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Africa and the Slave Trade

Arabs and their Muslim allies were the first to make use of large numbers of sub-Saharan black Africans. They developed a long-distance slave trade, which began in the seventh century and lasted into the twentieth. It delivered many millions of Africans across the Sahara Desert, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean to North Africa, the Mediterranean, and Persian Gulf. Although over a much longer period of time and comprising far more females, the number of Africans exported via these trans-Saharan or Indian Ocean slave trades probably equaled, or even outmatched, those of its transatlantic counterpart. The preexistence of these export trades facilitated Atlantic trade: systems of slave marketing were already in place. So numerous were black Africans at certain times and in certain places that they were able to launch massive slave revolts—in 869, for instance, in what is now southern Iraq, where the so-called Zanj (who came from the Swahili Coast and lands further north) worked in large gangs draining marshlands. While the Quran and Islamic law were essentially color-blind and while Muslims enslaved many so-called "white" people, medieval Arabs came to associate the most degrading forms of labor with black slaves. The Arabic word for slave, Nwt American rag utility cargo jacket olive green,Blank NYC Vintage High Rise Denim Shorts in White,

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The Atlantic Slave System

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As slavery underwent a resurgence in southern Europe, it gradually disappeared from the northwestern part of the continent. Economic changes help to explain this development, but perhaps more important were cultural constraints. Over the course of the Middle Ages, Christians always committed awful atrocities on each other, but increasingly they avoided enslaving one another. Apparently, a sense of unity had emerged in Christian Europe that effectively barred the enslavement of those deemed fellow Europeans. Christianity's long struggle with Islam no doubt played a major role in this development. That from 1500 to 1800 Muslims enslaved well over a million Western Europeans, many of whom were subsequently ransomed and celebrated as symbols of freedom, was a major element in the growing sense that Europeans should never be slaves. Nevertheless, these so-called free labor nations would develop some of the harshest slave regimes in the Americas. As David Brion Davis puts it, "it is an astonishing paradox that the first nations in the world to free themselves of chattel slavery—such nations as England, France, Holland, and even the Scandinavian states—became leaders during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in supporting plantation colonies based on African slave labor." He likens this divide to a primitive Mason-Dixon line, "drawn somewhere in the Atlantic, separating free soil master-states from tainted slave soil dependencies" (8).

This paradox illumines the unpredictability of events in the Americas. No European nation embarked on New World ventures with the intention of enslaving anyone. They had no blueprint but rather proceeded haphazardly and pragmatically. Their first resort was to forced Indian labor (the encomiendaRich red leather Kate Spade satchel,

Consequently, Europeans faced a huge labor shortage. The Ottoman Turkish empire blocked access to Black Sea or Baltic captives. European nations no longer enslaved Christian prisoners of war. Some dreamers talked of enslaving the poor or other marginal groups, but the practical and principled problems of reviving European slavery were considerable. Another expedient was the transportation of convicts, but their numbers were never sufficient. Temporary bondage—indentured servitude—was the most obvious and most widely used other option, particularly in the early years, but servants, if they survived, eventually became free, and in any case most servants would not travel to the areas where most labor was needed. Thus, almost by default, African slaves proved by far the best available labor supply. Consequently, from 1500 to 1820 almost 9 million African slaves left for the New World, compared to less than 3 million whites. In terms of migration, the New World was more black than white (10).

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New World slavery's other most distinctive aspect was its highly commercial character. While it is true that plantations—that is, large agricultural enterprises, managed for profit, producing a crop for export, with a hierarchically stratified labor organization—existed outside the New World, they reached their apogee there. The economies of scale, the expansion in unit size, the almost exclusive use of black slaves, a highly regimented and commodified labor force, and a system of close management all raised profit levels significantly. Such a productive system placed enormous demands on its laborers. As early as the 1630s a visitor to a Jesuit-owned sugar plantation in Brazil vividly described the unbearable horror of what had transpired: "People the color of the very night, working briskly and moaning at the same time without a moment of peace or rest, whoever sees all the confused and noisy machinery and apparatus of this Babylon, even if they have seen Mt. Etna and Vesuvius will say that this indeed is the image of Hell" (13).

