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Africa and the Slave Trade

Arabs and their Muslim allies were the first to make use of large numbers of sub-Saharan black Africans. They developed a long-distance slave trade, which began in the seventh century and lasted into the twentieth. It delivered many millions of Africans across the Sahara Desert, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean to North Africa, the Mediterranean, and Persian Gulf. Although over a much longer period of time and comprising far more females, the number of Africans exported via these trans-Saharan or Indian Ocean slave trades probably equaled, or even outmatched, those of its transatlantic counterpart. The preexistence of these export trades facilitated Atlantic trade: systems of slave marketing were already in place. So numerous were black Africans at certain times and in certain places that they were able to launch massive slave revolts—in 869, for instance, in what is now southern Iraq, where the so-called Zanj (who came from the Swahili Coast and lands further north) worked in large gangs draining marshlands. While the Quran and Islamic law were essentially color-blind and while Muslims enslaved many so-called "white" people, medieval Arabs came to associate the most degrading forms of labor with black slaves. The Arabic word for slave, Gold Pearl Stackable Ring Set,Brand new Giuseppe black and gold size 37 size 7,

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The Atlantic Slave System

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As slavery underwent a resurgence in southern Europe, it gradually disappeared from the northwestern part of the continent. Economic changes help to explain this development, but perhaps more important were cultural constraints. Over the course of the Middle Ages, Christians always committed awful atrocities on each other, but increasingly they avoided enslaving one another. Apparently, a sense of unity had emerged in Christian Europe that effectively barred the enslavement of those deemed fellow Europeans. Christianity's long struggle with Islam no doubt played a major role in this development. That from 1500 to 1800 Muslims enslaved well over a million Western Europeans, many of whom were subsequently ransomed and celebrated as symbols of freedom, was a major element in the growing sense that Europeans should never be slaves. Nevertheless, these so-called free labor nations would develop some of the harshest slave regimes in the Americas. As David Brion Davis puts it, "it is an astonishing paradox that the first nations in the world to free themselves of chattel slavery—such nations as England, France, Holland, and even the Scandinavian states—became leaders during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in supporting plantation colonies based on African slave labor." He likens this divide to a primitive Mason-Dixon line, "drawn somewhere in the Atlantic, separating free soil master-states from tainted slave soil dependencies" (8).

This paradox illumines the unpredictability of events in the Americas. No European nation embarked on New World ventures with the intention of enslaving anyone. They had no blueprint but rather proceeded haphazardly and pragmatically. Their first resort was to forced Indian labor (the encomiendaAverage Round White CZ stud Earring 14k white gold,

Consequently, Europeans faced a huge labor shortage. The Ottoman Turkish empire blocked access to Black Sea or Baltic captives. European nations no longer enslaved Christian prisoners of war. Some dreamers talked of enslaving the poor or other marginal groups, but the practical and principled problems of reviving European slavery were considerable. Another expedient was the transportation of convicts, but their numbers were never sufficient. Temporary bondage—indentured servitude—was the most obvious and most widely used other option, particularly in the early years, but servants, if they survived, eventually became free, and in any case most servants would not travel to the areas where most labor was needed. Thus, almost by default, African slaves proved by far the best available labor supply. Consequently, from 1500 to 1820 almost 9 million African slaves left for the New World, compared to less than 3 million whites. In terms of migration, the New World was more black than white (10).

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New World slavery's other most distinctive aspect was its highly commercial character. While it is true that plantations—that is, large agricultural enterprises, managed for profit, producing a crop for export, with a hierarchically stratified labor organization—existed outside the New World, they reached their apogee there. The economies of scale, the expansion in unit size, the almost exclusive use of black slaves, a highly regimented and commodified labor force, and a system of close management all raised profit levels significantly. Such a productive system placed enormous demands on its laborers. As early as the 1630s a visitor to a Jesuit-owned sugar plantation in Brazil vividly described the unbearable horror of what had transpired: "People the color of the very night, working briskly and moaning at the same time without a moment of peace or rest, whoever sees all the confused and noisy machinery and apparatus of this Babylon, even if they have seen Mt. Etna and Vesuvius will say that this indeed is the image of Hell" (13).

