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Africa and the Slave Trade

Arabs and their Muslim allies were the first to make use of large numbers of sub-Saharan black Africans. They developed a long-distance slave trade, which began in the seventh century and lasted into the twentieth. It delivered many millions of Africans across the Sahara Desert, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean to North Africa, the Mediterranean, and Persian Gulf. Although over a much longer period of time and comprising far more females, the number of Africans exported via these trans-Saharan or Indian Ocean slave trades probably equaled, or even outmatched, those of its transatlantic counterpart. The preexistence of these export trades facilitated Atlantic trade: systems of slave marketing were already in place. So numerous were black Africans at certain times and in certain places that they were able to launch massive slave revolts—in 869, for instance, in what is now southern Iraq, where the so-called Zanj (who came from the Swahili Coast and lands further north) worked in large gangs draining marshlands. While the Quran and Islamic law were essentially color-blind and while Muslims enslaved many so-called "white" people, medieval Arabs came to associate the most degrading forms of labor with black slaves. The Arabic word for slave, Prada boy toddler shoes,Fendi Long Zippy Wallet - AUTHENTIC,


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The Atlantic Slave System

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As slavery underwent a resurgence in southern Europe, it gradually disappeared from the northwestern part of the continent. Economic changes help to explain this development, but perhaps more important were cultural constraints. Over the course of the Middle Ages, Christians always committed awful atrocities on each other, but increasingly they avoided enslaving one another. Apparently, a sense of unity had emerged in Christian Europe that effectively barred the enslavement of those deemed fellow Europeans. Christianity's long struggle with Islam no doubt played a major role in this development. That from 1500 to 1800 Muslims enslaved well over a million Western Europeans, many of whom were subsequently ransomed and celebrated as symbols of freedom, was a major element in the growing sense that Europeans should never be slaves. Nevertheless, these so-called free labor nations would develop some of the harshest slave regimes in the Americas. As David Brion Davis puts it, "it is an astonishing paradox that the first nations in the world to free themselves of chattel slavery—such nations as England, France, Holland, and even the Scandinavian states—became leaders during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in supporting plantation colonies based on African slave labor." He likens this divide to a primitive Mason-Dixon line, "drawn somewhere in the Atlantic, separating free soil master-states from tainted slave soil dependencies" (8).

This paradox illumines the unpredictability of events in the Americas. No European nation embarked on New World ventures with the intention of enslaving anyone. They had no blueprint but rather proceeded haphazardly and pragmatically. Their first resort was to forced Indian labor (the encomiendaY2k X-ray XY Men's Distressed Knee Denim Trouser Grunge Jeans Size 34,

Consequently, Europeans faced a huge labor shortage. The Ottoman Turkish empire blocked access to Black Sea or Baltic captives. European nations no longer enslaved Christian prisoners of war. Some dreamers talked of enslaving the poor or other marginal groups, but the practical and principled problems of reviving European slavery were considerable. Another expedient was the transportation of convicts, but their numbers were never sufficient. Temporary bondage—indentured servitude—was the most obvious and most widely used other option, particularly in the early years, but servants, if they survived, eventually became free, and in any case most servants would not travel to the areas where most labor was needed. Thus, almost by default, African slaves proved by far the best available labor supply. Consequently, from 1500 to 1820 almost 9 million African slaves left for the New World, compared to less than 3 million whites. In terms of migration, the New World was more black than white (10).


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New World slavery's other most distinctive aspect was its highly commercial character. While it is true that plantations—that is, large agricultural enterprises, managed for profit, producing a crop for export, with a hierarchically stratified labor organization—existed outside the New World, they reached their apogee there. The economies of scale, the expansion in unit size, the almost exclusive use of black slaves, a highly regimented and commodified labor force, and a system of close management all raised profit levels significantly. Such a productive system placed enormous demands on its laborers. As early as the 1630s a visitor to a Jesuit-owned sugar plantation in Brazil vividly described the unbearable horror of what had transpired: "People the color of the very night, working briskly and moaning at the same time without a moment of peace or rest, whoever sees all the confused and noisy machinery and apparatus of this Babylon, even if they have seen Mt. Etna and Vesuvius will say that this indeed is the image of Hell" (13).

