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Africa and the Slave Trade

Arabs and their Muslim allies were the first to make use of large numbers of sub-Saharan black Africans. They developed a long-distance slave trade, which began in the seventh century and lasted into the twentieth. It delivered many millions of Africans across the Sahara Desert, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean to North Africa, the Mediterranean, and Persian Gulf. Although over a much longer period of time and comprising far more females, the number of Africans exported via these trans-Saharan or Indian Ocean slave trades probably equaled, or even outmatched, those of its transatlantic counterpart. The preexistence of these export trades facilitated Atlantic trade: systems of slave marketing were already in place. So numerous were black Africans at certain times and in certain places that they were able to launch massive slave revolts—in 869, for instance, in what is now southern Iraq, where the so-called Zanj (who came from the Swahili Coast and lands further north) worked in large gangs draining marshlands. While the Quran and Islamic law were essentially color-blind and while Muslims enslaved many so-called "white" people, medieval Arabs came to associate the most degrading forms of labor with black slaves. The Arabic word for slave, Gymboree autumn highlands yolked sweater floral 4t,Helly Hansen mens xxl jacket,

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The Atlantic Slave System

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As slavery underwent a resurgence in southern Europe, it gradually disappeared from the northwestern part of the continent. Economic changes help to explain this development, but perhaps more important were cultural constraints. Over the course of the Middle Ages, Christians always committed awful atrocities on each other, but increasingly they avoided enslaving one another. Apparently, a sense of unity had emerged in Christian Europe that effectively barred the enslavement of those deemed fellow Europeans. Christianity's long struggle with Islam no doubt played a major role in this development. That from 1500 to 1800 Muslims enslaved well over a million Western Europeans, many of whom were subsequently ransomed and celebrated as symbols of freedom, was a major element in the growing sense that Europeans should never be slaves. Nevertheless, these so-called free labor nations would develop some of the harshest slave regimes in the Americas. As David Brion Davis puts it, "it is an astonishing paradox that the first nations in the world to free themselves of chattel slavery—such nations as England, France, Holland, and even the Scandinavian states—became leaders during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in supporting plantation colonies based on African slave labor." He likens this divide to a primitive Mason-Dixon line, "drawn somewhere in the Atlantic, separating free soil master-states from tainted slave soil dependencies" (8).

This paradox illumines the unpredictability of events in the Americas. No European nation embarked on New World ventures with the intention of enslaving anyone. They had no blueprint but rather proceeded haphazardly and pragmatically. Their first resort was to forced Indian labor (the encomiendaNWT Masters Collection 60's Two-Ply Mercerized 100% Cotton BOYS LARGE,

Consequently, Europeans faced a huge labor shortage. The Ottoman Turkish empire blocked access to Black Sea or Baltic captives. European nations no longer enslaved Christian prisoners of war. Some dreamers talked of enslaving the poor or other marginal groups, but the practical and principled problems of reviving European slavery were considerable. Another expedient was the transportation of convicts, but their numbers were never sufficient. Temporary bondage—indentured servitude—was the most obvious and most widely used other option, particularly in the early years, but servants, if they survived, eventually became free, and in any case most servants would not travel to the areas where most labor was needed. Thus, almost by default, African slaves proved by far the best available labor supply. Consequently, from 1500 to 1820 almost 9 million African slaves left for the New World, compared to less than 3 million whites. In terms of migration, the New World was more black than white (10).

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New World slavery's other most distinctive aspect was its highly commercial character. While it is true that plantations—that is, large agricultural enterprises, managed for profit, producing a crop for export, with a hierarchically stratified labor organization—existed outside the New World, they reached their apogee there. The economies of scale, the expansion in unit size, the almost exclusive use of black slaves, a highly regimented and commodified labor force, and a system of close management all raised profit levels significantly. Such a productive system placed enormous demands on its laborers. As early as the 1630s a visitor to a Jesuit-owned sugar plantation in Brazil vividly described the unbearable horror of what had transpired: "People the color of the very night, working briskly and moaning at the same time without a moment of peace or rest, whoever sees all the confused and noisy machinery and apparatus of this Babylon, even if they have seen Mt. Etna and Vesuvius will say that this indeed is the image of Hell" (13).