Patterns of New World Slavery

Variations over time and space existed within New World slavery. Three stand out. First, although all New World regions imported more African men than women (thereby in part explaining the harshness of New World slavery because of the policing problems associated with large gangs of men), over time the gender ratio among New World slaves became increasingly balanced. In that regard, the North American slave population is most notable, because, as its number of slave women increased the most rapidly, so it became one of the few self-reproducing slave populations in world history. This early and rapid natural increase explains why North America received such a small percentage of the overall transatlantic slave trade—about 5 percent. Second, North America was also distinctive in being much less tolerant of racial intermixture than Latin America or the Caribbean. Once again demography—particularly the ratio of white men to white women (more balanced in North America than in Latin America and the Caribbean) and the availability of black women—was a crucial part of the explanation, but also important were the role of the Church and cultural mores, based as much in Old World patterns of racial coexistence or segregation. The Spanish had mixed with Muslims for centuries; the English had created a Pale in their settlement of Ireland. Only in North America did the extremely arbitrary concept of "Negro"—denoting anyone with allegedly visible African ancestry—assume such a marked stigma. Third, the chances of gaining freedom varied from one society to the next. Except for the period surrounding the American Revolution, the North American colonies, and later the states, imposed the severest restrictions on the chances of a slave becoming free. Again, demography—the proportions of whites and blacks in the population—has some explanatory power as do economic and cultural forces (14).

North American slavery itself was hardly of a piece. The range encompasses New England's intimate "family slavery"; the Mid-Atlantic's mixed forms of slavery and servitude; the Chesapeake's patriarchal, small plantation, mixed farming and tobacco, heavily native-born form of slavery; and the low country's impersonal, large plantation, rice and indigo, more heavily African system of slavery. In addition, various borderland forms existed: from a fluid world of interracial alliances in the Lower Mississippi Valley to a flexible one of fugitives and ex-slaves in Spanish Florida to one in which Indian slaves were transformed from symbols of alliance into commodities of exchange in French Canada (15).

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  1. Vintage Monet flowers stamped bracelet ♥️,The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-bellum South (New York: Knopf, 1956).

  2. Sterling Silver Floral-Inspired Earrings,International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, ed. David L. Sills and Robert King Merton (New York: Macmillan, 1968), 14: 307-13; Finley, Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology, reprint (Hammondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980), 9, 96, 102, 111, 113-14; Keith Hopkins, Style & Co Phillys Blush Silver Chunky Stap Heels,BCBG Gold One Shoulder Gown Sz Small,Avec Les Filles Dressy Booties, 138 (1993): 3-27; Keith Bradley, Slavery and Society at RomeNWOT 100% Wool Felt Cowboy Hat Chocolate,JORDAN WHY NOT ZERO. 1,Bcbgeneration cream quilted faux leather heels 6.5,The Problem of Slavery in Western CultureCalvin Klein leather Messenger bag,Medieval Europe and the World Robin W. Winks Teofilo Ruiz,Black and gold glitter prom dress,

  3. Ralph A. Austen, "The Trans-Saharan Slave Trade: A Tentative Census," Tommy hilfiger women’s jacket,, ed. Henry A. Gemery and Jan S. Hogendorn (New York: Academic Press, 1979), 23-76; Austen, "The Mediterranean Islamic Slave Trade out of Africa: A Tentative Census," NEW Free People Gold “Good Vibes” Pendant Necklace,Jordan Max Aura ; Men Size 8.5,Encyclopedia of Africa South of the SaharaAdidas F/1.3 Primeknit Scarlet Shock Purple Boots,International Journal of African Historical Studies 10 (1977): 443-61; Alexandre Popovic, The Revolt of African Slaves in Iraq in the IIIrd-IXth CenturyMAC Mariah Carey RAINBOW INTERLUDE Lipglass,Pigalle Converse released 2019,Katie May Madison BHLDN Dress in Bordeaux,Silvertone hinged bracelet, (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998); Shaun E. Marmon, ed., Gabor Shoes Ballet Flat, (Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener, 1998); Minra Tora and John Edward Philips, eds., Slave Elites in the Middle East and Africa: A Comparative StudyDistressed Vtg Levis 501xx Jean 34x34 Actual 32x33 Straight Button Fly USA Made,The African Diaspora in the Mediterranean Lands of IslamDooney and Bourke Boat Shoes,Slavery on the Frontiers of IslamWomen’s black over the knee length boot Size 7.5,

