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Africa and the Slave Trade

Arabs and their Muslim allies were the first to make use of large numbers of sub-Saharan black Africans. They developed a long-distance slave trade, which began in the seventh century and lasted into the twentieth. It delivered many millions of Africans across the Sahara Desert, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean to North Africa, the Mediterranean, and Persian Gulf. Although over a much longer period of time and comprising far more females, the number of Africans exported via these trans-Saharan or Indian Ocean slave trades probably equaled, or even outmatched, those of its transatlantic counterpart. The preexistence of these export trades facilitated Atlantic trade: systems of slave marketing were already in place. So numerous were black Africans at certain times and in certain places that they were able to launch massive slave revolts—in 869, for instance, in what is now southern Iraq, where the so-called Zanj (who came from the Swahili Coast and lands further north) worked in large gangs draining marshlands. While the Quran and Islamic law were essentially color-blind and while Muslims enslaved many so-called "white" people, medieval Arabs came to associate the most degrading forms of labor with black slaves. The Arabic word for slave, MARIBOU LONDON green brocade jacket size S,4 piece king size sheet set + 3 Euro shams 26”x26”,

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The Atlantic Slave System

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As slavery underwent a resurgence in southern Europe, it gradually disappeared from the northwestern part of the continent. Economic changes help to explain this development, but perhaps more important were cultural constraints. Over the course of the Middle Ages, Christians always committed awful atrocities on each other, but increasingly they avoided enslaving one another. Apparently, a sense of unity had emerged in Christian Europe that effectively barred the enslavement of those deemed fellow Europeans. Christianity's long struggle with Islam no doubt played a major role in this development. That from 1500 to 1800 Muslims enslaved well over a million Western Europeans, many of whom were subsequently ransomed and celebrated as symbols of freedom, was a major element in the growing sense that Europeans should never be slaves. Nevertheless, these so-called free labor nations would develop some of the harshest slave regimes in the Americas. As David Brion Davis puts it, "it is an astonishing paradox that the first nations in the world to free themselves of chattel slavery—such nations as England, France, Holland, and even the Scandinavian states—became leaders during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in supporting plantation colonies based on African slave labor." He likens this divide to a primitive Mason-Dixon line, "drawn somewhere in the Atlantic, separating free soil master-states from tainted slave soil dependencies" (8).

This paradox illumines the unpredictability of events in the Americas. No European nation embarked on New World ventures with the intention of enslaving anyone. They had no blueprint but rather proceeded haphazardly and pragmatically. Their first resort was to forced Indian labor (the encomiendaNew Demonia Boxer 05 Size 6/8,

Consequently, Europeans faced a huge labor shortage. The Ottoman Turkish empire blocked access to Black Sea or Baltic captives. European nations no longer enslaved Christian prisoners of war. Some dreamers talked of enslaving the poor or other marginal groups, but the practical and principled problems of reviving European slavery were considerable. Another expedient was the transportation of convicts, but their numbers were never sufficient. Temporary bondage—indentured servitude—was the most obvious and most widely used other option, particularly in the early years, but servants, if they survived, eventually became free, and in any case most servants would not travel to the areas where most labor was needed. Thus, almost by default, African slaves proved by far the best available labor supply. Consequently, from 1500 to 1820 almost 9 million African slaves left for the New World, compared to less than 3 million whites. In terms of migration, the New World was more black than white (10).

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New World slavery's other most distinctive aspect was its highly commercial character. While it is true that plantations—that is, large agricultural enterprises, managed for profit, producing a crop for export, with a hierarchically stratified labor organization—existed outside the New World, they reached their apogee there. The economies of scale, the expansion in unit size, the almost exclusive use of black slaves, a highly regimented and commodified labor force, and a system of close management all raised profit levels significantly. Such a productive system placed enormous demands on its laborers. As early as the 1630s a visitor to a Jesuit-owned sugar plantation in Brazil vividly described the unbearable horror of what had transpired: "People the color of the very night, working briskly and moaning at the same time without a moment of peace or rest, whoever sees all the confused and noisy machinery and apparatus of this Babylon, even if they have seen Mt. Etna and Vesuvius will say that this indeed is the image of Hell" (13).

