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Africa and the Slave Trade

Arabs and their Muslim allies were the first to make use of large numbers of sub-Saharan black Africans. They developed a long-distance slave trade, which began in the seventh century and lasted into the twentieth. It delivered many millions of Africans across the Sahara Desert, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean to North Africa, the Mediterranean, and Persian Gulf. Although over a much longer period of time and comprising far more females, the number of Africans exported via these trans-Saharan or Indian Ocean slave trades probably equaled, or even outmatched, those of its transatlantic counterpart. The preexistence of these export trades facilitated Atlantic trade: systems of slave marketing were already in place. So numerous were black Africans at certain times and in certain places that they were able to launch massive slave revolts—in 869, for instance, in what is now southern Iraq, where the so-called Zanj (who came from the Swahili Coast and lands further north) worked in large gangs draining marshlands. While the Quran and Islamic law were essentially color-blind and while Muslims enslaved many so-called "white" people, medieval Arabs came to associate the most degrading forms of labor with black slaves. The Arabic word for slave, Large Marc Jacobs crossbody bag,Natasha Denona All Over Glow Shimmer Powder in Light,

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The Atlantic Slave System

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As slavery underwent a resurgence in southern Europe, it gradually disappeared from the northwestern part of the continent. Economic changes help to explain this development, but perhaps more important were cultural constraints. Over the course of the Middle Ages, Christians always committed awful atrocities on each other, but increasingly they avoided enslaving one another. Apparently, a sense of unity had emerged in Christian Europe that effectively barred the enslavement of those deemed fellow Europeans. Christianity's long struggle with Islam no doubt played a major role in this development. That from 1500 to 1800 Muslims enslaved well over a million Western Europeans, many of whom were subsequently ransomed and celebrated as symbols of freedom, was a major element in the growing sense that Europeans should never be slaves. Nevertheless, these so-called free labor nations would develop some of the harshest slave regimes in the Americas. As David Brion Davis puts it, "it is an astonishing paradox that the first nations in the world to free themselves of chattel slavery—such nations as England, France, Holland, and even the Scandinavian states—became leaders during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in supporting plantation colonies based on African slave labor." He likens this divide to a primitive Mason-Dixon line, "drawn somewhere in the Atlantic, separating free soil master-states from tainted slave soil dependencies" (8).

This paradox illumines the unpredictability of events in the Americas. No European nation embarked on New World ventures with the intention of enslaving anyone. They had no blueprint but rather proceeded haphazardly and pragmatically. Their first resort was to forced Indian labor (the encomiendaParker strapless jumpsuit,

Consequently, Europeans faced a huge labor shortage. The Ottoman Turkish empire blocked access to Black Sea or Baltic captives. European nations no longer enslaved Christian prisoners of war. Some dreamers talked of enslaving the poor or other marginal groups, but the practical and principled problems of reviving European slavery were considerable. Another expedient was the transportation of convicts, but their numbers were never sufficient. Temporary bondage—indentured servitude—was the most obvious and most widely used other option, particularly in the early years, but servants, if they survived, eventually became free, and in any case most servants would not travel to the areas where most labor was needed. Thus, almost by default, African slaves proved by far the best available labor supply. Consequently, from 1500 to 1820 almost 9 million African slaves left for the New World, compared to less than 3 million whites. In terms of migration, the New World was more black than white (10).

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New World slavery's other most distinctive aspect was its highly commercial character. While it is true that plantations—that is, large agricultural enterprises, managed for profit, producing a crop for export, with a hierarchically stratified labor organization—existed outside the New World, they reached their apogee there. The economies of scale, the expansion in unit size, the almost exclusive use of black slaves, a highly regimented and commodified labor force, and a system of close management all raised profit levels significantly. Such a productive system placed enormous demands on its laborers. As early as the 1630s a visitor to a Jesuit-owned sugar plantation in Brazil vividly described the unbearable horror of what had transpired: "People the color of the very night, working briskly and moaning at the same time without a moment of peace or rest, whoever sees all the confused and noisy machinery and apparatus of this Babylon, even if they have seen Mt. Etna and Vesuvius will say that this indeed is the image of Hell" (13).

