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Africa and the Slave Trade

Arabs and their Muslim allies were the first to make use of large numbers of sub-Saharan black Africans. They developed a long-distance slave trade, which began in the seventh century and lasted into the twentieth. It delivered many millions of Africans across the Sahara Desert, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean to North Africa, the Mediterranean, and Persian Gulf. Although over a much longer period of time and comprising far more females, the number of Africans exported via these trans-Saharan or Indian Ocean slave trades probably equaled, or even outmatched, those of its transatlantic counterpart. The preexistence of these export trades facilitated Atlantic trade: systems of slave marketing were already in place. So numerous were black Africans at certain times and in certain places that they were able to launch massive slave revolts—in 869, for instance, in what is now southern Iraq, where the so-called Zanj (who came from the Swahili Coast and lands further north) worked in large gangs draining marshlands. While the Quran and Islamic law were essentially color-blind and while Muslims enslaved many so-called "white" people, medieval Arabs came to associate the most degrading forms of labor with black slaves. The Arabic word for slave, 14K Solid Gold Minimalist Pearl Square Frame Ring,Mens Early Winters Parka Size Med,

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The Atlantic Slave System

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As slavery underwent a resurgence in southern Europe, it gradually disappeared from the northwestern part of the continent. Economic changes help to explain this development, but perhaps more important were cultural constraints. Over the course of the Middle Ages, Christians always committed awful atrocities on each other, but increasingly they avoided enslaving one another. Apparently, a sense of unity had emerged in Christian Europe that effectively barred the enslavement of those deemed fellow Europeans. Christianity's long struggle with Islam no doubt played a major role in this development. That from 1500 to 1800 Muslims enslaved well over a million Western Europeans, many of whom were subsequently ransomed and celebrated as symbols of freedom, was a major element in the growing sense that Europeans should never be slaves. Nevertheless, these so-called free labor nations would develop some of the harshest slave regimes in the Americas. As David Brion Davis puts it, "it is an astonishing paradox that the first nations in the world to free themselves of chattel slavery—such nations as England, France, Holland, and even the Scandinavian states—became leaders during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in supporting plantation colonies based on African slave labor." He likens this divide to a primitive Mason-Dixon line, "drawn somewhere in the Atlantic, separating free soil master-states from tainted slave soil dependencies" (8).

This paradox illumines the unpredictability of events in the Americas. No European nation embarked on New World ventures with the intention of enslaving anyone. They had no blueprint but rather proceeded haphazardly and pragmatically. Their first resort was to forced Indian labor (the encomiendaPeter Millar Crown Size XL 100% Cotton Pink Purple Plaid Button Down Shirt,

Consequently, Europeans faced a huge labor shortage. The Ottoman Turkish empire blocked access to Black Sea or Baltic captives. European nations no longer enslaved Christian prisoners of war. Some dreamers talked of enslaving the poor or other marginal groups, but the practical and principled problems of reviving European slavery were considerable. Another expedient was the transportation of convicts, but their numbers were never sufficient. Temporary bondage—indentured servitude—was the most obvious and most widely used other option, particularly in the early years, but servants, if they survived, eventually became free, and in any case most servants would not travel to the areas where most labor was needed. Thus, almost by default, African slaves proved by far the best available labor supply. Consequently, from 1500 to 1820 almost 9 million African slaves left for the New World, compared to less than 3 million whites. In terms of migration, the New World was more black than white (10).

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New World slavery's other most distinctive aspect was its highly commercial character. While it is true that plantations—that is, large agricultural enterprises, managed for profit, producing a crop for export, with a hierarchically stratified labor organization—existed outside the New World, they reached their apogee there. The economies of scale, the expansion in unit size, the almost exclusive use of black slaves, a highly regimented and commodified labor force, and a system of close management all raised profit levels significantly. Such a productive system placed enormous demands on its laborers. As early as the 1630s a visitor to a Jesuit-owned sugar plantation in Brazil vividly described the unbearable horror of what had transpired: "People the color of the very night, working briskly and moaning at the same time without a moment of peace or rest, whoever sees all the confused and noisy machinery and apparatus of this Babylon, even if they have seen Mt. Etna and Vesuvius will say that this indeed is the image of Hell" (13).

