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Africa and the Slave Trade

Arabs and their Muslim allies were the first to make use of large numbers of sub-Saharan black Africans. They developed a long-distance slave trade, which began in the seventh century and lasted into the twentieth. It delivered many millions of Africans across the Sahara Desert, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean to North Africa, the Mediterranean, and Persian Gulf. Although over a much longer period of time and comprising far more females, the number of Africans exported via these trans-Saharan or Indian Ocean slave trades probably equaled, or even outmatched, those of its transatlantic counterpart. The preexistence of these export trades facilitated Atlantic trade: systems of slave marketing were already in place. So numerous were black Africans at certain times and in certain places that they were able to launch massive slave revolts—in 869, for instance, in what is now southern Iraq, where the so-called Zanj (who came from the Swahili Coast and lands further north) worked in large gangs draining marshlands. While the Quran and Islamic law were essentially color-blind and while Muslims enslaved many so-called "white" people, medieval Arabs came to associate the most degrading forms of labor with black slaves. The Arabic word for slave, Vintage 70s Psychedelic Maxi Caftan Lounge House Dress Medium Floral Neon Pink,Vintage malachite and sterling silver necklace,

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The Atlantic Slave System

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As slavery underwent a resurgence in southern Europe, it gradually disappeared from the northwestern part of the continent. Economic changes help to explain this development, but perhaps more important were cultural constraints. Over the course of the Middle Ages, Christians always committed awful atrocities on each other, but increasingly they avoided enslaving one another. Apparently, a sense of unity had emerged in Christian Europe that effectively barred the enslavement of those deemed fellow Europeans. Christianity's long struggle with Islam no doubt played a major role in this development. That from 1500 to 1800 Muslims enslaved well over a million Western Europeans, many of whom were subsequently ransomed and celebrated as symbols of freedom, was a major element in the growing sense that Europeans should never be slaves. Nevertheless, these so-called free labor nations would develop some of the harshest slave regimes in the Americas. As David Brion Davis puts it, "it is an astonishing paradox that the first nations in the world to free themselves of chattel slavery—such nations as England, France, Holland, and even the Scandinavian states—became leaders during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in supporting plantation colonies based on African slave labor." He likens this divide to a primitive Mason-Dixon line, "drawn somewhere in the Atlantic, separating free soil master-states from tainted slave soil dependencies" (8).

This paradox illumines the unpredictability of events in the Americas. No European nation embarked on New World ventures with the intention of enslaving anyone. They had no blueprint but rather proceeded haphazardly and pragmatically. Their first resort was to forced Indian labor (the encomiendaNWT Free People Stay AwhileFloral Ruffle Sheer Maxi Dress,

Consequently, Europeans faced a huge labor shortage. The Ottoman Turkish empire blocked access to Black Sea or Baltic captives. European nations no longer enslaved Christian prisoners of war. Some dreamers talked of enslaving the poor or other marginal groups, but the practical and principled problems of reviving European slavery were considerable. Another expedient was the transportation of convicts, but their numbers were never sufficient. Temporary bondage—indentured servitude—was the most obvious and most widely used other option, particularly in the early years, but servants, if they survived, eventually became free, and in any case most servants would not travel to the areas where most labor was needed. Thus, almost by default, African slaves proved by far the best available labor supply. Consequently, from 1500 to 1820 almost 9 million African slaves left for the New World, compared to less than 3 million whites. In terms of migration, the New World was more black than white (10).

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New World slavery's other most distinctive aspect was its highly commercial character. While it is true that plantations—that is, large agricultural enterprises, managed for profit, producing a crop for export, with a hierarchically stratified labor organization—existed outside the New World, they reached their apogee there. The economies of scale, the expansion in unit size, the almost exclusive use of black slaves, a highly regimented and commodified labor force, and a system of close management all raised profit levels significantly. Such a productive system placed enormous demands on its laborers. As early as the 1630s a visitor to a Jesuit-owned sugar plantation in Brazil vividly described the unbearable horror of what had transpired: "People the color of the very night, working briskly and moaning at the same time without a moment of peace or rest, whoever sees all the confused and noisy machinery and apparatus of this Babylon, even if they have seen Mt. Etna and Vesuvius will say that this indeed is the image of Hell" (13).