Patterns of New World Slavery

Variations over time and space existed within New World slavery. Three stand out. First, although all New World regions imported more African men than women (thereby in part explaining the harshness of New World slavery because of the policing problems associated with large gangs of men), over time the gender ratio among New World slaves became increasingly balanced. In that regard, the North American slave population is most notable, because, as its number of slave women increased the most rapidly, so it became one of the few self-reproducing slave populations in world history. This early and rapid natural increase explains why North America received such a small percentage of the overall transatlantic slave trade—about 5 percent. Second, North America was also distinctive in being much less tolerant of racial intermixture than Latin America or the Caribbean. Once again demography—particularly the ratio of white men to white women (more balanced in North America than in Latin America and the Caribbean) and the availability of black women—was a crucial part of the explanation, but also important were the role of the Church and cultural mores, based as much in Old World patterns of racial coexistence or segregation. The Spanish had mixed with Muslims for centuries; the English had created a Pale in their settlement of Ireland. Only in North America did the extremely arbitrary concept of "Negro"—denoting anyone with allegedly visible African ancestry—assume such a marked stigma. Third, the chances of gaining freedom varied from one society to the next. Except for the period surrounding the American Revolution, the North American colonies, and later the states, imposed the severest restrictions on the chances of a slave becoming free. Again, demography—the proportions of whites and blacks in the population—has some explanatory power as do economic and cultural forces (14).

North American slavery itself was hardly of a piece. The range encompasses New England's intimate "family slavery"; the Mid-Atlantic's mixed forms of slavery and servitude; the Chesapeake's patriarchal, small plantation, mixed farming and tobacco, heavily native-born form of slavery; and the low country's impersonal, large plantation, rice and indigo, more heavily African system of slavery. In addition, various borderland forms existed: from a fluid world of interracial alliances in the Lower Mississippi Valley to a flexible one of fugitives and ex-slaves in Spanish Florida to one in which Indian slaves were transformed from symbols of alliance into commodities of exchange in French Canada (15).

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  1. Intimate Robe,The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-bellum South (New York: Knopf, 1956).

  2. CRESCENT smocked off the shoulder blue gingham dress,International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, ed. David L. Sills and Robert King Merton (New York: Macmillan, 1968), 14: 307-13; Finley, Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology, reprint (Hammondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980), 9, 96, 102, 111, 113-14; Keith Hopkins, BURBERRY Brown Gradient Cat Eye Ladies Sunglasses BE4294 33163B 54,VS PINK Cozy Patterned Robe,*NWT* Michael Kors Satchel, 138 (1993): 3-27; Keith Bradley, Slavery and Society at RomeUrban Outfitters BDG Blue Gray Handkerchief Patchwork Quilted Snap Front Coat,O’Neill ‘Zilla’ Mesh Bikini Top,Windsor lace gown large,The Problem of Slavery in Western CultureKate Spade New York Elaine Lewis Drive bag,Tan/White Coach Bag,Michael Kors Women’s Norie Watch,

  3. Ralph A. Austen, "The Trans-Saharan Slave Trade: A Tentative Census," TOM FORD Charlotte Alligator Tote Bag,, ed. Henry A. Gemery and Jan S. Hogendorn (New York: Academic Press, 1979), 23-76; Austen, "The Mediterranean Islamic Slave Trade out of Africa: A Tentative Census," Kate Spade Park Avenue Handbag,Tiffany sunglasses in box Diamond chip side detail,Encyclopedia of Africa South of the SaharaAG Adriano Goldschmied The Prima Cigarette Leg Jeans 4 Year Celestial Size 26R,International Journal of African Historical Studies 10 (1977): 443-61; Alexandre Popovic, The Revolt of African Slaves in Iraq in the IIIrd-IXth CenturyL.L Bean Wool Cotton Full Zip Long Sleeve Jacket,RVCA Salt Wash Racer Bikini Top,Armani junior polo,WISP Dress Geometric Multi Colored Three Quarter Sleeves Boatneck Mandala, (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998); Shaun E. Marmon, ed., Michael Kors | Studded Selma Saffiano Satchel Bag, (Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener, 1998); Minra Tora and John Edward Philips, eds., Slave Elites in the Middle East and Africa: A Comparative StudyPlush Polka Dot Robe,The African Diaspora in the Mediterranean Lands of IslamOversized Chanel cotton/tweed purse,Slavery on the Frontiers of IslamMax Studio Gray 100% Cashmere Cable Knit Fringe Poncho One Size,

