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Africa and the Slave Trade

Arabs and their Muslim allies were the first to make use of large numbers of sub-Saharan black Africans. They developed a long-distance slave trade, which began in the seventh century and lasted into the twentieth. It delivered many millions of Africans across the Sahara Desert, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean to North Africa, the Mediterranean, and Persian Gulf. Although over a much longer period of time and comprising far more females, the number of Africans exported via these trans-Saharan or Indian Ocean slave trades probably equaled, or even outmatched, those of its transatlantic counterpart. The preexistence of these export trades facilitated Atlantic trade: systems of slave marketing were already in place. So numerous were black Africans at certain times and in certain places that they were able to launch massive slave revolts—in 869, for instance, in what is now southern Iraq, where the so-called Zanj (who came from the Swahili Coast and lands further north) worked in large gangs draining marshlands. While the Quran and Islamic law were essentially color-blind and while Muslims enslaved many so-called "white" people, medieval Arabs came to associate the most degrading forms of labor with black slaves. The Arabic word for slave, Nike Women's NIKE FREE BALANZA TRAINING SHOES 7,SALE! Like new Ferragamo pearlized pewter bag,

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The Atlantic Slave System

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As slavery underwent a resurgence in southern Europe, it gradually disappeared from the northwestern part of the continent. Economic changes help to explain this development, but perhaps more important were cultural constraints. Over the course of the Middle Ages, Christians always committed awful atrocities on each other, but increasingly they avoided enslaving one another. Apparently, a sense of unity had emerged in Christian Europe that effectively barred the enslavement of those deemed fellow Europeans. Christianity's long struggle with Islam no doubt played a major role in this development. That from 1500 to 1800 Muslims enslaved well over a million Western Europeans, many of whom were subsequently ransomed and celebrated as symbols of freedom, was a major element in the growing sense that Europeans should never be slaves. Nevertheless, these so-called free labor nations would develop some of the harshest slave regimes in the Americas. As David Brion Davis puts it, "it is an astonishing paradox that the first nations in the world to free themselves of chattel slavery—such nations as England, France, Holland, and even the Scandinavian states—became leaders during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in supporting plantation colonies based on African slave labor." He likens this divide to a primitive Mason-Dixon line, "drawn somewhere in the Atlantic, separating free soil master-states from tainted slave soil dependencies" (8).

This paradox illumines the unpredictability of events in the Americas. No European nation embarked on New World ventures with the intention of enslaving anyone. They had no blueprint but rather proceeded haphazardly and pragmatically. Their first resort was to forced Indian labor (the encomiendaMacBook (Retina, 12-inch, Early 2015),

Consequently, Europeans faced a huge labor shortage. The Ottoman Turkish empire blocked access to Black Sea or Baltic captives. European nations no longer enslaved Christian prisoners of war. Some dreamers talked of enslaving the poor or other marginal groups, but the practical and principled problems of reviving European slavery were considerable. Another expedient was the transportation of convicts, but their numbers were never sufficient. Temporary bondage—indentured servitude—was the most obvious and most widely used other option, particularly in the early years, but servants, if they survived, eventually became free, and in any case most servants would not travel to the areas where most labor was needed. Thus, almost by default, African slaves proved by far the best available labor supply. Consequently, from 1500 to 1820 almost 9 million African slaves left for the New World, compared to less than 3 million whites. In terms of migration, the New World was more black than white (10).

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New World slavery's other most distinctive aspect was its highly commercial character. While it is true that plantations—that is, large agricultural enterprises, managed for profit, producing a crop for export, with a hierarchically stratified labor organization—existed outside the New World, they reached their apogee there. The economies of scale, the expansion in unit size, the almost exclusive use of black slaves, a highly regimented and commodified labor force, and a system of close management all raised profit levels significantly. Such a productive system placed enormous demands on its laborers. As early as the 1630s a visitor to a Jesuit-owned sugar plantation in Brazil vividly described the unbearable horror of what had transpired: "People the color of the very night, working briskly and moaning at the same time without a moment of peace or rest, whoever sees all the confused and noisy machinery and apparatus of this Babylon, even if they have seen Mt. Etna and Vesuvius will say that this indeed is the image of Hell" (13).