Patterns of New World Slavery

Variations over time and space existed within New World slavery. Three stand out. First, although all New World regions imported more African men than women (thereby in part explaining the harshness of New World slavery because of the policing problems associated with large gangs of men), over time the gender ratio among New World slaves became increasingly balanced. In that regard, the North American slave population is most notable, because, as its number of slave women increased the most rapidly, so it became one of the few self-reproducing slave populations in world history. This early and rapid natural increase explains why North America received such a small percentage of the overall transatlantic slave trade—about 5 percent. Second, North America was also distinctive in being much less tolerant of racial intermixture than Latin America or the Caribbean. Once again demography—particularly the ratio of white men to white women (more balanced in North America than in Latin America and the Caribbean) and the availability of black women—was a crucial part of the explanation, but also important were the role of the Church and cultural mores, based as much in Old World patterns of racial coexistence or segregation. The Spanish had mixed with Muslims for centuries; the English had created a Pale in their settlement of Ireland. Only in North America did the extremely arbitrary concept of "Negro"—denoting anyone with allegedly visible African ancestry—assume such a marked stigma. Third, the chances of gaining freedom varied from one society to the next. Except for the period surrounding the American Revolution, the North American colonies, and later the states, imposed the severest restrictions on the chances of a slave becoming free. Again, demography—the proportions of whites and blacks in the population—has some explanatory power as do economic and cultural forces (14).

North American slavery itself was hardly of a piece. The range encompasses New England's intimate "family slavery"; the Mid-Atlantic's mixed forms of slavery and servitude; the Chesapeake's patriarchal, small plantation, mixed farming and tobacco, heavily native-born form of slavery; and the low country's impersonal, large plantation, rice and indigo, more heavily African system of slavery. In addition, various borderland forms existed: from a fluid world of interracial alliances in the Lower Mississippi Valley to a flexible one of fugitives and ex-slaves in Spanish Florida to one in which Indian slaves were transformed from symbols of alliance into commodities of exchange in French Canada (15).

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  1. Danexx Blue & Plaid Rain/Snowboots Vintage Canada Shearling Lined Boots Sz 9,The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-bellum South (New York: Knopf, 1956).

  2. New 925 Silver Stud Earrings Mystic Topaz,International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, ed. David L. Sills and Robert King Merton (New York: Macmillan, 1968), 14: 307-13; Finley, Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology, reprint (Hammondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980), 9, 96, 102, 111, 113-14; Keith Hopkins, Badgley Mischka Carey Jeweled Leather Sandals Sz 6,Aquatalia Julia Cream Crinkle Leather Medium Width Womens Penny Loafers,Travis Mathew Men's Size 34 Multicolor Plaid Golf, 138 (1993): 3-27; Keith Bradley, Slavery and Society at RomeNike Flex Contact Running Shoes Size 8,NEW Clarks 7 Black Suede Clarkdale Clad Tall Boot,NWT Claver sweater hooded full zip back pink with owl size 12 months,The Problem of Slavery in Western CultureIRO A-Line Dress Size 40 / L Cut Out Wrap Effect Peplum Detail V Neck,Kenneth Cole straight leg jeans dark wash distressed size 33x32 EUC,Puma Womens Fenty Avid White Fitness Performance Trainers Sneakers Shoes Used,