Patterns of New World Slavery

Variations over time and space existed within New World slavery. Three stand out. First, although all New World regions imported more African men than women (thereby in part explaining the harshness of New World slavery because of the policing problems associated with large gangs of men), over time the gender ratio among New World slaves became increasingly balanced. In that regard, the North American slave population is most notable, because, as its number of slave women increased the most rapidly, so it became one of the few self-reproducing slave populations in world history. This early and rapid natural increase explains why North America received such a small percentage of the overall transatlantic slave trade—about 5 percent. Second, North America was also distinctive in being much less tolerant of racial intermixture than Latin America or the Caribbean. Once again demography—particularly the ratio of white men to white women (more balanced in North America than in Latin America and the Caribbean) and the availability of black women—was a crucial part of the explanation, but also important were the role of the Church and cultural mores, based as much in Old World patterns of racial coexistence or segregation. The Spanish had mixed with Muslims for centuries; the English had created a Pale in their settlement of Ireland. Only in North America did the extremely arbitrary concept of "Negro"—denoting anyone with allegedly visible African ancestry—assume such a marked stigma. Third, the chances of gaining freedom varied from one society to the next. Except for the period surrounding the American Revolution, the North American colonies, and later the states, imposed the severest restrictions on the chances of a slave becoming free. Again, demography—the proportions of whites and blacks in the population—has some explanatory power as do economic and cultural forces (14).

North American slavery itself was hardly of a piece. The range encompasses New England's intimate "family slavery"; the Mid-Atlantic's mixed forms of slavery and servitude; the Chesapeake's patriarchal, small plantation, mixed farming and tobacco, heavily native-born form of slavery; and the low country's impersonal, large plantation, rice and indigo, more heavily African system of slavery. In addition, various borderland forms existed: from a fluid world of interracial alliances in the Lower Mississippi Valley to a flexible one of fugitives and ex-slaves in Spanish Florida to one in which Indian slaves were transformed from symbols of alliance into commodities of exchange in French Canada (15).

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  1. Mirror dress,The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-bellum South (New York: Knopf, 1956).

  2. Deep fryer,International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, ed. David L. Sills and Robert King Merton (New York: Macmillan, 1968), 14: 307-13; Finley, Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology, reprint (Hammondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980), 9, 96, 102, 111, 113-14; Keith Hopkins, Bohemian Beaded Bangle,NWT Triple Aught Design TAD M-65 RS Field Jacket sz SM,Adjustable bracelet, 138 (1993): 3-27; Keith Bradley, Slavery and Society at RomeAnthropologie Hei Hei Olive Ruffle Hem Anorak Belted Utility Jacket Women XS,Madewell Gray Zip Front Cotton Utility Jacket Women's XXS,Pendleton Wool Dress Coat Navy Blue Double Breasted Peacoat Dress Plus Size 18,The Problem of Slavery in Western CultureKids Nike air max 2090 GS,A.S.98 Milosh limited release pearl gray leather boots, size 7 - 7.5,New! Madewell Camden Black Leather Ankle Bootie 7.5,

  3. Ralph A. Austen, "The Trans-Saharan Slave Trade: A Tentative Census," Vintage Genuine Suede Dark Brown Skirt Size 12,, ed. Henry A. Gemery and Jan S. Hogendorn (New York: Academic Press, 1979), 23-76; Austen, "The Mediterranean Islamic Slave Trade out of Africa: A Tentative Census," Madewell Buffalo Check Cape Scarf In Antique Cream Black Ivory Multi NWOT,Plastic Island Strapless Dress.,Encyclopedia of Africa South of the SaharaJessica McClintock for Gunne Sax Dress. Size 9 beautiful blue with jeweled pin.,International Journal of African Historical Studies 10 (1977): 443-61; Alexandre Popovic, The Revolt of African Slaves in Iraq in the IIIrd-IXth CenturyAll occasion wreaths!,NEW LOUIS VUITTON Damier Azur Mini Pochette Accessoires,Engineered Garments x Uniqlo Fleece Sweater Pullover in Cream. Size Small.,SHOW ME YOUR MUMU Noelle Dress, (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998); Shaun E. Marmon, ed., Ann Taylor black long sleeve fit and flare dress, (Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener, 1998); Minra Tora and John Edward Philips, eds., Slave Elites in the Middle East and Africa: A Comparative StudyHelle Comfort by Romu's Walking Loafer,The African Diaspora in the Mediterranean Lands of IslamBoho Gypsy Vest Denim Jean Oversized Embroidered,Slavery on the Frontiers of IslamNew Wedding dress. Ivory color with train. Size 6,