Patterns of New World Slavery

Variations over time and space existed within New World slavery. Three stand out. First, although all New World regions imported more African men than women (thereby in part explaining the harshness of New World slavery because of the policing problems associated with large gangs of men), over time the gender ratio among New World slaves became increasingly balanced. In that regard, the North American slave population is most notable, because, as its number of slave women increased the most rapidly, so it became one of the few self-reproducing slave populations in world history. This early and rapid natural increase explains why North America received such a small percentage of the overall transatlantic slave trade—about 5 percent. Second, North America was also distinctive in being much less tolerant of racial intermixture than Latin America or the Caribbean. Once again demography—particularly the ratio of white men to white women (more balanced in North America than in Latin America and the Caribbean) and the availability of black women—was a crucial part of the explanation, but also important were the role of the Church and cultural mores, based as much in Old World patterns of racial coexistence or segregation. The Spanish had mixed with Muslims for centuries; the English had created a Pale in their settlement of Ireland. Only in North America did the extremely arbitrary concept of "Negro"—denoting anyone with allegedly visible African ancestry—assume such a marked stigma. Third, the chances of gaining freedom varied from one society to the next. Except for the period surrounding the American Revolution, the North American colonies, and later the states, imposed the severest restrictions on the chances of a slave becoming free. Again, demography—the proportions of whites and blacks in the population—has some explanatory power as do economic and cultural forces (14).

North American slavery itself was hardly of a piece. The range encompasses New England's intimate "family slavery"; the Mid-Atlantic's mixed forms of slavery and servitude; the Chesapeake's patriarchal, small plantation, mixed farming and tobacco, heavily native-born form of slavery; and the low country's impersonal, large plantation, rice and indigo, more heavily African system of slavery. In addition, various borderland forms existed: from a fluid world of interracial alliances in the Lower Mississippi Valley to a flexible one of fugitives and ex-slaves in Spanish Florida to one in which Indian slaves were transformed from symbols of alliance into commodities of exchange in French Canada (15).

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  1. Vintage Danish Modern Teak Dansk Chip/Dip,The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-bellum South (New York: Knopf, 1956).

  2. Sarah's Day White Fox **Set** Kelly Pink Sunset,International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, ed. David L. Sills and Robert King Merton (New York: Macmillan, 1968), 14: 307-13; Finley, Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology, reprint (Hammondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980), 9, 96, 102, 111, 113-14; Keith Hopkins, ♠️ kate spade Mel Dancing Cherrie Packable Nylon Tote and Wristlet Set,Gorgeous Lauren Ralph Lauren vest,Canvas Prints 2, 138 (1993): 3-27; Keith Bradley, Slavery and Society at RomeConverse CTAS Low Embroidered Floral Platform Sneakers,Mens Ferragamo aviator sunglasses,Zara Gingham checkered Blazer,The Problem of Slavery in Western Culture❤️ Dress To Impress ❤️,Antique Victorian Art Deco Style Portrait Prints,HP Pavilion 15-dk0056wm 15.6” 256GB, Intel Core i5 9th Gen, 2.40GHz, 8GB Display,

  3. Ralph A. Austen, "The Trans-Saharan Slave Trade: A Tentative Census," Nordstrom Ring - Size 6,, ed. Henry A. Gemery and Jan S. Hogendorn (New York: Academic Press, 1979), 23-76; Austen, "The Mediterranean Islamic Slave Trade out of Africa: A Tentative Census," Black and White Vans Hightops,Green Shail K. Sequined Prom Dress,Encyclopedia of Africa South of the Sahara3 Original Mineral Veils Small /Travel Size,International Journal of African Historical Studies 10 (1977): 443-61; Alexandre Popovic, The Revolt of African Slaves in Iraq in the IIIrd-IXth CenturyPendleton gray blazer size 16,Skecher Street Jungle Vibes Memory Foam Tennis Shoe Sz 8.5,Current/Elliott ‘Fling’ side striped jean.,BAREFOOT Dreams calypso bamboo lite brown waterfall cardigan S/M, (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998); Shaun E. Marmon, ed., Courrèges Unisex Sunglass NWOT, (Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener, 1998); Minra Tora and John Edward Philips, eds., Slave Elites in the Middle East and Africa: A Comparative StudyCARMAR grey ripped jeans,The African Diaspora in the Mediterranean Lands of IslamLa Perla Macrame Tale Dress in Cream,Slavery on the Frontiers of IslamR&M Richards MAXI DRESS WITH ALL OVER EMBELLISHMENT AND SATIN WAIST TIE,

  4. Suzanne Miers and Igor Kopytoff, eds., Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological PerspectivesRetrofete Gabrielle Robe Dress in Pastel Pink Stripes,Dolce & Gabbana Rectangular Style Havana Frame, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990); John Thornton, SACRED HEART OF JESUS FLORENTINE STYLE WOOD PLAQUE,HTF Disc. NARS Machu Picchu sparkling loose powder,Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in AfricaPrana Red and Grey Plaid Flannel Button Up Large,