Patterns of New World Slavery

Variations over time and space existed within New World slavery. Three stand out. First, although all New World regions imported more African men than women (thereby in part explaining the harshness of New World slavery because of the policing problems associated with large gangs of men), over time the gender ratio among New World slaves became increasingly balanced. In that regard, the North American slave population is most notable, because, as its number of slave women increased the most rapidly, so it became one of the few self-reproducing slave populations in world history. This early and rapid natural increase explains why North America received such a small percentage of the overall transatlantic slave trade—about 5 percent. Second, North America was also distinctive in being much less tolerant of racial intermixture than Latin America or the Caribbean. Once again demography—particularly the ratio of white men to white women (more balanced in North America than in Latin America and the Caribbean) and the availability of black women—was a crucial part of the explanation, but also important were the role of the Church and cultural mores, based as much in Old World patterns of racial coexistence or segregation. The Spanish had mixed with Muslims for centuries; the English had created a Pale in their settlement of Ireland. Only in North America did the extremely arbitrary concept of "Negro"—denoting anyone with allegedly visible African ancestry—assume such a marked stigma. Third, the chances of gaining freedom varied from one society to the next. Except for the period surrounding the American Revolution, the North American colonies, and later the states, imposed the severest restrictions on the chances of a slave becoming free. Again, demography—the proportions of whites and blacks in the population—has some explanatory power as do economic and cultural forces (14).

North American slavery itself was hardly of a piece. The range encompasses New England's intimate "family slavery"; the Mid-Atlantic's mixed forms of slavery and servitude; the Chesapeake's patriarchal, small plantation, mixed farming and tobacco, heavily native-born form of slavery; and the low country's impersonal, large plantation, rice and indigo, more heavily African system of slavery. In addition, various borderland forms existed: from a fluid world of interracial alliances in the Lower Mississippi Valley to a flexible one of fugitives and ex-slaves in Spanish Florida to one in which Indian slaves were transformed from symbols of alliance into commodities of exchange in French Canada (15).

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  1. Xscape Strapless Satin Mermaid Gown,The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-bellum South (New York: Knopf, 1956).

  2. Supreme New Era Shop Beanie Grey New York City,International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, ed. David L. Sills and Robert King Merton (New York: Macmillan, 1968), 14: 307-13; Finley, Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology, reprint (Hammondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980), 9, 96, 102, 111, 113-14; Keith Hopkins, Eileen Fisher • Grey Skinny Jeans,Continental Bally Switzerland Black Slip-on Loafers size 11 AA,J.CREW/ RAW LEATHER/ SATCHEL /, 138 (1993): 3-27; Keith Bradley, Slavery and Society at RomeLucky Brand Black Italian Lamb Leather Floral Stud Satchel,Art Unlimited 1990 Vintage Wolf Sweatshirt XL Made in USA,Pearl white wedding gown,The Problem of Slavery in Western CultureSupreme logo denim cap,Marc Jacobs Triple Pocket Satchel Brown,JOE'S JEANS Provocateur fit Medium Akihito wash bootcut mid rise jeans size 30,

  3. Ralph A. Austen, "The Trans-Saharan Slave Trade: A Tentative Census," Jessica Howard Cocktail dress size 6,, ed. Henry A. Gemery and Jan S. Hogendorn (New York: Academic Press, 1979), 23-76; Austen, "The Mediterranean Islamic Slave Trade out of Africa: A Tentative Census," Suede Mephisto flats,Lacoste Men's Crew Neck Rainbow Logo Sweater,Encyclopedia of Africa South of the SaharaLucky Brand Gray Floral Lolita Skinny Jeans,International Journal of African Historical Studies 10 (1977): 443-61; Alexandre Popovic, The Revolt of African Slaves in Iraq in the IIIrd-IXth Century100% Egyptian Cotton sheets,Coach Hampton Pastel Signature Scribble Shoulder Tote Bag M05K-247,Beautiful vintage wool coat,Reiss lace Janelle Bodycon dress Sz 12, (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998); Shaun E. Marmon, ed., Flying Monkey skinny style size 28 jeans, (Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener, 1998); Minra Tora and John Edward Philips, eds., Slave Elites in the Middle East and Africa: A Comparative StudyVtg Boho Princess Coat Sears JR Bazaar,The African Diaspora in the Mediterranean Lands of IslamLululemon Wunder Under Crop womens size 6 orange navy stripe leggings,Slavery on the Frontiers of IslamSkechers Knit Slip On Clogs, Faux Fur Lined, Women's 10, Brown,