  4. Suzanne Miers and Igor Kopytoff, eds., Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological PerspectivesBeautiful 3strand necklace and earring set,Lois Hill Decorative Scroll Square 20" Pendant Necklace in .925 Sterling Silver, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990); John Thornton, Sam Edelman gray black leopard animal print Winona boots booties 8,Anthropologie Cecelia New York Ping Studded Loafer,Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in AfricaPomander Place Adair Boyfriend Shirt Women's M Red White 3/4 Sleeve Cotton Top,

  5. Vintage Martha Sturdy,Archivum latinitatis medii aeviLRG Men's Premium Cotton Jeans,L'Esclavage dans l'Europe médiévale, vol. 1, Pénisule Ibérique—France (Bruges: De Tempel, 1955); vol. 2, Italie, Colonies Italiennes du Levant, Levant Latin, Empire Bysantin (Ghent: 1977); and Verlinden, The Beginnings of Modern Colonization: Eleven Essays with an IntroductionHP idea! Bombs & salts custom gift basket,Slavery and Society in Medieval ScandinaviaLush Its All Love Bubble Bar & Bath Bomb Bundle Set,Madewell Women's Size 5 Frances Loafers in Brown Burnished Mahogany, (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 1995); Steven Epstein, Speaking of Slavery: Color, Ethnicity, and Human Bondage in Italy (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2001); and Sally McKee, "Inherited Status and Slavery in Late Medieval Italy and Venetian Crete," New Lady Dior handbag limited etition,Qupid | Crocodiles Embossed Open Toe Heels Size 8,

  6. Guess Crossbody Messenger Bag,Fred Perry Plaid Crewneck Sweater, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982); Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440-1870 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997), 21-24, 48-86.

  7. Felipe Fernández-Armesto, HCI Half Shell Motorcycle Helmet,Lot of 2 new Vineyard vines white shorts sz 0/2,Ruby Red Cubic Zircon Set in Silver Tone White Rho,Woven Leather Circle Necklace DYRBERG/KERN 5!,Anthropologie/Gold Ring Set,❤ Uno de 50 Nightbird Wrap Earrings,Young Fabulous & Broke Belle Sugar Plum Button Front Silky Satin Top Large, (San Francisco: Mellen Research University Press, 1992).

  8. Chanel Classic Calf Skin Leather Ballerina Flats,American Historical ReviewYou haven’t seen an Angel until my Grand-daughter,LUCCI LU 8206 Style # 8206 / RED, (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003), 14; Robert C. Davis, Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500-1800 (Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave MacMillan, 2003). For more on the development of freedom and slavery, see David Eltis, The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), and Sue Peabody, There Are No Slaves in France: The Political Culture of Race and Slavery in the Ancien RégimeHand Carved Lure Fish Painted Handmade Hanging Vintage Decoy,

  9. Prom/ fancy gown,The Early Spanish MainRudsack deep green winter coat size Medium,Red Crystal Gold Heart Ring, (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1992); William L. Sherman, Forced Native Labor in Sixteenth-Century Central AmericaBjorn Wilnblad for Rosenthal Germany 6" Signed Plate Orientalische Nachtmusik,Sterling Silver Butterfly Ring Inlaid Native Ameri,NWOT 100% Wool Felt Black Cowboy Hat,The Indian Slave Trade: The Rise of the English Empire in the American South, 1670-1717Larkee Diesel Jeans,Dolce & Gabbana Logo Multicolor Backpack,, ed. Elizabeth Mancke and Carole Shammas (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005), 75-121. For a recent discussion of Indian population decline, see David S. Jones, "Virgin Soils Revisited," Apatite-Colored Stone & Marcasite Frontal Necklace,, 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 703-42.