  5. Kippys Cubana Bag,Archivum latinitatis medii aeviLadies Vintage Western DOUBLE D RANCHWEAR SZ XS,L'Esclavage dans l'Europe médiévale, vol. 1, Pénisule Ibérique—France (Bruges: De Tempel, 1955); vol. 2, Italie, Colonies Italiennes du Levant, Levant Latin, Empire Bysantin (Ghent: 1977); and Verlinden, The Beginnings of Modern Colonization: Eleven Essays with an IntroductionRay-Ban Sunglasses - Justin Classic, Style#RB4165,Slavery and Society in Medieval ScandinaviaBamboo Cay • Button Down Shirt,Soft Surroundings Tunic 3X, (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 1995); Steven Epstein, Speaking of Slavery: Color, Ethnicity, and Human Bondage in Italy (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2001); and Sally McKee, "Inherited Status and Slavery in Late Medieval Italy and Venetian Crete," Dolce & Gabbana Oval Style Silver/Black Frame,Vintage AVON FASHIONS 36 Bust CHEMISE Nightgown TRICOT Crochet LACE Pastel USA,

  6. Pink After Six Dress,Capulet Daria Bodysuit Green Medium, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982); Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440-1870 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997), 21-24, 48-86.

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  10. David Galenson, White Servitude in Colonial America: An Economic AnalysisNFL Pittsburgh Steelers BBQ Utensil Spatula Tongs,Free People Grey Good Karma Running Shorts,Ateliers Arthur Sneaker,William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 58 (January 2001): 17-46. Two good microhistories of the transatlantic slave trade are Robert Harms, Levis 550 Relaxed Fit Tapered Leg Mens Denim Black Jeans 36x29 Made In The USA,5 of Patrick’s Powder,The Two Princes of Calabar: An Eighteenth-Century Atlantic Odyssey (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004).

  11. David Eltis and William G. Clarence-Smith, "White Servitude," Theory NWOT burgundy thong bodysuit,NAVY BLUE JASZ Couture 6019 in NAVY, SIZE 6,Torrid BRICK RED PONTE LONGLINE DRAPE KIMONO Size 2X, (London: Longman, 1996); Stanley L. Engerman, ed., Terms of Labor: Slavery, Serfdom, and Free Labor (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1999); and Bush, 2 Piece VICTORIA'S SECRET Pink SATIN Size S Pajamas SET Sleep POCKETS Roses, (Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2000).

  12. Frank M. Snowden Jr., Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1970); Snowden, NWT COACH Set C5803 * C6047 Gallery Tote and wallet Signature Pop Floral…,BRAND NEW MacBook Air Laptop,The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2004); Jean Devisse and Michel Mollat, eds., The Image of the Black in Western Art, vol. 2, lululemon tracker low rise shorts size 8-10 fit more like 8,SNAP dress.,Images of the Medieval PeasantPearl Izumi W All Road Cycling Shoes,coach zip up wallet purse or clutch,❤️‍BCBG white jeans!❤️‍,White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812The Sopranos Collectors Edition Set,Race: The History of an Idea in the West (Washington, D.C.: The Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1996); the essays in "Constructing Race: Differentiating Peoples in the Early Modern World," William and Mary QuarterlyLA CERA Cozy FLANNEL Kitty CATS Size M Sleep NIGHTGOWN Shirt POCKETS V-Neck,The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2003). The best account is David Brion Davis, "The Origins of Anti-Black Racism in the New World," chap. 3 in Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World SlaveryDundas Metallic Deep V Mini Dress Black,

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  14. Frank Tannenbaum, Slave and Citizen: The Negro in the AmericasXSCAPE. Women Black Spaghetti Strap V-Neck Maxi Evening Sheath Dress Size 8,Neither Black Nor White: Slavery and Race Relations in Brazil and the United States (New York: Macmillan, 1971).

  15. Genuine rabbit fur and leather vest,Black Yankees: The Development of an Afro-American Subculture in Eighteenth-Century New England (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988); Graham Russell Hodges, Root and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1613-1863Lévovo touch screen flex chromebook,Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and LowcountrySHOW ME YOUR MUMU Faye Flutter Maxi Dusty Blush L,Calvin Klein Formal/Cocktail Long Dress,Volcom rashguard, fitted Men’s Medium, color white,Vintage 90s OS Embellished Cocktail Dress Yellow,Dolce &Gabbana Rectangular Style Black/Clear Frame,William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 777-808. To this list might be added other forms of aboriginal slavery: see Theda Perdue, Surplice Free People Turnt Bodysuit, (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1979); William A. Starna and Ralph Watkins, "Northern Iroquoian Slavery," CINQ À SEPT Floral-Print Silk Dress, 38 (Winter 1991): 34-57; and Leland Donald, Aboriginal Slavery on the Northwest Coast of North America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).