Patterns of New World Slavery

Variations over time and space existed within New World slavery. Three stand out. First, although all New World regions imported more African men than women (thereby in part explaining the harshness of New World slavery because of the policing problems associated with large gangs of men), over time the gender ratio among New World slaves became increasingly balanced. In that regard, the North American slave population is most notable, because, as its number of slave women increased the most rapidly, so it became one of the few self-reproducing slave populations in world history. This early and rapid natural increase explains why North America received such a small percentage of the overall transatlantic slave trade—about 5 percent. Second, North America was also distinctive in being much less tolerant of racial intermixture than Latin America or the Caribbean. Once again demography—particularly the ratio of white men to white women (more balanced in North America than in Latin America and the Caribbean) and the availability of black women—was a crucial part of the explanation, but also important were the role of the Church and cultural mores, based as much in Old World patterns of racial coexistence or segregation. The Spanish had mixed with Muslims for centuries; the English had created a Pale in their settlement of Ireland. Only in North America did the extremely arbitrary concept of "Negro"—denoting anyone with allegedly visible African ancestry—assume such a marked stigma. Third, the chances of gaining freedom varied from one society to the next. Except for the period surrounding the American Revolution, the North American colonies, and later the states, imposed the severest restrictions on the chances of a slave becoming free. Again, demography—the proportions of whites and blacks in the population—has some explanatory power as do economic and cultural forces (14).

North American slavery itself was hardly of a piece. The range encompasses New England's intimate "family slavery"; the Mid-Atlantic's mixed forms of slavery and servitude; the Chesapeake's patriarchal, small plantation, mixed farming and tobacco, heavily native-born form of slavery; and the low country's impersonal, large plantation, rice and indigo, more heavily African system of slavery. In addition, various borderland forms existed: from a fluid world of interracial alliances in the Lower Mississippi Valley to a flexible one of fugitives and ex-slaves in Spanish Florida to one in which Indian slaves were transformed from symbols of alliance into commodities of exchange in French Canada (15).

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  1. Nat Nast Mens Sz XL Blue Leaves Silk Short Sleeve Button Up Vacation Shirt,The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-bellum South (New York: Knopf, 1956).

  2. Vintage 70's Fieldmaster brand snow suit Small,International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, ed. David L. Sills and Robert King Merton (New York: Macmillan, 1968), 14: 307-13; Finley, Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology, reprint (Hammondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980), 9, 96, 102, 111, 113-14; Keith Hopkins, Zara blue denim jeans,University gold high top wmns dunk high,Men's Outdoor Life Button Up Shirt SZ XL 46/48 Red Deer Hunting All Over Print, 138 (1993): 3-27; Keith Bradley, Slavery and Society at RomeAmerican Eagle men distressed jeans. Barely worn!,TOMMY HILFIGER Color Block Long Sleeve Button Down Shirt sz. XLg,Golden goose superstars size 38,The Problem of Slavery in Western CultureM.JULIAN WILSONS Men’s Black Leather Jacket,Brand NEW Men’s Levi 511 jeans 30 x 32,Super dry jeans slim fit,

  3. Ralph A. Austen, "The Trans-Saharan Slave Trade: A Tentative Census," Jimmy Choo Black Patent Espadrilles,, ed. Henry A. Gemery and Jan S. Hogendorn (New York: Academic Press, 1979), 23-76; Austen, "The Mediterranean Islamic Slave Trade out of Africa: A Tentative Census," Blugirl Blumarine Snake print embossed Belt Light Purple,NWT Gryson "Alexa" Cranberry Leather Satchel,Encyclopedia of Africa South of the SaharaC C M NHL CENTER ICE AUTHENTIC JACKET,International Journal of African Historical Studies 10 (1977): 443-61; Alexandre Popovic, The Revolt of African Slaves in Iraq in the IIIrd-IXth CenturyNWT TOD’S Sportiva Athletic Sneaker size 39 in blue,Air Jordan OG High University Blue 1s,I am selling my Kyrie Irvin Lucky Charm Edition,NWT Anthropologie Essential corduroy cropped flare, (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998); Shaun E. Marmon, ed., pink and black balenciaga, (Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener, 1998); Minra Tora and John Edward Philips, eds., Slave Elites in the Middle East and Africa: A Comparative StudyBlack Cat Jordan 4,The African Diaspora in the Mediterranean Lands of IslamPrana Mens Slim Lewisville Shirt XXL dark Iron Scratch,Slavery on the Frontiers of IslamGENUINE LEATHER VINTAGE BELT MADE IN ITALY M,