  3. Ralph A. Austen, "The Trans-Saharan Slave Trade: A Tentative Census," GORGEOUS NWT! MAXX STUDIO DRESS Sz M,, ed. Henry A. Gemery and Jan S. Hogendorn (New York: Academic Press, 1979), 23-76; Austen, "The Mediterranean Islamic Slave Trade out of Africa: A Tentative Census," Rothys the point in Granite Gray Heather RETIRED style Size 7 Flats,NEW Tory Burch Kira Snake Embossed Leather Stretch Slip On Loafer 75257 Size 8,Encyclopedia of Africa South of the SaharaGucci 37B Black Leather Tassel Loafers,International Journal of African Historical Studies 10 (1977): 443-61; Alexandre Popovic, The Revolt of African Slaves in Iraq in the IIIrd-IXth CenturyACNE Studios Jusso Floral Embroidered Button Up Dress - Burgundy,Barn of Monkeys Organic Cotton Skirt,NWT mini boden Sequin Appliqué Tulle Skirt,Vintage Eighties Wedding Gown and Veil, (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998); Shaun E. Marmon, ed., POLO RALPH LAUREN Rugby Bear Hoodie, (Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener, 1998); Minra Tora and John Edward Philips, eds., Slave Elites in the Middle East and Africa: A Comparative StudyRag & Bone Tate Loafer Grommet Ivory 8.5 leather,The African Diaspora in the Mediterranean Lands of IslamChico’s Cinched Soft Utility Pants Ruched Ankle Joggers Women’s Medium,Slavery on the Frontiers of IslamAmanda Wakely Antonella silk wedding dress,

  4. Suzanne Miers and Igor Kopytoff, eds., Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological PerspectivesFRYE Women's Leather Black Biker Boots 9 Winter Riding Tall Pull On Harness Cozy,Boden Blue & Green Damask Printed Cream Cropped Linen Pants, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990); John Thornton, Sanita Woman’s Matte Black Nursing Clogs Sz 38 7.5,Etienne Aigner Womens Negroni Black Leather S Heels Shoes NWOB,Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in AfricaChanel RARE Vintage CC Button Gold Cream Enamel Clip On Earrings,

  5. Calvin Klein Chevron Puffer Jacket, XXL,Archivum latinitatis medii aeviPaul Green Knee High Boots Black Suede, Size 6.5,L'Esclavage dans l'Europe médiévale, vol. 1, Pénisule Ibérique—France (Bruges: De Tempel, 1955); vol. 2, Italie, Colonies Italiennes du Levant, Levant Latin, Empire Bysantin (Ghent: 1977); and Verlinden, The Beginnings of Modern Colonization: Eleven Essays with an IntroductionZARA Girl's Cable Knit Sweater,Slavery and Society in Medieval ScandinaviaWarren Platform Sneakers Vince,Nicole Miller small Blouse Top Tunic Black Silk, (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 1995); Steven Epstein, Speaking of Slavery: Color, Ethnicity, and Human Bondage in Italy (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2001); and Sally McKee, "Inherited Status and Slavery in Late Medieval Italy and Venetian Crete," Adidas Womens 9.5 Gray Cloudfoam Pure 2.0 Running Athletic Sneaker Shoes H04758,14k and Signity CZ Bee Necklace,

  6. The North face fleece,Dolce Vita Tala Espadrille Platform Sneakers Womens 7 Blue Canvas, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982); Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440-1870 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997), 21-24, 48-86.

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  8. Anthropologie | The Essential Slim Trousers,American Historical ReviewEileen Fisher Grey Sleeveless Silk Tunic Top Size Medium Petite,Pilcro by Anthropologie Serif Cord Pants, (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003), 14; Robert C. Davis, Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500-1800 (Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave MacMillan, 2003). For more on the development of freedom and slavery, see David Eltis, The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), and Sue Peabody, There Are No Slaves in France: The Political Culture of Race and Slavery in the Ancien RégimeLadies Handcrafted Leather Gemstone Wrap Bracelet,

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  10. David Galenson, White Servitude in Colonial America: An Economic AnalysisGivenchy authentic vintage 18K gold plated brass earrings,NWOT CoRNETTI Campanella Sandal Mustard Orange 7,Reusable Face Mask and Beanie Hat Set,William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 58 (January 2001): 17-46. Two good microhistories of the transatlantic slave trade are Robert Harms, NWT SANDRO Clara Black Lace-Up Dress,Rylee + Cru Piper Blouse - Magnolia,The Two Princes of Calabar: An Eighteenth-Century Atlantic Odyssey (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004).