  10. David Galenson, White Servitude in Colonial America: An Economic AnalysisSPONGELLE SUGAR DAHLIA - BOXED GIFT SET -3 PIECE GIFT SET,Wide sterling silver CZ cage ring 8,Pierre Balmain Men's Navy Blue Wool Cashmere Crewneck Pullover Sweater,William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 58 (January 2001): 17-46. Two good microhistories of the transatlantic slave trade are Robert Harms, *NEW* Jeffree Star WIDOW lip balm,Chanel Le Boy Purse W/ Paperwork,The Two Princes of Calabar: An Eighteenth-Century Atlantic Odyssey (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004).

  11. David Eltis and William G. Clarence-Smith, "White Servitude," NWT - Free People Kaja Vegan leather Bonded Peacoat. Size Large,Thorogood 10” Steel Toe Insulated Men Vibram Waterproof Black Boots Sz 12 USA,SPONGELLE PAPAYA YUZU - BOXED GIFT SET- 3 PIECE GIFT SET, (London: Longman, 1996); Stanley L. Engerman, ed., Terms of Labor: Slavery, Serfdom, and Free Labor (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1999); and Bush, JOURNEE COLLECTION Silver Faux Leather Tillis Pointed-Toe Strap Pumps SZ 7.5, (Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2000).

  12. Frank M. Snowden Jr., Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1970); Snowden, Ugg shoes size 8 tan.,925.Sterling Vintage Onyx Ring Sz 8.,The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2004); Jean Devisse and Michel Mollat, eds., The Image of the Black in Western Art, vol. 2, True religion super Ricky T size 30,Carlos Santana Shawnee Charcoal Beaded Heels 8M,Images of the Medieval PeasantTory Burch Billy black quilted Slipper Shoes 7,Stuart Weitzman Stone Heels Shoes,Nine West Womens Kerianna Black Suede Fashion Dress Over-The-Knee Boots Shoes,White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812UGG Men’s Winter Boots, Size 11,Race: The History of an Idea in the West (Washington, D.C.: The Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1996); the essays in "Constructing Race: Differentiating Peoples in the Early Modern World," William and Mary QuarterlyLouis Vuitton Capucine BB,The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2003). The best account is David Brion Davis, "The Origins of Anti-Black Racism in the New World," chap. 3 in Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World SlaveryDOING THE MOST PATCHWORK MULTI COLORED BOOTIE ( BRAND NEW !!!!!!!! ),

  13. Stella McCartney Flat,Let's size small prom dress, (New York: Norton, 1989); Schwartz, ed., LOEWE Tan Knit Ribbed Oversized Linen Sweater L,, 3.

  14. Frank Tannenbaum, Slave and Citizen: The Negro in the AmericasChanel boy WOC,Neither Black Nor White: Slavery and Race Relations in Brazil and the United States (New York: Macmillan, 1971).

  15. Anthropologie Beachgold Mirage Sana Shirt,Black Yankees: The Development of an Afro-American Subculture in Eighteenth-Century New England (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988); Graham Russell Hodges, Root and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1613-1863Free people Ella Puffer purple Jacket sz L,Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and LowcountryHugo Boss Black Jeremyville Edition Backpack,Levis 501 jeans men’s button fly 33/34 straight,Cole Haan - Never worn black leather pumps,[STS83258] WOMENS SPERRY A/O 2-EYE,Feit hand sewn suede espadrille court shoe,William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 777-808. To this list might be added other forms of aboriginal slavery: see Theda Perdue, J. McLaughlin NWT Savanah Stripe Long Sleeve Shirt, (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1979); William A. Starna and Ralph Watkins, "Northern Iroquoian Slavery," Coach | Chelsea Silver Toe Camel Baller Flat 8.5, 38 (Winter 1991): 34-57; and Leland Donald, Aboriginal Slavery on the Northwest Coast of North America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).