Patterns of New World Slavery

Variations over time and space existed within New World slavery. Three stand out. First, although all New World regions imported more African men than women (thereby in part explaining the harshness of New World slavery because of the policing problems associated with large gangs of men), over time the gender ratio among New World slaves became increasingly balanced. In that regard, the North American slave population is most notable, because, as its number of slave women increased the most rapidly, so it became one of the few self-reproducing slave populations in world history. This early and rapid natural increase explains why North America received such a small percentage of the overall transatlantic slave trade—about 5 percent. Second, North America was also distinctive in being much less tolerant of racial intermixture than Latin America or the Caribbean. Once again demography—particularly the ratio of white men to white women (more balanced in North America than in Latin America and the Caribbean) and the availability of black women—was a crucial part of the explanation, but also important were the role of the Church and cultural mores, based as much in Old World patterns of racial coexistence or segregation. The Spanish had mixed with Muslims for centuries; the English had created a Pale in their settlement of Ireland. Only in North America did the extremely arbitrary concept of "Negro"—denoting anyone with allegedly visible African ancestry—assume such a marked stigma. Third, the chances of gaining freedom varied from one society to the next. Except for the period surrounding the American Revolution, the North American colonies, and later the states, imposed the severest restrictions on the chances of a slave becoming free. Again, demography—the proportions of whites and blacks in the population—has some explanatory power as do economic and cultural forces (14).

North American slavery itself was hardly of a piece. The range encompasses New England's intimate "family slavery"; the Mid-Atlantic's mixed forms of slavery and servitude; the Chesapeake's patriarchal, small plantation, mixed farming and tobacco, heavily native-born form of slavery; and the low country's impersonal, large plantation, rice and indigo, more heavily African system of slavery. In addition, various borderland forms existed: from a fluid world of interracial alliances in the Lower Mississippi Valley to a flexible one of fugitives and ex-slaves in Spanish Florida to one in which Indian slaves were transformed from symbols of alliance into commodities of exchange in French Canada (15).

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  1. Dooney & Bourke leather crossbody purse,The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-bellum South (New York: Knopf, 1956).

  2. Avanti New York Cropped Blazer Jacket,International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, ed. David L. Sills and Robert King Merton (New York: Macmillan, 1968), 14: 307-13; Finley, Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology, reprint (Hammondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980), 9, 96, 102, 111, 113-14; Keith Hopkins, Kate Spade Ice Blue Purse,Ray ban RB2132 new wayfarer,Pandora shooting star necklace, 138 (1993): 3-27; Keith Bradley, Slavery and Society at RomeNudist Espadrille by Stuart Weitzman,Burberry • Hodgenson House Blue Check Espadrilles Shoes,Area Cropped Chunky Cable Knit Sweater,The Problem of Slavery in Western CultureRed stone lift ring,Pink floral crop top with back tie,Birmingham Bulls ECHL Vintage Sewn Name Number Hockey Jersey,

  3. Ralph A. Austen, "The Trans-Saharan Slave Trade: A Tentative Census," NWT Trina Turk Melamine Set of 4 Plates Unbreakable, Lightweight dinner plates,, ed. Henry A. Gemery and Jan S. Hogendorn (New York: Academic Press, 1979), 23-76; Austen, "The Mediterranean Islamic Slave Trade out of Africa: A Tentative Census," MAGGIE SOTTERO White Pleated Diaphanous Beaded Sleeveless Wedding Gown w/ Train,Alexander Wang Rose Gold Devon Espadrilles,Encyclopedia of Africa South of the SaharaAir Jordan Statue 9’s,International Journal of African Historical Studies 10 (1977): 443-61; Alexandre Popovic, The Revolt of African Slaves in Iraq in the IIIrd-IXth CenturyGold plated rose earrings,NWT Kate spade New York market street collection soup cereal bowl,Wedding dress silk,Kid‘s hat and scarf set, (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998); Shaun E. Marmon, ed., Club Monaco Daphines One Shouler Top Navy Blue and White Size Small, (Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener, 1998); Minra Tora and John Edward Philips, eds., Slave Elites in the Middle East and Africa: A Comparative StudyVTG Desert Rose 11” Dinner Plate,The African Diaspora in the Mediterranean Lands of IslamTeal Rachel Pally Gown,Slavery on the Frontiers of IslamNWT lioness Porto Cervo tie up crop top,

  4. Suzanne Miers and Igor Kopytoff, eds., Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological PerspectivesRavens Jersey #29 Forsett signed,NWT TarHong Blue Navy Vintage Speckle Dinner Plate Tray Set of 4 Plates, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990); John Thornton, SP Hoop Earrings brand new,White House Black Market Suit Combo,Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in AfricaLafayette 148 New York Cashmere Jacket,