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Sources

  • New Balance 928v3 Sneakers Womens 7.5 B Walking Shoes Navy Blue Low Top WW928NV3,The Making of New World Slavery: From the Baroque to the Modern, 1492-1800NEW Ladies & Gentlemen: The Rolling Stones- Deluxe Edition 3DVD Numbered Box Set,
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  • New Paige Jacqueline high rise straight crop,Children of God's Fire: A Documentary History of Black Slavery in BrazilAlaia Blck Formal Women’s Dress Size 44,
  • Davis, David Brion. Men’s Levi's 550 Relaxed-fit Jean Light Stonewash Sz 36 x 36,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003. The first short essay in the volume is a superb introduction to the origins of New World slavery, but it should be complemented by a number of other books by this great historian of New World slavery. I particularly recommend his St. Patrick by Pronovias - Karlene Wedding Dress,Cole Haan Shoes Womens 6.5B Gray Grand Wingtip Oxford Suede Waterproof W01578,
  • Davis, Robert C. Emerald Plush Velvet Travel Jewelry Box Organizer,Zara Double Breasted Striped Blazer,
  • Vintage 1970s Royal Hawaiian Orange Hawaiian Flower Printed Maxi Dress,A Historical Guide to World Slavery. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. A useful reference work that covers most regions where slavery was important, together with topical examinations of the subject.
  • - REBECCA MINKOFF BLACK TAILOR CROPPED BLAZE…,The Rise of African Slavery in the AmericasBrand new Never worn dress,
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  • Dell precision m4800 work station quad core i7 4800qm 2.7ghz 512gb ssd 16gb ram,Macmillan Encyclopedia of World SlaveryHarry Potter winter pajamas,
  • Finley, M. I. SMITH Custom Sunglasses,. Reprint. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980. An exploration of the emergence, functioning, and decline of the slave societies of classical Greece and classical Italy, with comparisons to New World slavery, by the greatest historian of ancient slavery.
  • Fredrickson, George M. Racism: A Short HistoryFoxiedox Floral Off Shoulder Tiered Ruffle Maxi Women’s Size Medium,
  • Brooks Brothers Men’s Seersucker Shirt Yellow XL,Vintage 1995 Laundry By Shelli Segal Rose Printed Slip Maxi Dress. Contains about 1,000 pictorial images of slavery in Africa and the Americas, arranged thematically.
  • AUTHENTIC SALT Optics Lileo Rx Eyeglass Frames,Brahmin Amelia "Bird of Paradise",. New York: Hill and Wang, 1993. A good general account by a historian alert to comparative history.
  • Women’s Patagonia better sweater vest,Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. A good survey of slavery and the evolution of racial prejudice in the Islamic world.
  • Miers, Suzanne, and Igor Kopytoff, eds. Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977. The long introduction on slavery as an "institution of marginality" is a classic, and many of the individual essays on particular regions and groups are stimulating.
  • Miller, Joseph. C., ed. Slavery and Slaving in World History: A Bibliography, 1900-1996. 2 vols. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1999. The most comprehensive work of its kind. Annual updates are available in the journal Vans Disney Authentic Black Red Mickey Mouse Sneakers,. The entire bibliography is being prepared for Internet access as a searchable database by the Virginia Center for Digital History at the University of Virginia.
  • Morgan, Philip D. "African Americans." In A Companion to Colonial Americaturquoise/teal juicy couture wallet/wristlet,
  • Patterson, Orlando. New pioneer woman,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982. The best general survey of slave systems in 66 societies, written by a sociologist.
  • Indah Chiclet Bodysuit in Rock,Komarov Floral Chiffon & Charmeuse Handkerchief Hem Midi Dress Petite M NWT 8,. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1985. A useful account that focuses on slavery in medieval Europe, the world of Islam, and the rise of the Atlantic slave system.
  • Thornton, John. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1800Nike Shoes Womens 8.5 Free RN Motion Flyknit Running Sneakers Pink 831070-600,

Philip D. Morgan is the Sydney and Ruth Lapidus Professor in the American Revolutionary Era at Princeton University. He is the author of Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998) and coeditor (with Sean Hawkins) of Black Experience and the Empire: The Oxford History of the British Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004). He would like to acknowledge in particular the assistance of David Brion Davis, who generously sent him two early chapters from his forthcoming manuscript, "Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World Slavery."

Authored by

  • Philip D. Morgan
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    Princeton, New Jersey