Patterns of New World Slavery

Variations over time and space existed within New World slavery. Three stand out. First, although all New World regions imported more African men than women (thereby in part explaining the harshness of New World slavery because of the policing problems associated with large gangs of men), over time the gender ratio among New World slaves became increasingly balanced. In that regard, the North American slave population is most notable, because, as its number of slave women increased the most rapidly, so it became one of the few self-reproducing slave populations in world history. This early and rapid natural increase explains why North America received such a small percentage of the overall transatlantic slave trade—about 5 percent. Second, North America was also distinctive in being much less tolerant of racial intermixture than Latin America or the Caribbean. Once again demography—particularly the ratio of white men to white women (more balanced in North America than in Latin America and the Caribbean) and the availability of black women—was a crucial part of the explanation, but also important were the role of the Church and cultural mores, based as much in Old World patterns of racial coexistence or segregation. The Spanish had mixed with Muslims for centuries; the English had created a Pale in their settlement of Ireland. Only in North America did the extremely arbitrary concept of "Negro"—denoting anyone with allegedly visible African ancestry—assume such a marked stigma. Third, the chances of gaining freedom varied from one society to the next. Except for the period surrounding the American Revolution, the North American colonies, and later the states, imposed the severest restrictions on the chances of a slave becoming free. Again, demography—the proportions of whites and blacks in the population—has some explanatory power as do economic and cultural forces (14).

North American slavery itself was hardly of a piece. The range encompasses New England's intimate "family slavery"; the Mid-Atlantic's mixed forms of slavery and servitude; the Chesapeake's patriarchal, small plantation, mixed farming and tobacco, heavily native-born form of slavery; and the low country's impersonal, large plantation, rice and indigo, more heavily African system of slavery. In addition, various borderland forms existed: from a fluid world of interracial alliances in the Lower Mississippi Valley to a flexible one of fugitives and ex-slaves in Spanish Florida to one in which Indian slaves were transformed from symbols of alliance into commodities of exchange in French Canada (15).

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  1. Men’s Timberland boots.,The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-bellum South (New York: Knopf, 1956).

  2. JUDITH MARCH Navy Maxi Dress White Chevron Lace Medium,International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, ed. David L. Sills and Robert King Merton (New York: Macmillan, 1968), 14: 307-13; Finley, Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology, reprint (Hammondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980), 9, 96, 102, 111, 113-14; Keith Hopkins, Vintage Western Theme Tooled Leather Handbag, Purse, Bag, Tan/Brown,NWT Torrid animal print hot pink cardigan size 5,Young Modes by Claudia Young 2 Piece Set Suit, 138 (1993): 3-27; Keith Bradley, Slavery and Society at RomeAmerican Eagle Hooded Denim Jean Hybrid Trucker Jacket Cotton Mens size XL,1901 Cropped Striped Jumpsuit, M,David Yurkman Classic 43.5 chronograph watch,The Problem of Slavery in Western CultureApiece Apart cardigan sweater,Palmer / Harding dress w/ bell sleeves,NEW TALENTLESS MID-CENTURY MERLOT BURGUNDY WOMEN'S HOODIE,

  3. Ralph A. Austen, "The Trans-Saharan Slave Trade: A Tentative Census," NIKE FLORAL PRINT PATTERN WOMENS TRACK JACKET SIZE XL FULL ZIP BLUE BLACK PINK N,, ed. Henry A. Gemery and Jan S. Hogendorn (New York: Academic Press, 1979), 23-76; Austen, "The Mediterranean Islamic Slave Trade out of Africa: A Tentative Census," CAT BROOCH MEXICO 925 STERLING MODERNIST BROOCH,Vera Bradley clutch Wallet purple gold quilted fabric bright design wrist strap,Encyclopedia of Africa South of the SaharaNEW Hudson River Charcoal gray quarter zip,International Journal of African Historical Studies 10 (1977): 443-61; Alexandre Popovic, The Revolt of African Slaves in Iraq in the IIIrd-IXth Centuryx2 Sealed Nielsen-Massey Pure Vanilla Extract exp 6/2023,Like new DKNY puffer jacket with detach fur hood,Lauren Ralph Lauren Euro Graydon Bold Stripe Shams MSRP0 Dune Fog Blue,Vintage Nolan Miller bird pin glamour collection Swarovski Signed, (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998); Shaun E. Marmon, ed., Hinged Gold Owl Retro Earrings, (Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener, 1998); Minra Tora and John Edward Philips, eds., Slave Elites in the Middle East and Africa: A Comparative StudyVintage 90’s Calvin Klein High Rise Denim Mom Shorts,The African Diaspora in the Mediterranean Lands of IslamTHRESHOLD KING Percale Paisley Duvet Cover Set Plum,Slavery on the Frontiers of IslamRag and Bone long knit vest.,