  5. Adidas Continental 80 x Her London Studio,Archivum latinitatis medii aeviINDAH Bean Romper,L'Esclavage dans l'Europe médiévale, vol. 1, Pénisule Ibérique—France (Bruges: De Tempel, 1955); vol. 2, Italie, Colonies Italiennes du Levant, Levant Latin, Empire Bysantin (Ghent: 1977); and Verlinden, The Beginnings of Modern Colonization: Eleven Essays with an IntroductionSirius XM Stratus 6 SDSV6V1 Satellite Radio Receiver w/ Vehicle Kit New Open Box,Slavery and Society in Medieval ScandinaviaIced Out Gold or Silver Miami Thorns Cuban Link Bracelet,NWT LUV AJ PAVE ANTOINETTE GOLD HUGGIES, (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 1995); Steven Epstein, Speaking of Slavery: Color, Ethnicity, and Human Bondage in Italy (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2001); and Sally McKee, "Inherited Status and Slavery in Late Medieval Italy and Venetian Crete," Golden State Warriors 2017 NBA China Games Tee,JOSEPH Chunky Wool Cable Knit Turtleneck Sweater,

  6. Chicago Blackhawks Black/Red Toews 19 Size CCM 50,Motel Rocks JUNGLE ROSE MESH GANIDA CROP TOP, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982); Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440-1870 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997), 21-24, 48-86.

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  9. New Yellow Gold Plated Diamond Round Hoop Earrings,The Early Spanish MainLululemon Run Times Shorts Dusty Mauve Black Size 12 New,Prom Dress!! used only once, (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1992); William L. Sherman, Forced Native Labor in Sixteenth-Century Central AmericaNatural Citrine gemstone ring,Orange OVO shirt,Washed S/S Red Supreme Shirt,The Indian Slave Trade: The Rise of the English Empire in the American South, 1670-1717Emerald cut CZ silver ring,Emereica,, ed. Elizabeth Mancke and Carole Shammas (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005), 75-121. For a recent discussion of Indian population decline, see David S. Jones, "Virgin Soils Revisited," Star of David Ring,, 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 703-42.

  10. David Galenson, White Servitude in Colonial America: An Economic AnalysisNATORI TRULY SMOOTH STRAPLESS BRA Black 34DDD NWT Retail ,Cactus Jack x McDonalds Order Here T-shirt,Huge 18K plated gold Hoop Earrings A Pair set,William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 58 (January 2001): 17-46. Two good microhistories of the transatlantic slave trade are Robert Harms, NIB Foxybae RoseGold25MM Curling Wand was ,Prima Donna 36D Full Cup Semi-Sheer Bra Coral Tan Design Rhinestone Underwire,The Two Princes of Calabar: An Eighteenth-Century Atlantic Odyssey (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004).

  11. David Eltis and William G. Clarence-Smith, "White Servitude," Brooks Adrenaline GTS 20 Gray Mesh Running Sneakers 11 Wide,Lauren Ralph Lauren LXVII BROWN LEATHER CROSSBODY BAG 9"L x 9.5"T,Handmade Lapis and Silver Bead Crochet Necklace, (London: Longman, 1996); Stanley L. Engerman, ed., Terms of Labor: Slavery, Serfdom, and Free Labor (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1999); and Bush, NWT Cami NYC Jean Canvas Jacket Peony, (Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2000).

  12. Frank M. Snowden Jr., Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1970); Snowden, NWoT Ray-Ban Sunglasses,NWT Madewell Women's Size 25 Skinny Flare High Rise Jeans Blue Stretch pockets,The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2004); Jean Devisse and Michel Mollat, eds., The Image of the Black in Western Art, vol. 2, L'ange 32MM titanium curling wand, blush-rose,Panache Tango balconnet bra,Images of the Medieval PeasantYellow Afghan Kuchi Massive Ring,Ray-ban Aviator Sunglasses gold/light blue,True Religion Vintage Emily Denim Jacket,White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812Magnolia “Joanna’s favorite mini crossbody”,Race: The History of an Idea in the West (Washington, D.C.: The Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1996); the essays in "Constructing Race: Differentiating Peoples in the Early Modern World," William and Mary QuarterlyAdidas JEEP Juventus Authentic Soccer Jersey 20/21 Heat Dry FN1007 Mens 0,The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2003). The best account is David Brion Davis, "The Origins of Anti-Black Racism in the New World," chap. 3 in Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World SlaveryPrada Milano Canvas Espadrilles,

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  14. Frank Tannenbaum, Slave and Citizen: The Negro in the Americasair jordan 6 infared white size 11,Neither Black Nor White: Slavery and Race Relations in Brazil and the United States (New York: Macmillan, 1971).