  4. Suzanne Miers and Igor Kopytoff, eds., Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological PerspectivesJones New York Signature Men’s buttons moisture wicking dress shirt in black M,Hilton - Quest Bowling Shirt Short Sleeve SAG / AFTRA logo, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990); John Thornton, KARBON mens XL Shale ski JACKET insulated black gray red PARKA Waterproof,Bonfire Waterproof Ski Jacket, Men's Large,Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in AfricaBeautiful 1941 coach satchel with snakeskin leather,

  5. Nike Air Jordan Retro 11 Grey,Archivum latinitatis medii aeviArandu South American crafted leather/thread detail belt size 90 cm,L'Esclavage dans l'Europe médiévale, vol. 1, Pénisule Ibérique—France (Bruges: De Tempel, 1955); vol. 2, Italie, Colonies Italiennes du Levant, Levant Latin, Empire Bysantin (Ghent: 1977); and Verlinden, The Beginnings of Modern Colonization: Eleven Essays with an IntroductionNWT Club Monaco Pants Size 6 Spring Floral Pink Blue,Slavery and Society in Medieval ScandinaviaCustom cross over jeans (custom),PERFORATE LOGO ESPADRILLE TORY BURCH SIZE 7th, (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 1995); Steven Epstein, Speaking of Slavery: Color, Ethnicity, and Human Bondage in Italy (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2001); and Sally McKee, "Inherited Status and Slavery in Late Medieval Italy and Venetian Crete," ⭐️ GAP 1969 36x34 Slim Fit Jeans,Tory Burch McGraw Smooth Satchel,

  6. Prada espadrille sandals pink,Giorgio Armani Eyes to kill #6 trio palette RARE, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982); Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440-1870 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997), 21-24, 48-86.

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  9. Handmade Vintage,The Early Spanish MainMens north face size M,Giuseppe Zanotti Snake-Embossed Leather Mid-top Zip Sneakers in Pink, (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1992); William L. Sherman, Forced Native Labor in Sixteenth-Century Central AmericaLucky Brand “Sweet Boot” Cut Jeans 4 long,Maxstudio booties,Vintage Escada White Leather Gold Nautical Seahorse Starfish Charm Belt Size 40,The Indian Slave Trade: The Rise of the English Empire in the American South, 1670-1717The north face mens jacket,Pinko grey real leather and fur belt,, ed. Elizabeth Mancke and Carole Shammas (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005), 75-121. For a recent discussion of Indian population decline, see David S. Jones, "Virgin Soils Revisited," CONSTANCE SAUNDERS-2 PC ICONIC DESIGNER BLACK SUIT,, 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 703-42.

  10. David Galenson, White Servitude in Colonial America: An Economic AnalysisNike Air Jordan 1 Retro High “Purple Metallic” NEW,Levi's 511 Khaki Jeans,Marine layer plaid sweater poncho, one size,William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 58 (January 2001): 17-46. Two good microhistories of the transatlantic slave trade are Robert Harms, New ysl,NEW DIANE VIN FURSTENBURG espadrille wedge sandals,The Two Princes of Calabar: An Eighteenth-Century Atlantic Odyssey (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004).

  11. David Eltis and William G. Clarence-Smith, "White Servitude," Eileen Fisher Woman One Size OS Tencel Kimono Cardigan Sweater New Retails 8,Brighton Black Leather & Silver Link Loop Vintage Belt,Saint Laurent Canvas Fun Star Bedford Hightower Sneakers, (London: Longman, 1996); Stanley L. Engerman, ed., Terms of Labor: Slavery, Serfdom, and Free Labor (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1999); and Bush, IRO Gaemy Pant, (Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2000).