  4. Suzanne Miers and Igor Kopytoff, eds., Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological PerspectivesKate Spade Black and cream color Shoulderbag.,Louis Vuitton po Métis, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990); John Thornton, Prom Dress-Teeze Me-Burgundy,Karl Lagerfeld light pink watch. Brand new,Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in AfricaChanel Boy Velvet Medium Bag - Authentic !,

  5. VINCE CAMUTO white with paint splash pattern fit and flare dress,Archivum latinitatis medii aeviNWOT Size large wild fox one piece bathing suit,L'Esclavage dans l'Europe médiévale, vol. 1, Pénisule Ibérique—France (Bruges: De Tempel, 1955); vol. 2, Italie, Colonies Italiennes du Levant, Levant Latin, Empire Bysantin (Ghent: 1977); and Verlinden, The Beginnings of Modern Colonization: Eleven Essays with an IntroductionOnia NWOT Tropical Black & White One-Piece Swimsuit - Size S,Slavery and Society in Medieval ScandinaviaPaige Edgemont Black Skinny Ultra Stretchy Jeans,NWOT Kona Sol animal print ruched drawstring sides sexy tortoise shell circles, (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 1995); Steven Epstein, Speaking of Slavery: Color, Ethnicity, and Human Bondage in Italy (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2001); and Sally McKee, "Inherited Status and Slavery in Late Medieval Italy and Venetian Crete," Gucci Heart Tattoo White Canvas Red Leather Tote,Vintage Grit Iron Work Wear 1929 Blue Denim Sherpa Jacket Men's XL,

  6. Missoni for Target Ruana Chevron Print Poncho Cape Wool,New Rayban Sunglasses!, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982); Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440-1870 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997), 21-24, 48-86.

  7. Felipe Fernández-Armesto, Sean John Men's Jacket Puffer Full Zip Fall Winter Black 3XL Quilted Snap Button,MEET CURVE Mint Green Polka Dot Halter Swimsuit 2X,Journee Collection Womens Stelly Pink Faux Suede Comfort Winter Boots Shoes NWT,SHONA JOY | Plunge Frill Draped Dress in Rose Pink Women’s Size 4 NEW Ruffles,Work Jacket Cornerstone Like Carhartt Size Medium,Coach Plaid Handbag & Wristlet,Flora Nikrooz Navy Kimono Robe, (San Francisco: Mellen Research University Press, 1992).

  8. Raw Copper Wrapped Amethyst Pendant Necklace,American Historical ReviewHalston Heritage Silk Caped Back Gown Dress,ASOS | Sleeveless midi dress, (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003), 14; Robert C. Davis, Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500-1800 (Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave MacMillan, 2003). For more on the development of freedom and slavery, see David Eltis, The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), and Sue Peabody, There Are No Slaves in France: The Political Culture of Race and Slavery in the Ancien RégimeEvri Blue White Tie Dye Skylar Bandeau One Piece Swimsuit Size 3X NWT,

  9. J.CREW Reid Skinny Straight Leg Jean Dark Wash 24,The Early Spanish MainZulu & Zephyr Cream & Black Polka Dot Print Bikini,Pilcro and The Letterpress Womens Embroidered Floral Distressed Jeans Size 26, (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1992); William L. Sherman, Forced Native Labor in Sixteenth-Century Central AmericaMOTHER | The Rascal Slit Flip Short (Gold Rush),MICHAEL KORS Vintage Brown Leather Handbag Satchel Buckles Pockets Purse Handbag,Christian Louboutin red bottom studded peep toe pumps,The Indian Slave Trade: The Rise of the English Empire in the American South, 1670-1717All Saints Mast Fit Skinny Black Jeans,Michael Kors Layton Watch Rose Gold,, ed. Elizabeth Mancke and Carole Shammas (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005), 75-121. For a recent discussion of Indian population decline, see David S. Jones, "Virgin Soils Revisited," Nike Americana Cut-Out Tie Back One Piece Swimsuit,, 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 703-42.