  15. Nadri Pave Pear Drop Clip-On Earrings,Black Yankees: The Development of an Afro-American Subculture in Eighteenth-Century New England (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988); Graham Russell Hodges, Root and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1613-1863Nike Tokyo T Shirt,Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and LowcountrySilpada Multistone Double Strand Bracelet,Rag & Bone Womens Jeans High Rise Ankle Skinny Black Slit Denim Cropped Sz 28,Wacoal Halo Underwire Seamless Bra Black Lace 851205 Size 32DD,Free People x Lee High Rise A-Line Jeans 26 Wide Leg,COPYA Fine Line BROTHERS CHEROKEE CROPPED TEE,William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 777-808. To this list might be added other forms of aboriginal slavery: see Theda Perdue, Donut Crossbody Purse, (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1979); William A. Starna and Ralph Watkins, "Northern Iroquoian Slavery," NWT Hudson Denim Jean Jacket Size Small/Medium S/M, 38 (Winter 1991): 34-57; and Leland Donald, Aboriginal Slavery on the Northwest Coast of North America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).

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  • Davis, David Brion. Handmade Lace cage and flower hairpiece,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003. The first short essay in the volume is a superb introduction to the origins of New World slavery, but it should be complemented by a number of other books by this great historian of New World slavery. I particularly recommend his Handmade Blue and Silver Bead Crochet Necklace,Two #PRAVANA Blonde wand straighteners ✨,
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  • Gucci Large lens teal sunglasses,A Historical Guide to World Slavery. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. A useful reference work that covers most regions where slavery was important, together with topical examinations of the subject.
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  • Finley, M. I. Vintage Starter White Sox Cooperstown Jersey,. Reprint. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980. An exploration of the emergence, functioning, and decline of the slave societies of classical Greece and classical Italy, with comparisons to New World slavery, by the greatest historian of ancient slavery.
  • Fredrickson, George M. Racism: A Short HistoryNike Women's Court Legacy Canvas Sneakers Slip On PT Shoes Size 8.5,
  • Limited Edition Autographed Mr. Beast shirt (New),Travis Scott x Mcdonalds “Jack Smile Tee” New Sz L. Contains about 1,000 pictorial images of slavery in Africa and the Americas, arranged thematically.
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  • Miers, Suzanne, and Igor Kopytoff, eds. Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977. The long introduction on slavery as an "institution of marginality" is a classic, and many of the individual essays on particular regions and groups are stimulating.
  • Miller, Joseph. C., ed. Slavery and Slaving in World History: A Bibliography, 1900-1996. 2 vols. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1999. The most comprehensive work of its kind. Annual updates are available in the journal Vintage ACID WASH~HIGH WAIST 80s Jeans,. The entire bibliography is being prepared for Internet access as a searchable database by the Virginia Center for Digital History at the University of Virginia.
  • Morgan, Philip D. "African Americans." In A Companion to Colonial AmericaNEW WITH TAGS Teri Jon Formal Silk Dress / Size 12,
  • Patterson, Orlando. LL Bean Red Wool/Cashmere Blend Cardigan Sweater Size Large,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982. The best general survey of slave systems in 66 societies, written by a sociologist.
  • Halston 3 Button Blazer Jacket,Loewe unisex sunglasses,. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1985. A useful account that focuses on slavery in medieval Europe, the world of Islam, and the rise of the Atlantic slave system.
  • Thornton, John. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1800Kendra Scott NWT Monique Lariat Necklace-Ivory,

Philip D. Morgan is the Sydney and Ruth Lapidus Professor in the American Revolutionary Era at Princeton University. He is the author of Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998) and coeditor (with Sean Hawkins) of Black Experience and the Empire: The Oxford History of the British Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004). He would like to acknowledge in particular the assistance of David Brion Davis, who generously sent him two early chapters from his forthcoming manuscript, "Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World Slavery."

Authored by

  • Philip D. Morgan
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    Princeton, New Jersey