  4. Suzanne Miers and Igor Kopytoff, eds., Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives2 piece,Victoria's Secret PINK Full Zip Up Hoodie, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990); John Thornton, J.crew navy tuxedo jumpsuit,Purple Louis Vuitton Purse and Wallet,Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in AfricaVintage Venetian Glass Beaded Necklace,

  5. CHANEL White Lambskin Quilted XL Tote SHW,Archivum latinitatis medii aeviDelman green satin bow sandal,L'Esclavage dans l'Europe médiévale, vol. 1, Pénisule Ibérique—France (Bruges: De Tempel, 1955); vol. 2, Italie, Colonies Italiennes du Levant, Levant Latin, Empire Bysantin (Ghent: 1977); and Verlinden, The Beginnings of Modern Colonization: Eleven Essays with an IntroductionNWT LICENSED DC Comics Super Girl Costume,Slavery and Society in Medieval ScandinaviaNAOT YARROW OILY DUNE NUBUCK LEATHER GHILLIE LACE UP WEDGE SANDAL,Nina Ricci Paris cowrie shell brooch, (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 1995); Steven Epstein, Speaking of Slavery: Color, Ethnicity, and Human Bondage in Italy (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2001); and Sally McKee, "Inherited Status and Slavery in Late Medieval Italy and Venetian Crete," LOFT Skinny Frayed Cuff Denim Shorts Sz 2,Pampered Chef Rectangular Stoneware Baker,

  6. NWT Rare Nike Blazer Rebel Deep Red W,Circus Hotel Knit Sweater, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982); Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440-1870 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997), 21-24, 48-86.

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  8. nordstrom medium zip up sweater,American Historical ReviewManolo Blahnik Brown Leather Flip Flops Sandals Size 37,*Brand New* Cartier XL Watch, (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003), 14; Robert C. Davis, Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500-1800 (Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave MacMillan, 2003). For more on the development of freedom and slavery, see David Eltis, The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), and Sue Peabody, There Are No Slaves in France: The Political Culture of Race and Slavery in the Ancien RégimeSpring Step L’Artiste Shelly Sandal With Dainty Roses Size 37,

  9. Zhelaine handmade sterling silver amethyst earring,The Early Spanish MainVintage Sequin Beaded Handbag/Clutch Gold Clasp & Handle OS K. Gimbel Hong Kong,Matching 70’s skirt set ILGWU, (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1992); William L. Sherman, Forced Native Labor in Sixteenth-Century Central AmericaChloe Charlotte Tote Bag/Tan with Navy Trim,New Leona Vintage Fashion Waist Bag Black,Vintage 90s LAUNDRY by shelli segal velvet dress with rhinestone embellishments,The Indian Slave Trade: The Rise of the English Empire in the American South, 1670-1717NEW Eileen Fisher Joy Knotted Zip Sandals,Stella & Dot Gold and White Metallic Sequined Clutch,, ed. Elizabeth Mancke and Carole Shammas (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005), 75-121. For a recent discussion of Indian population decline, see David S. Jones, "Virgin Soils Revisited," High waisted Skirt and Vest Set,, 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 703-42.

  10. David Galenson, White Servitude in Colonial America: An Economic AnalysisRolex Air-king 14000M 2006 z series,Free People Palm Springs Leaf Print Shorts NWOT,Culpos x INC Women's Black Rhinestone Cutout Hoodi,William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 58 (January 2001): 17-46. Two good microhistories of the transatlantic slave trade are Robert Harms, VTG 1970s Skirt Vest Pattern Vogue 2682 Pierre Cardin B31.5,Hunter Green Coach purse,The Two Princes of Calabar: An Eighteenth-Century Atlantic Odyssey (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004).

  11. David Eltis and William G. Clarence-Smith, "White Servitude," Marc by Marc Jacobs Watch,Zara Linen Gray Jumpsuit,Gorgeous Double Hearts Purple Crystal Necklace, (London: Longman, 1996); Stanley L. Engerman, ed., Terms of Labor: Slavery, Serfdom, and Free Labor (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1999); and Bush, Carolina Herrera silk jacquard contemporary print, (Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2000).

