary QuarterlyANCIENT GREEK SANDALS Clio Platform,The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2003). The best account is David Brion Davis, "The Origins of Anti-Black Racism in the New World," chap. 3 in Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World SlaveryUnique Clothing Safety Pin Gold/Silver Hair Clip,

  13. Puma Womens Size 8 Trace Block Platform Winetasting Flame Casual Sneakers Shoes,Birdy Grey Grace Sage Chiffon Convertible Dress, (New York: Norton, 1989); Schwartz, ed., Alfred Angelo Dresses | Alfred Angelo for Disney One Shoulder Dress | Blue,, 3.

  14. Frank Tannenbaum, Slave and Citizen: The Negro in the AmericasDisney Women's Aristocats Marie "I'm Just Exhausted" PJ Set,Neither Black Nor White: Slavery and Race Relations in Brazil and the United States (New York: Macmillan, 1971).

  15. YELLOW CHUNKY OVAL CLIP ON EARRINGS,Black Yankees: The Development of an Afro-American Subculture in Eighteenth-Century New England (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988); Graham Russell Hodges, Root and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1613-1863Pick A Place Stretch Cotton Paisley Bodysuit L,Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and LowcountryPrada Lux Briefcase Black leather,Dolce & Gabbana Short dress with draping in poplin,Backcountry Sweater,Sperry Men’s Dark Grey Size 7 Boat Shoes Gray Chambray Black Sneakers Moccasins,Marbelous Kitchen 11" round cutting board,William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 777-808. To this list might be added other forms of aboriginal slavery: see Theda Perdue, New Vans Gilbert Crockett Gray White Skate Sneakers, (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1979); William A. Starna and Ralph Watkins, "Northern Iroquoian Slavery," NWT Agent Provocateur Samarra SOIREE Red Thong AP4 Large, 38 (Winter 1991): 34-57; and Leland Donald, Aboriginal Slavery on the Northwest Coast of North America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).

  16. Laura Ashley Vintage 100 % Cotton Ruffled Nightgown,

Sources

  • VTG 80s Jerzees LSU Tigers Cartoon Graphic Print Football T Shirt 2XL Tall,The Making of New World Slavery: From the Baroque to the Modern, 1492-1800J.Crew Men's L Blue Crew Neck Wool Sweater,
  • Barneys New York Tan Saffiano Leather Laptop Bag,Dsquared x kway windbreaker,Colorful cool cat sweater size XL,
  • Custom Mini Gown with side train,Unchained Voices: An Anthology of Black Authors in the English-Speaking World of the Eighteenth CenturyFancy silver cocktail dress,
  • ❄Vintage SPINDLE FORK AND SPOON set,Children of God's Fire: A Documentary History of Black Slavery in BrazilSherri Hill fitted prom dress,
  • Davis, David Brion. Michael Kors black tan large tote matching wallet set,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003. The first short essay in the volume is a superb introduction to the origins of New World slavery, but it should be complemented by a number of other books by this great historian of New World slavery. I particularly recommend his VTG Playboy Men's XXL Sweater Black White Knit Leather Accent Flaw,Palm Print Skinny Jeans,
  • Davis, Robert C. Nike Air Force 1 premium ‘07 Gauchos orange and gray,VINTAGE LA PERLA DRESS,
  • Black one piece swimsuit with open back high waist,A Historical Guide to World Slavery. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. A useful reference work that covers most regions where slavery was important, together with topical examinations of the subject.
  • NWOT Green Stone in Sterling Silver,The Rise of African Slavery in the AmericasDark blue short dress little sparkle,
  • Sherri Hill long black prom dress,Tiffany & Co. Crystal 6” Confection Dish Germany PERFECT,Concrete Chunky Sweater,
  • NWOT Michael Kors Collection Fringe Striped Halter dress size 2,Macmillan Encyclopedia of World SlaveryChristy Dawn sarita dress night peony,
  • Finley, M. I. 1901 Nordstrom Men’s Gray Cotton Long Sleeve New,. Reprint. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980. An exploration of the emergence, functioning, and decline of the slave societies of classical Greece and classical Italy, with comparisons to New World slavery, by the greatest historian of ancient slavery.
  • Fredrickson, George M. Racism: A Short HistoryUNSIGNED VINTAGE CELTIC STYLE UFO DISC SHIELD CLIP ON EARRINGS,
  • PINUP STARS monikini one piece bathing suit size 42,MISHA COLLECTION BLAZER. Contains about 1,000 pictorial images of slavery in Africa and the Americas, arranged thematically.
  • Vtg. Cloisonne Hair Barrette (Hair Slide),Rare vintage divided non stick fry pan,. New York: Hill and Wang, 1993. A good general account by a historian alert to comparative history.
  • Louis Vuitton Briefcase Leather,Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. A good survey of slavery and the evolution of racial prejudice in the Islamic world.
  • Miers, Suzanne, and Igor Kopytoff, eds. Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977. The long introduction on slavery as an "institution of marginality" is a classic, and many of the individual essays on particular regions and groups are stimulating.
  • Miller, Joseph. C., ed. Slavery and Slaving in World History: A Bibliography, 1900-1996. 2 vols. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1999. The most comprehensive work of its kind. Annual updates are available in the journal NWT Agent Provocateur Megan Brief AP2,. The entire bibliography is being prepared for Internet access as a searchable database by the Virginia Center for Digital History at the University of Virginia.
  • Morgan, Philip D. "African Americans." In A Companion to Colonial AmericaNautica jeans relaxed fit stretch men's color blue size W 32 L30,
  • Patterson, Orlando. Sterling Silver Avon Ring,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982. The best general survey of slave systems in 66 societies, written by a sociologist.
  • Sterling Silver Leaf Wraparound Ring,Lily Samii 2 Piece Set with Blazer and Mini Skirt,. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1985. A useful account that focuses on slavery in medieval Europe, the world of Islam, and the rise of the Atlantic slave system.
  • Thornton, John. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-18002 VINCE CAMUTO Thongs,

Philip D. Morgan is the Sydney and Ruth Lapidus Professor in the American Revolutionary Era at Princeton University. He is the author of Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998) and coeditor (with Sean Hawkins) of Black Experience and the Empire: The Oxford History of the British Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004). He would like to acknowledge in particular the assistance of David Brion Davis, who generously sent him two early chapters from his forthcoming manuscript, "Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World Slavery."

Authored by

  • Philip D. Morgan
    NWT Agent Provocateur Gretel Brief AP3 Medium,
    Princeton, New Jersey