  4. Suzanne Miers and Igor Kopytoff, eds., Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological PerspectivesDooney & Bourke Paint Splash Small Saddlebag,Demonia Emily boots, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990); John Thornton, Golden State Warriors zip front hoodie,Morphe 35F Fall Into Frost Eyeshadow Palette,Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in AfricaCamel Crown Men's Windbreaker Red Jacket Sz M,

  5. Purple Uggs,Archivum latinitatis medii aeviFossil Keely Teal with Black Chevron Leather and Brown Canvas Crossbody Tote,L'Esclavage dans l'Europe médiévale, vol. 1, Pénisule Ibérique—France (Bruges: De Tempel, 1955); vol. 2, Italie, Colonies Italiennes du Levant, Levant Latin, Empire Bysantin (Ghent: 1977); and Verlinden, The Beginnings of Modern Colonization: Eleven Essays with an IntroductionVintage Neiman Marcus Leather Field Bar/Toiletries Bag,Slavery and Society in Medieval ScandinaviaCole Haan grand pro rally sneaker cement cream size 12 new with no tags or box,Vintage Y2K Levi's 550 Men's Relaxed Jeans Size 34x27 Mid Rise Medium Wash, (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 1995); Steven Epstein, Speaking of Slavery: Color, Ethnicity, and Human Bondage in Italy (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2001); and Sally McKee, "Inherited Status and Slavery in Late Medieval Italy and Venetian Crete," Brown/burnt Siena colored handbag NWT!,Beige kurta with blue velvet border,

  6. Bettye Muller Anthropologie Heels 6 Made i…,Tommy Bahama one piece underwire swimsuit sz 34D, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982); Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440-1870 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997), 21-24, 48-86.

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  8. Edwin Tash Jeans NWTS!! Denim Black Wash,American Historical ReviewBoden pompon white tunic size 12R,Jeffree Star extreme Frost, (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003), 14; Robert C. Davis, Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500-1800 (Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave MacMillan, 2003). For more on the development of freedom and slavery, see David Eltis, The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), and Sue Peabody, There Are No Slaves in France: The Political Culture of Race and Slavery in the Ancien RégimeNEW Free People Good Days Printed Maxi,

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  10. David Galenson, White Servitude in Colonial America: An Economic Analysis100% SILK vintage purple ruffle tiered midi skirt,Mermaid style ivory wedding gown,NEW WITH TAGS!! Wildlife gold-tone ladies wristwatch by Heidi Klum,William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 58 (January 2001): 17-46. Two good microhistories of the transatlantic slave trade are Robert Harms, Metro brand toiletry bag NWT.,Coach high heel sandals - size 6.5,The Two Princes of Calabar: An Eighteenth-Century Atlantic Odyssey (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004).

  11. David Eltis and William G. Clarence-Smith, "White Servitude," Lilly Pulitzer White Label Strapless Orange Yellow Pink Flowers Lined Dress Sz 4,Magicsuit By Miraclesuit 14 Gypsy Rose Yasmin Tummy Control One Piece Swimsuit,Men's Toiletries Travel Set, (London: Longman, 1996); Stanley L. Engerman, ed., Terms of Labor: Slavery, Serfdom, and Free Labor (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1999); and Bush, Ecco Men's Track 25 GTX High Top Hiking Boots US 11 Brown Leather Bison Lace-Up, (Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2000).

  12. Frank M. Snowden Jr., Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1970); Snowden, Colombian Butt Lift Boyfriend Jeans,Coach Pebbled Leather Shoulder Bag,The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2004); Jean Devisse and Michel Mollat, eds., The Image of the Black in Western Art, vol. 2, EARTH RAGZ - Iguana Jack Baha Burgundy Pullover Sweatshirt,Paige Medium Wash Blue Skyline Ankle Peg Mild Distressed Mid Rise Jeans Size 27,Images of the Medieval PeasantBillabong Men’s Black and White Striped Sweater Size Large NEW,NWOT WHBM Gown,Frye & Co Phoenix Leather Tall Boot Brown NEW,White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812Guess Over the Knee Boots,Race: The History of an Idea in the West (Washington, D.C.: The Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1996); the essays in "Constructing Race: Differentiating Peoples in the Early Modern World," William and Mary QuarterlyFabletics Women’s Oasis High-Waisted Short 6'' in black size XS,The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2003). The best account is David Brion Davis, "The Origins of Anti-Black Racism in the New World," chap. 3 in Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World SlaveryPOLO Ralph Lauren Classic Fit Jeans Men's Medium Wash 36Tx38,

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  14. Frank Tannenbaum, Slave and Citizen: The Negro in the AmericasExotic Identity Original Tall Rain Waterproof PVC, Non-slip Boots,Neither Black Nor White: Slavery and Race Relations in Brazil and the United States (New York: Macmillan, 1971).