  12. Frank M. Snowden Jr., Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1970); Snowden, New Caslon Turtleneck Tunic Sweater Size S,Nike Crewneck Sweatshirt pockets Size XL Men's Advance 15 Black,The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2004); Jean Devisse and Michel Mollat, eds., The Image of the Black in Western Art, vol. 2, Lot of Glasbake Vintage Glass Casserole Dishes,ROTHY'S,Images of the Medieval PeasantCoach Boxed Corner Zip Wristlet With Signature Khaki with Blossom Pink Accents,NWT Large Crown King Pin Brooch White Rhinestone,Patagonia Uprisal Crew Neck Sweatshirt Size Large,White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812Lace two piece set in mauve,Race: The History of an Idea in the West (Washington, D.C.: The Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1996); the essays in "Constructing Race: Differentiating Peoples in the Early Modern World," William and Mary QuarterlyBeautiful Leather Italian Hand Tooled Floral Clutch Purse/Wallet Ivory & Gold,The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2003). The best account is David Brion Davis, "The Origins of Anti-Black Racism in the New World," chap. 3 in Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World SlaveryApt 9 lightweight military style utility jacket green stretch small,

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  14. Frank Tannenbaum, Slave and Citizen: The Negro in the AmericasShort Black Bubble Coat,Neither Black Nor White: Slavery and Race Relations in Brazil and the United States (New York: Macmillan, 1971).

  15. Ellen Tracy Leather Snap Front Jacket,Black Yankees: The Development of an Afro-American Subculture in Eighteenth-Century New England (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988); Graham Russell Hodges, Root and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1613-1863White + Warren Cashmere Micro Cardigan,Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and LowcountryWomen’s Pink Nike Shoes Size 8,Nha khanh Kae Dress in Size 2,Amazing vintage Jumbo Chanel Tote,VTG 60S Faux Fur Hat,IRO Venati sweater,William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 777-808. To this list might be added other forms of aboriginal slavery: see Theda Perdue, New LULU'S NAVY BLUE AND WHITE STRIPED WIDE-LEG JUMPSUIT L Large NWT, (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1979); William A. Starna and Ralph Watkins, "Northern Iroquoian Slavery," Tods leather brown suede loafers, 38 (Winter 1991): 34-57; and Leland Donald, Aboriginal Slavery on the Northwest Coast of North America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).

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  • Davis, David Brion. Vintage Pyrex Flamingo Pink Baking Dish,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003. The first short essay in the volume is a superb introduction to the origins of New World slavery, but it should be complemented by a number of other books by this great historian of New World slavery. I particularly recommend his NWT American Eagle Women’s Size 2 Jean Shorts,TED BAKER Belvas Silver Crystal Blossom Brooch,
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  • Suit fabulous purple and cream knitted suit,A Historical Guide to World Slavery. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. A useful reference work that covers most regions where slavery was important, together with topical examinations of the subject.
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  • Finley, M. I. Large Michael Kors zippered tote with dust bag,. Reprint. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980. An exploration of the emergence, functioning, and decline of the slave societies of classical Greece and classical Italy, with comparisons to New World slavery, by the greatest historian of ancient slavery.
  • Fredrickson, George M. Racism: A Short HistoryShow Me Your Mumu Flamingo Romper, size small,
  • J Crew Midnight Floral Silk Jumpsuit,FS Originals Vintage Leather Clutch. Contains about 1,000 pictorial images of slavery in Africa and the Americas, arranged thematically.
  • Vintage crystal brooch aurora borealis floral pin AB rhinestones flower prism,crop top with a bag skirt from fashion nova,. New York: Hill and Wang, 1993. A good general account by a historian alert to comparative history.
  • new* MENS size SMALL Golden State WARRIORS jacket,Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. A good survey of slavery and the evolution of racial prejudice in the Islamic world.
  • Miers, Suzanne, and Igor Kopytoff, eds. Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977. The long introduction on slavery as an "institution of marginality" is a classic, and many of the individual essays on particular regions and groups are stimulating.
  • Miller, Joseph. C., ed. Slavery and Slaving in World History: A Bibliography, 1900-1996. 2 vols. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1999. The most comprehensive work of its kind. Annual updates are available in the journal ⚪️ Marc Jacobs Watch ⚪️,. The entire bibliography is being prepared for Internet access as a searchable database by the Virginia Center for Digital History at the University of Virginia.
  • Morgan, Philip D. "African Americans." In A Companion to Colonial AmericaMatching Pink Fringe Set,
  • Patterson, Orlando. Betsey Johnson XO Talli Wristlet Pouch,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982. The best general survey of slave systems in 66 societies, written by a sociologist.
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  • Thornton, John. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1800TUPPERWARE rectangular cake holder,

Philip D. Morgan is the Sydney and Ruth Lapidus Professor in the American Revolutionary Era at Princeton University. He is the author of Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998) and coeditor (with Sean Hawkins) of Black Experience and the Empire: The Oxford History of the British Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004). He would like to acknowledge in particular the assistance of David Brion Davis, who generously sent him two early chapters from his forthcoming manuscript, "Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World Slavery."

Authored by

  • Philip D. Morgan
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    Princeton, New Jersey