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  12. Frank M. Snowden Jr., Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1970); Snowden, Yellow Gold & Black Onyx Austrian Crystal Twisted Round Drop Post Back Earrings,Torrid Black Floral Ponte Stretch Skinny Crop Pants Size 20 NWT,The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2004); Jean Devisse and Michel Mollat, eds., The Image of the Black in Western Art, vol. 2, David's Bridal wedding dress with aline slip and Vail. Size 22,Vintage Berle khaki shorts w embroidered detail, paisley lining NWOT 38,Images of the Medieval PeasantCrewcuts by J Crew Red Heart Cable Knit Cotton Crewneck Sweater Girls Size 12,NWT Little Mermaid Hanna Andersson Skirt Tulle Embroidered Flounder Sebastian L,* NWT Adidas Canvas Printed Floral Sneakers Size 9.5,White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812POLO RALPH LAUREN 1967 Multicolor Hoodie,Race: The History of an Idea in the West (Washington, D.C.: The Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1996); the essays in "Constructing Race: Differentiating Peoples in the Early Modern World," William and Mary QuarterlyYellow Gold & Emerald Austrian Crystal Twisted Round Drop Post Back Earrings,The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2003). The best account is David Brion Davis, "The Origins of Anti-Black Racism in the New World," chap. 3 in Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World SlaveryNEW NBD Margaery gunmetal mini sequin dress,

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  14. Frank Tannenbaum, Slave and Citizen: The Negro in the AmericasGivenchy Authentic vintage 18K gold plated statement Runway monogram earrings,Neither Black Nor White: Slavery and Race Relations in Brazil and the United States (New York: Macmillan, 1971).

  15. POLO RALPH LAUREN Holiday Bear Hoodie,Black Yankees: The Development of an Afro-American Subculture in Eighteenth-Century New England (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988); Graham Russell Hodges, Root and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1613-1863Vintage cottage core farm house knit blue sheep barn button cardigan sweater,Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and LowcountrySol Sana Womens Penelope Ivory Suede Studded Dressy Flatform Sandals Shoes Used,New Kork-Ease Erigon Sandals,UMGER Tunic Blouse Tan and Sapphire,Silver marble sanita cloys sz 36,Me&Ro 14K Gold Falling Star Pierced Earring Studs With Diamonds.,William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 777-808. To this list might be added other forms of aboriginal slavery: see Theda Perdue, Brian Atwood Suede Color-block Platform Pumps 8.5, (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1979); William A. Starna and Ralph Watkins, "Northern Iroquoian Slavery," Aquatalia Julia Black Crinkle Leather Medium Width Womens Penny Loafers, 38 (Winter 1991): 34-57; and Leland Donald, Aboriginal Slavery on the Northwest Coast of North America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).

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  • Davis, David Brion. Hunter Original Gloss Tall Boots Sz 5,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003. The first short essay in the volume is a superb introduction to the origins of New World slavery, but it should be complemented by a number of other books by this great historian of New World slavery. I particularly recommend his ✨ HP ✨ Free People Madison Calf Hair Mules,J. Jill Cropped Clay Gray Pull On Tailored Look Pants,
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  • Miers, Suzanne, and Igor Kopytoff, eds. Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977. The long introduction on slavery as an "institution of marginality" is a classic, and many of the individual essays on particular regions and groups are stimulating.
  • Miller, Joseph. C., ed. Slavery and Slaving in World History: A Bibliography, 1900-1996. 2 vols. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1999. The most comprehensive work of its kind. Annual updates are available in the journal A Winter jacket, used.,. The entire bibliography is being prepared for Internet access as a searchable database by the Virginia Center for Digital History at the University of Virginia.
  • Morgan, Philip D. "African Americans." In A Companion to Colonial AmericaRylee + Cru Cora Romper - Indigo Meadow,
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Philip D. Morgan is the Sydney and Ruth Lapidus Professor in the American Revolutionary Era at Princeton University. He is the author of Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998) and coeditor (with Sean Hawkins) of Black Experience and the Empire: The Oxford History of the British Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004). He would like to acknowledge in particular the assistance of David Brion Davis, who generously sent him two early chapters from his forthcoming manuscript, "Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World Slavery."

Authored by

  • Philip D. Morgan
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    Princeton, New Jersey