  15. Custom Pizza cutter and cutting board!,Black Yankees: The Development of an Afro-American Subculture in Eighteenth-Century New England (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988); Graham Russell Hodges, Root and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1613-1863VANS Authentic "Sh*t Happens" Women's Sneakers (Multi-Colored),Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry925 Wallace Sterling Silver Spoon Ring with Blue Topaz Stone Size 8.5,Small, Leather Jacket, Black, true to size. Pristine condition,NWT Dr. Martens 1461 Casual Cherry Red Oxford Tie Air-Cushioned Shoes Size 8,Holiday / Christmas Wreath,COACH 100% SILK SIGNATURE LOGO SQUARE SCARF,William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 777-808. To this list might be added other forms of aboriginal slavery: see Theda Perdue, NWT 5 Ferragamo Gancini Long Zip Around Blue Wallet, (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1979); William A. Starna and Ralph Watkins, "Northern Iroquoian Slavery," Hooded Rust utility winter light jacket coat!, 38 (Winter 1991): 34-57; and Leland Donald, Aboriginal Slavery on the Northwest Coast of North America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).

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  • Davis, David Brion. Heschung Genet Mens Suede Desert Boots,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003. The first short essay in the volume is a superb introduction to the origins of New World slavery, but it should be complemented by a number of other books by this great historian of New World slavery. I particularly recommend his Rachel Zoe Gold / Black Shimmery Houndstooth Print Skinny Pants 3X NWT,VERSACE MEN’S MEDUSA MULTICOLORED GOLD BLUE PURPLE WHITE TIE,
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  • Camilla Skovgaard Black Suede Peep Toe Cutout Heeled Sandal Ankle Bootie Size 38,A Historical Guide to World Slavery. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. A useful reference work that covers most regions where slavery was important, together with topical examinations of the subject.
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  • Finley, M. I. Vintage Lauren Ralph Lauren 100% Wool Zip Up Cardigan with Faux Fur Size PM,. Reprint. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980. An exploration of the emergence, functioning, and decline of the slave societies of classical Greece and classical Italy, with comparisons to New World slavery, by the greatest historian of ancient slavery.
  • Fredrickson, George M. Racism: A Short HistoryBuffalo David Bitton Mens 32 x 32 Ruffer Easy Fit Jeans Zip Fly Pockets,
  • Carhartt 42X30 relaxed fit men's jeans.,Bamboo Limelight Over the Knee Velvet Peep Toe Boots 7.5 Red Thigh High Heeled. Contains about 1,000 pictorial images of slavery in Africa and the Americas, arranged thematically.
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  • Camel pleated accordion vegan leather midi skirt,Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. A good survey of slavery and the evolution of racial prejudice in the Islamic world.
  • Miers, Suzanne, and Igor Kopytoff, eds. Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977. The long introduction on slavery as an "institution of marginality" is a classic, and many of the individual essays on particular regions and groups are stimulating.
  • Miller, Joseph. C., ed. Slavery and Slaving in World History: A Bibliography, 1900-1996. 2 vols. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1999. The most comprehensive work of its kind. Annual updates are available in the journal Charles by Charles David all made made elasticize pointedtoe stilettos heel boot,. The entire bibliography is being prepared for Internet access as a searchable database by the Virginia Center for Digital History at the University of Virginia.
  • Morgan, Philip D. "African Americans." In A Companion to Colonial AmericaAuthentic Vintage wool military cloak,
  • Patterson, Orlando. Swim Trunks, OAS Clothing from Canada.,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982. The best general survey of slave systems in 66 societies, written by a sociologist.
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  • Thornton, John. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1800NEW Levis Ex-Boyfriend Trucker Jacket Sz M,

Philip D. Morgan is the Sydney and Ruth Lapidus Professor in the American Revolutionary Era at Princeton University. He is the author of Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998) and coeditor (with Sean Hawkins) of Black Experience and the Empire: The Oxford History of the British Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004). He would like to acknowledge in particular the assistance of David Brion Davis, who generously sent him two early chapters from his forthcoming manuscript, "Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World Slavery."

Authored by

  • Philip D. Morgan
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    Princeton, New Jersey