  4. Suzanne Miers and Igor Kopytoff, eds., Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological PerspectivesJoe’s Jeans The Honey Curvy Skinny Ankle Mid-Rise,Earthies Monza Pumps, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990); John Thornton, Ever pretty Bridesmaid Dress,JESSICA SIMPSON BONSALLO KISS ME DISTRESSED JEANS,Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in AfricaBanana Republic white strapless eyelet dress,

  5. Tory Burch suede/leather moccasins,Archivum latinitatis medii aeviTommy Bahama Men’s Button Front Shirt Size Large,L'Esclavage dans l'Europe médiévale, vol. 1, Pénisule Ibérique—France (Bruges: De Tempel, 1955); vol. 2, Italie, Colonies Italiennes du Levant, Levant Latin, Empire Bysantin (Ghent: 1977); and Verlinden, The Beginnings of Modern Colonization: Eleven Essays with an IntroductionJordan retro 7 marvin the martian,Slavery and Society in Medieval ScandinaviaLAUREN Ralph Lauren women's trench coat animal print buttons belt size S,Kate Spade - Crystal Blue Darcy Small Satchel, (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 1995); Steven Epstein, Speaking of Slavery: Color, Ethnicity, and Human Bondage in Italy (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2001); and Sally McKee, "Inherited Status and Slavery in Late Medieval Italy and Venetian Crete," Off Shoulder Floral Dress,Gilly Hicks Crop Top Bralettes,

  6. Puma Cali Shoes,CHRISTINA WU DESTINATION wedding gown style 22896, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982); Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440-1870 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997), 21-24, 48-86.

  7. Felipe Fernández-Armesto, ECCO Black Leather Windsor Slip On Shoes Size 8,Samsoe Samsoe Petunia Floral Dress,New Era 59Fifty Chicago White Sox Fitted Hat Size 7 3/8 "World Series 1906",Vintage Christian Dior Monsieur Trench Coat sz M,Lightweight Plaid Fall Coat- excellent cond,Charter Club Damask 550 cnt sheet set,NWOT Club Monaco Claudine Trench Coat in Teal Blue, (San Francisco: Mellen Research University Press, 1992).

  8. Lily Pulitzer Size 2 strapless dress,American Historical ReviewYoung by Caterina Lucchi large yellow leather tote purse,Lacoste Twin XL sheet set, (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003), 14; Robert C. Davis, Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500-1800 (Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave MacMillan, 2003). For more on the development of freedom and slavery, see David Eltis, The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), and Sue Peabody, There Are No Slaves in France: The Political Culture of Race and Slavery in the Ancien RégimeAUTHENTIC STUART WEITZMAN SLIP ONS,

  9. Torrid Premium Distressed High Rise Stretchy Dark Wash Denim Jeans 18R,The Early Spanish MainNEW Latique Lilly Studded Handbag Tote,Women’s Avenger Safety Toe Boots, (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1992); William L. Sherman, Forced Native Labor in Sixteenth-Century Central AmericaTimberland Women's Courmayeur Valley Waterproof Hiker Boots EUC! 7.5,Papéll Boutique Evening Rose Halter Dress - US 8,New Era 59Fifty Chicago White Sox Fitted Hat Size 7 1/2 "Division Champs 1983",The Indian Slave Trade: The Rise of the English Empire in the American South, 1670-1717Alice McCall Kiss it Better Turmeric Dress,CHLOE Black/White Stripe Sandal,, ed. Elizabeth Mancke and Carole Shammas (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005), 75-121. For a recent discussion of Indian population decline, see David S. Jones, "Virgin Soils Revisited," Clarks Women’s Artisan Heeled Black Leather Mules w Buckle Comfort Soles Size 7,, 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 703-42.