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Sources

  • PRANA Bermuda hiking short sz 4,The Making of New World Slavery: From the Baroque to the Modern, 1492-1800Lovely, steel toed Frye Boots, barely worn,
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  • Davis, David Brion. Theory Riland Striped Wool Blend Pullover Sweater Sz Xl,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003. The first short essay in the volume is a superb introduction to the origins of New World slavery, but it should be complemented by a number of other books by this great historian of New World slavery. I particularly recommend his TRADED- asymmetrical cross necklace 14k GF,Sterling Silver Sun Face Ring Inlaid Sunface Nativ,
  • Davis, Robert C. New Nike Crew Tech Fleece Sweater,Mens Brand New Thorogood Boots Size 12M waterproof,,
  • Diba True Boots Booties Wedge Black suede size 9,A Historical Guide to World Slavery. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. A useful reference work that covers most regions where slavery was important, together with topical examinations of the subject.
  • Crop top reflective jacket,The Rise of African Slavery in the AmericasKey Muscles of Yoga Scientific Keys Volume 1 Guide to Functional Anatomy R. Long,
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  • Finley, M. I. Sam Edelman Loafers 5.5,. Reprint. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980. An exploration of the emergence, functioning, and decline of the slave societies of classical Greece and classical Italy, with comparisons to New World slavery, by the greatest historian of ancient slavery.
  • Fredrickson, George M. Racism: A Short HistoryKramer Vintage Clip Earrings EXCELLENT CONDIT,
  • Nike Air Max LeBron 10 Low Knicks 2012 Size 10.5 579765-800 Orange Blue Black X,Mac L/E Surf Baby lip glass Krazy Kahuna. Contains about 1,000 pictorial images of slavery in Africa and the Americas, arranged thematically.
  • Mens On Cloudswift shoes,Vintage MISSONI for Neiman Marcus rainbow space dyed knit button front jacket,. New York: Hill and Wang, 1993. A good general account by a historian alert to comparative history.
  • Prana Bermuda Shorts sz 4,Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. A good survey of slavery and the evolution of racial prejudice in the Islamic world.
  • Miers, Suzanne, and Igor Kopytoff, eds. Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977. The long introduction on slavery as an "institution of marginality" is a classic, and many of the individual essays on particular regions and groups are stimulating.
  • Miller, Joseph. C., ed. Slavery and Slaving in World History: A Bibliography, 1900-1996. 2 vols. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1999. The most comprehensive work of its kind. Annual updates are available in the journal Men Neumel UGG boots,. The entire bibliography is being prepared for Internet access as a searchable database by the Virginia Center for Digital History at the University of Virginia.
  • Morgan, Philip D. "African Americans." In A Companion to Colonial AmericaAerin Women’s Leopard Ballet Flat,
  • Patterson, Orlando. EOS Vanilla Bean Lip Balm Sphere,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982. The best general survey of slave systems in 66 societies, written by a sociologist.
  • [STS85297] WOMENS SPERRY A/O 2-EYE,The Adelle Ballet Flat in Leather,. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1985. A useful account that focuses on slavery in medieval Europe, the world of Islam, and the rise of the Atlantic slave system.
  • Thornton, John. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1800Vintage - 1940's Yonkers MARTIN's Gray Wool and Mink Collar Midi Coat,

Philip D. Morgan is the Sydney and Ruth Lapidus Professor in the American Revolutionary Era at Princeton University. He is the author of Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998) and coeditor (with Sean Hawkins) of Black Experience and the Empire: The Oxford History of the British Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004). He would like to acknowledge in particular the assistance of David Brion Davis, who generously sent him two early chapters from his forthcoming manuscript, "Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World Slavery."

Authored by

  • Philip D. Morgan
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    Princeton, New Jersey