  12. Frank M. Snowden Jr., Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1970); Snowden, Madewell Leather Belt New With Tag,David Yurman band continuance ring white topaz,The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2004); Jean Devisse and Michel Mollat, eds., The Image of the Black in Western Art, vol. 2, Vintage Women's Bally Leather Museta Shoe,NIC+ZOE Scuba Jogger,Images of the Medieval PeasantBurton DryRide White Collection Plaid Jacket,Schutz Mella Espadrille Wedge - size 6.5,Celine off white sneakers size 38,White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812Timberland Men’s Short Sleeve Button Front Shirt Size XXL,Race: The History of an Idea in the West (Washington, D.C.: The Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1996); the essays in "Constructing Race: Differentiating Peoples in the Early Modern World," William and Mary QuarterlyIsrael Judaism Ceramic Bowl Dead Sea, Cave Drawings, Hebrew - Rachel Cadmor 12",The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2003). The best account is David Brion Davis, "The Origins of Anti-Black Racism in the New World," chap. 3 in Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World SlaveryBugatchi Longsleeve button Down Shirt,

  13. ZeroXposur Board Brand Jacket,Designer Spring Fall Vest, (New York: Norton, 1989); Schwartz, ed., Vans Sk8-Hi Nightmare on Elm Street,, 3.

  14. Frank Tannenbaum, Slave and Citizen: The Negro in the AmericasChecked High Waisted Trousers,Neither Black Nor White: Slavery and Race Relations in Brazil and the United States (New York: Macmillan, 1971).

  15. Iridescent chalcopyrite Sweetwater Missouri,Black Yankees: The Development of an Afro-American Subculture in Eighteenth-Century New England (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988); Graham Russell Hodges, Root and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1613-1863Tommy Bahama leather and cotton espadrilles,Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and LowcountryCALVIN KLEIN GREY PINSTRIPE SUIT PANTS SZ 14,HIHO Marigot Roll Down Linen Pant,{COACH} Signature “C” Embossed Brown Leather Boots,Coach Gray Heels with Tassels,Bettye Muller espadrille wedges,William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 777-808. To this list might be added other forms of aboriginal slavery: see Theda Perdue, Vintage Skidoo Racing Jacket Bombardier Winter Snowmobile Snow Coat, (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1979); William A. Starna and Ralph Watkins, "Northern Iroquoian Slavery," ❄️Bonfire Snowboarding Company Volt Coat❄️NWOT, 38 (Winter 1991): 34-57; and Leland Donald, Aboriginal Slavery on the Northwest Coast of North America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).

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  • Davis, David Brion. Anthropologie x Moulinette Soeurs Jacket,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003. The first short essay in the volume is a superb introduction to the origins of New World slavery, but it should be complemented by a number of other books by this great historian of New World slavery. I particularly recommend his NWOB Timberland Marge Ankle Boots,Milly leather waist black ankle trousers pants,
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  • Finley, M. I. Vintage Green Casual Corner Blazer & Ski…,. Reprint. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980. An exploration of the emergence, functioning, and decline of the slave societies of classical Greece and classical Italy, with comparisons to New World slavery, by the greatest historian of ancient slavery.
  • Fredrickson, George M. Racism: A Short HistoryEmporio Armani Verde Chiaro Skinny Jean,
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  • Miers, Suzanne, and Igor Kopytoff, eds. Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977. The long introduction on slavery as an "institution of marginality" is a classic, and many of the individual essays on particular regions and groups are stimulating.
  • Miller, Joseph. C., ed. Slavery and Slaving in World History: A Bibliography, 1900-1996. 2 vols. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1999. The most comprehensive work of its kind. Annual updates are available in the journal Bebe Leather Blazer (90’s),. The entire bibliography is being prepared for Internet access as a searchable database by the Virginia Center for Digital History at the University of Virginia.
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  • Thornton, John. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1800Linea Pelle LeatherLaser Cut & Rivet Waist Cincher,

Philip D. Morgan is the Sydney and Ruth Lapidus Professor in the American Revolutionary Era at Princeton University. He is the author of Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998) and coeditor (with Sean Hawkins) of Black Experience and the Empire: The Oxford History of the British Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004). He would like to acknowledge in particular the assistance of David Brion Davis, who generously sent him two early chapters from his forthcoming manuscript, "Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World Slavery."

Authored by

  • Philip D. Morgan
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