  10. David Galenson, White Servitude in Colonial America: An Economic AnalysisShow me your mumu godshaw goddess dress NWT,NWT DKNY Sport High-Rise Logo Ankle Leggings XS,New Era 59Fifty Chicago White Sox Fitted Hat Size 7 3/8 "All-Star Game",William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 58 (January 2001): 17-46. Two good microhistories of the transatlantic slave trade are Robert Harms, Mens AllSaints Leather Shoulder Zip Up. (FLAGG CREW) Size X Small.,J & Company wideleg jean medium wash stitch pocket,The Two Princes of Calabar: An Eighteenth-Century Atlantic Odyssey (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004).

  11. David Eltis and William G. Clarence-Smith, "White Servitude," Blank NYC Sunburst Side Studded Faded Black Skinny Jeans,New Demonia Boxer 05 Size 5/7,Gorgeous Champagne strapless mini dress!, (London: Longman, 1996); Stanley L. Engerman, ed., Terms of Labor: Slavery, Serfdom, and Free Labor (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1999); and Bush, J Crew z S dark grey coat, (Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2000).

  12. Frank M. Snowden Jr., Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1970); Snowden, Kooba Ridgefield Satchel Purse,J Crew Mercantile Teddy Bomber jacket,The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2004); Jean Devisse and Michel Mollat, eds., The Image of the Black in Western Art, vol. 2, Longchamp messenger bag,Josef Seibel Black Leather Slip On Mules Clogs Size EU 40,Images of the Medieval PeasantAllen Edmonds 12 Dress Shoes Wing Tips BERWICK,MICHAEL by Michael Kors Light Brown Leather Moccasin slip on shoes size 8M,Moonsea Smocked Mini Dress,White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812Free People Movement Six Pack Athletic Set Navy M,Race: The History of an Idea in the West (Washington, D.C.: The Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1996); the essays in "Constructing Race: Differentiating Peoples in the Early Modern World," William and Mary QuarterlyBROOKLINEN 100% cotton rose colored flat sheet,The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2003). The best account is David Brion Davis, "The Origins of Anti-Black Racism in the New World," chap. 3 in Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World SlaveryBariano Gown XS,

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  14. Frank Tannenbaum, Slave and Citizen: The Negro in the AmericasNWT Rebecca Minkoff Floral Phoebe Dress size S,Neither Black Nor White: Slavery and Race Relations in Brazil and the United States (New York: Macmillan, 1971).

  15. NYDJ BLACK LEGGING JEANS,Black Yankees: The Development of an Afro-American Subculture in Eighteenth-Century New England (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988); Graham Russell Hodges, Root and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1613-1863Johnston Murphy Cellini 10.5M Tassel Loafer Italy,Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and LowcountryLebron 12s Independence Day edition,AQUA Black & White Floral Long Gown,Vintage 70s Braetan Pink Wool Jacket Coat - size 11/12 Large, VGUC Union Made,Mackage Cashmere/Wool Blend Coat - EXCELLENT Condition,Sumikkogurashi Tokage Bag,William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 777-808. To this list might be added other forms of aboriginal slavery: see Theda Perdue, TULAROSA STRIPED SET, (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1979); William A. Starna and Ralph Watkins, "Northern Iroquoian Slavery," Abercrombie & Fitch High Rise Super Skinny Ripped Ankle Destroyed Distressed 2, 38 (Winter 1991): 34-57; and Leland Donald, Aboriginal Slavery on the Northwest Coast of North America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).