  10. David Galenson, White Servitude in Colonial America: An Economic AnalysisJournee Collection Womens Stelly Brown Faux Suede Winter Boots Shoes NWT,LIKE NEW!!Kate Spade Colorblock Wright Place Karla Large Tote. USED ONCE!,BCNovaMarie Original Rosa Pocketed Wrap Dress,William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 58 (January 2001): 17-46. Two good microhistories of the transatlantic slave trade are Robert Harms, Anthropology Tabitha leather belt,NWT-Calvin Klein Beaded Trim Shrug,The Two Princes of Calabar: An Eighteenth-Century Atlantic Odyssey (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004).

  11. David Eltis and William G. Clarence-Smith, "White Servitude," Black swim suit with jewels!,Journee Collection Womens Stelly Black Faux Suede Winter Boots Shoes NWT,Valentino leather rockstud pumps, (London: Longman, 1996); Stanley L. Engerman, ed., Terms of Labor: Slavery, Serfdom, and Free Labor (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1999); and Bush, Athleta hooded Athletic dress., (Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2000).

  12. Frank M. Snowden Jr., Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1970); Snowden, Authentic GUCCI GG pattern Tote Bag,New Christian Dior Lady Dior Bag,The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2004); Jean Devisse and Michel Mollat, eds., The Image of the Black in Western Art, vol. 2, NWT Karen Scott Gull Marl Poncho sz L/XL,Michael Kors MK5867 women’s Skylar gold watch,Images of the Medieval Peasantallbirds Runners Blush Pink Wool Athletic Sneakers Sz 10,Philosophy midi faux suede dress,Gucci canvas and leather bag,White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812Rebecca Minkoff EUC baby blue bag with gold detail,Race: The History of an Idea in the West (Washington, D.C.: The Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1996); the essays in "Constructing Race: Differentiating Peoples in the Early Modern World," William and Mary QuarterlyUgg Australia Akadia Shearling Lined Winter Boots,The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2003). The best account is David Brion Davis, "The Origins of Anti-Black Racism in the New World," chap. 3 in Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World SlaveryPolo Ralph Lauren Big Boys Polo Shirt LIMITED EDITION MULTI STRIPE Sz XL NWT,

  13. Champion X Play Station Crash Bandicoot Special Collaboration Mens Hoodie Jacket,Chanel Classique pony-style calfskin handbag, (New York: Norton, 1989); Schwartz, ed., Gap Leather vest L,, 3.

  14. Frank Tannenbaum, Slave and Citizen: The Negro in the AmericasVintage Tod’s Bag,Neither Black Nor White: Slavery and Race Relations in Brazil and the United States (New York: Macmillan, 1971).

  15. MiCHAEL KORS,Black Yankees: The Development of an Afro-American Subculture in Eighteenth-Century New England (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988); Graham Russell Hodges, Root and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1613-1863Anthropologie Women's Camo Fashion Sneakers,Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and LowcountryLEVI'S 501 Skinny Jeans Jive Depths Medium Wash Button Fly Stretch Womens W27L32,Rayban LightRay,EMPORIO ARMANI UNISEX WRISTWATCH,Balmain Leather Tassel,Brand New Michael Kors Tavie Rainbootie,William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 777-808. To this list might be added other forms of aboriginal slavery: see Theda Perdue, Cheap Monday Midi Dress from Urban Outfitters, (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1979); William A. Starna and Ralph Watkins, "Northern Iroquoian Slavery," Oscar De La Renta Pink Label Ruffle Robe, 38 (Winter 1991): 34-57; and Leland Donald, Aboriginal Slavery on the Northwest Coast of North America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).

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Sources

  • COPY - Boys Givenchy Polo Shirt,The Making of New World Slavery: From the Baroque to the Modern, 1492-1800Men’s Nike Fleece Jacket,
  • ❗️NWT❗️| SunLabSwim | one piece. Size L.,NWT Red Haute XS Blue and white tie-dye long sleeve top,Cute strappy spring or fall boot shoes!,
  • 100% ITALIAN MERINO WOOL BABY BLUE SWEATER,Unchained Voices: An Anthology of Black Authors in the English-Speaking World of the Eighteenth CenturyNWT Draper James Powder Room Pouch/Cosmetic Bag - Navy Love Field,
  • Tory Burch Printed Tie-Shoulder Smocked Dress Blue Wallpaper Floral size M,Children of God's Fire: A Documentary History of Black Slavery in BrazilDKNY Vintage Black Wool Two Piece Skirt Blazer Set,
  • Davis, David Brion. Womens black Wilsons leather jacket/coat sz XS 3M thinsulate liner zips out,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003. The first short essay in the volume is a superb introduction to the origins of New World slavery, but it should be complemented by a number of other books by this great historian of New World slavery. I particularly recommend his Beautiful Dansko Clogs.,Broncos QB Club snapback,
  • Davis, Robert C. NWT Pink blush High low maternity dress,SUNDRY Camo Cropped Hoodie, size 0,
  • Valentino Garavani jacket, black, pink logo,A Historical Guide to World Slavery. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. A useful reference work that covers most regions where slavery was important, together with topical examinations of the subject.
  • Ralph Lauren LRL Classic Straight Cropped Jeans,The Rise of African Slavery in the AmericasMint Sweat shirt,
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  • VINTAGE, JEAN PAUL GAULTIER,Macmillan Encyclopedia of World SlaveryMen’s Powder River Ranchers Coat,
  • Finley, M. I. NEW ❄️ Snow White Fisherman Style Afghan w/Fringe Hand Crocheted In White,. Reprint. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980. An exploration of the emergence, functioning, and decline of the slave societies of classical Greece and classical Italy, with comparisons to New World slavery, by the greatest historian of ancient slavery.
  • Fredrickson, George M. Racism: A Short HistoryCircus by Sam Edelman Canyon Sandals Dark Pewter Silver 9.5,
  • Hollister jeans. A variety of washes.,Piazza Sempione Audrey brown wool pant size 10. Contains about 1,000 pictorial images of slavery in Africa and the Americas, arranged thematically.
  • Anthropologie Ryu Camisole,NAOT ashley black patent leather reptile embossed comfort sandals size 37/6,. New York: Hill and Wang, 1993. A good general account by a historian alert to comparative history.
  • Free People Black Vegan Leather and Faux Fur. NWOT,Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. A good survey of slavery and the evolution of racial prejudice in the Islamic world.
  • Miers, Suzanne, and Igor Kopytoff, eds. Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977. The long introduction on slavery as an "institution of marginality" is a classic, and many of the individual essays on particular regions and groups are stimulating.
  • Miller, Joseph. C., ed. Slavery and Slaving in World History: A Bibliography, 1900-1996. 2 vols. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1999. The most comprehensive work of its kind. Annual updates are available in the journal North Face Slim Half Dome Black Pink Hoodie Medium,. The entire bibliography is being prepared for Internet access as a searchable database by the Virginia Center for Digital History at the University of Virginia.
  • Morgan, Philip D. "African Americans." In A Companion to Colonial AmericaColumbia Women's Omni-Heat Heavenly Vest ● Plum Purple ● Medium,
  • Patterson, Orlando. Zara Wide Legs Pants,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982. The best general survey of slave systems in 66 societies, written by a sociologist.
  • NWT Lafayette 148 Morton Denim Culottes Pants 8,American eagle crushed velvet gray tanktop,. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1985. A useful account that focuses on slavery in medieval Europe, the world of Islam, and the rise of the Atlantic slave system.
  • Thornton, John. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1800THEORY Men’s trench Coat sz XL,

Philip D. Morgan is the Sydney and Ruth Lapidus Professor in the American Revolutionary Era at Princeton University. He is the author of Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998) and coeditor (with Sean Hawkins) of Black Experience and the Empire: The Oxford History of the British Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004). He would like to acknowledge in particular the assistance of David Brion Davis, who generously sent him two early chapters from his forthcoming manuscript, "Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World Slavery."

Authored by

  • Philip D. Morgan
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    Princeton, New Jersey