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Sources

  • US Military WW II Olive Green VTG Steel Pot JJ1392,The Making of New World Slavery: From the Baroque to the Modern, 1492-1800Cole Haan Kitten Heels Mules Size 6B,
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  • Scalloped, Frayed hem, white denim skirt, size 27,Children of God's Fire: A Documentary History of Black Slavery in BrazilAdidas Parley Adizero Prime LTD,
  • Davis, David Brion. Adidas Mens Running Shoes Black Lace Up Size 12,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003. The first short essay in the volume is a superb introduction to the origins of New World slavery, but it should be complemented by a number of other books by this great historian of New World slavery. I particularly recommend his NWT Womens Kendall + Kylie Navy Black Floral Lace Full Zip Bomber Jacket S *,Vtg Talbots Cream Leather Slide Mule Flats Sz 8M EUC,
  • Davis, Robert C. Last price 3 bundle QUEEN SIZE 4- pics sheet set,Superrradical Go To Hell Rare T-Shirt T-Shirt T214,
  • LUCKY BRAND BRIDGETTE SUNNY ISLES SKINNY JEANS,A Historical Guide to World Slavery. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. A useful reference work that covers most regions where slavery was important, together with topical examinations of the subject.
  • 0 NYDJ GRAY THE LEGGING JEANS SZ 0,The Rise of African Slavery in the AmericasLucky Brand Olivia Flared Jeans,
  • Black shiny pump by Brian Atwood size 39,Blondo Suri Waterproof Women’s Slip-On Mule Clog Camel Suede Sneakers Size 8.5,J.crew 100% SILK fuchsia strapless formal cocktail dress size 8,
  • Vintage NORITAKE Azalea Set of 4 Saucers Plates.,Macmillan Encyclopedia of World SlaveryNWT Rae Dunn His/Hers Coffee Mugs,
  • Finley, M. I. RARE DIESEL Jungle dress,. Reprint. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980. An exploration of the emergence, functioning, and decline of the slave societies of classical Greece and classical Italy, with comparisons to New World slavery, by the greatest historian of ancient slavery.
  • Fredrickson, George M. Racism: A Short HistoryCalvin Klein trench Jacket style rain jacket,
  • Judy Blue High Rise Release Hem Skinny Fit Blue Jeans medium wash size 3/26,Driftwood Women's Marilyn Classic Fit Distressed Denim Skinny Jeans Size 25. Contains about 1,000 pictorial images of slavery in Africa and the Americas, arranged thematically.
  • Theory color-block wool all weather mini dress Blk,South Beach Lebrons,. New York: Hill and Wang, 1993. A good general account by a historian alert to comparative history.
  • GUESS tote,Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. A good survey of slavery and the evolution of racial prejudice in the Islamic world.
  • Miers, Suzanne, and Igor Kopytoff, eds. Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977. The long introduction on slavery as an "institution of marginality" is a classic, and many of the individual essays on particular regions and groups are stimulating.
  • Miller, Joseph. C., ed. Slavery and Slaving in World History: A Bibliography, 1900-1996. 2 vols. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1999. The most comprehensive work of its kind. Annual updates are available in the journal Aloe & Lavender Infused Bed Sheets (Queen, King),. The entire bibliography is being prepared for Internet access as a searchable database by the Virginia Center for Digital History at the University of Virginia.
  • Morgan, Philip D. "African Americans." In A Companion to Colonial AmericaAdidas ultraboosts triple white,
  • Patterson, Orlando. Merrell Meta Stretch Leather Vibram Sole Slip On Comfort Mocs Women's Size 6.5,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982. The best general survey of slave systems in 66 societies, written by a sociologist.
  • Lululemon Speed Up Short High Rise 2.5" in Camo Green Twill ITGT/GNTW Size 8,Kenzo Bird of Paradise Mini Wrap Skirt Sz 12 NWT,. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1985. A useful account that focuses on slavery in medieval Europe, the world of Islam, and the rise of the Atlantic slave system.
  • Thornton, John. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1800Emma Fox Tote black and gray,

Philip D. Morgan is the Sydney and Ruth Lapidus Professor in the American Revolutionary Era at Princeton University. He is the author of Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998) and coeditor (with Sean Hawkins) of Black Experience and the Empire: The Oxford History of the British Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004). He would like to acknowledge in particular the assistance of David Brion Davis, who generously sent him two early chapters from his forthcoming manuscript, "Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World Slavery."

Authored by

  • Philip D. Morgan
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    Princeton, New Jersey