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Africa and the Slave Trade

Arabs and their Muslim allies were the first to make use of large numbers of sub-Saharan black Africans. They developed a long-distance slave trade, which began in the seventh century and lasted into the twentieth. It delivered many millions of Africans across the Sahara Desert, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean to North Africa, the Mediterranean, and Persian Gulf. Although over a much longer period of time and comprising far more females, the number of Africans exported via these trans-Saharan or Indian Ocean slave trades probably equaled, or even outmatched, those of its transatlantic counterpart. The preexistence of these export trades facilitated Atlantic trade: systems of slave marketing were already in place. So numerous were black Africans at certain times and in certain places that they were able to launch massive slave revolts—in 869, for instance, in what is now southern Iraq, where the so-called Zanj (who came from the Swahili Coast and lands further north) worked in large gangs draining marshlands. While the Quran and Islamic law were essentially color-blind and while Muslims enslaved many so-called "white" people, medieval Arabs came to associate the most degrading forms of labor with black slaves. The Arabic word for slave, NEW HUDSON judge slouch skinny crop Jean's 31,STRIKING SILVER LOVE KNOT EARRINGS W/CZS,

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The Atlantic Slave System

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As slavery underwent a resurgence in southern Europe, it gradually disappeared from the northwestern part of the continent. Economic changes help to explain this development, but perhaps more important were cultural constraints. Over the course of the Middle Ages, Christians always committed awful atrocities on each other, but increasingly they avoided enslaving one another. Apparently, a sense of unity had emerged in Christian Europe that effectively barred the enslavement of those deemed fellow Europeans. Christianity's long struggle with Islam no doubt played a major role in this development. That from 1500 to 1800 Muslims enslaved well over a million Western Europeans, many of whom were subsequently ransomed and celebrated as symbols of freedom, was a major element in the growing sense that Europeans should never be slaves. Nevertheless, these so-called free labor nations would develop some of the harshest slave regimes in the Americas. As David Brion Davis puts it, "it is an astonishing paradox that the first nations in the world to free themselves of chattel slavery—such nations as England, France, Holland, and even the Scandinavian states—became leaders during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in supporting plantation colonies based on African slave labor." He likens this divide to a primitive Mason-Dixon line, "drawn somewhere in the Atlantic, separating free soil master-states from tainted slave soil dependencies" (8).

This paradox illumines the unpredictability of events in the Americas. No European nation embarked on New World ventures with the intention of enslaving anyone. They had no blueprint but rather proceeded haphazardly and pragmatically. Their first resort was to forced Indian labor (the encomiendatumi briefcase,

Consequently, Europeans faced a huge labor shortage. The Ottoman Turkish empire blocked access to Black Sea or Baltic captives. European nations no longer enslaved Christian prisoners of war. Some dreamers talked of enslaving the poor or other marginal groups, but the practical and principled problems of reviving European slavery were considerable. Another expedient was the transportation of convicts, but their numbers were never sufficient. Temporary bondage—indentured servitude—was the most obvious and most widely used other option, particularly in the early years, but servants, if they survived, eventually became free, and in any case most servants would not travel to the areas where most labor was needed. Thus, almost by default, African slaves proved by far the best available labor supply. Consequently, from 1500 to 1820 almost 9 million African slaves left for the New World, compared to less than 3 million whites. In terms of migration, the New World was more black than white (10).

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New World slavery's other most distinctive aspect was its highly commercial character. While it is true that plantations—that is, large agricultural enterprises, managed for profit, producing a crop for export, with a hierarchically stratified labor organization—existed outside the New World, they reached their apogee there. The economies of scale, the expansion in unit size, the almost exclusive use of black slaves, a highly regimented and commodified labor force, and a system of close management all raised profit levels significantly. Such a productive system placed enormous demands on its laborers. As early as the 1630s a visitor to a Jesuit-owned sugar plantation in Brazil vividly described the unbearable horror of what had transpired: "People the color of the very night, working briskly and moaning at the same time without a moment of peace or rest, whoever sees all the confused and noisy machinery and apparatus of this Babylon, even if they have seen Mt. Etna and Vesuvius will say that this indeed is the image of Hell" (13).

Patterns of New World Slavery

Variations over time and space existed within New World slavery. Three stand out. First, although all New World regions imported more African men than women (thereby in part explaining the harshness of New World slavery because of the policing problems associated with large gangs of men), over time the gender ratio among New World slaves became increasingly balanced. In that regard, the North American slave population is most notable, because, as its number of slave women increased the most rapidly, so it became one of the few self-reproducing slave populations in world history. This early and rapid natural increase explains why North America received such a small percentage of the overall transatlantic slave trade—about 5 percent. Second, North America was also distinctive in being much less tolerant of racial intermixture than Latin America or the Caribbean. Once again demography—particularly the ratio of white men to white women (more balanced in North America than in Latin America and the Caribbean) and the availability of black women—was a crucial part of the explanation, but also important were the role of the Church and cultural mores, based as much in Old World patterns of racial coexistence or segregation. The Spanish had mixed with Muslims for centuries; the English had created a Pale in their settlement of Ireland. Only in North America did the extremely arbitrary concept of "Negro"—denoting anyone with allegedly visible African ancestry—assume such a marked stigma. Third, the chances of gaining freedom varied from one society to the next. Except for the period surrounding the American Revolution, the North American colonies, and later the states, imposed the severest restrictions on the chances of a slave becoming free. Again, demography—the proportions of whites and blacks in the population—has some explanatory power as do economic and cultural forces (14).

North American slavery itself was hardly of a piece. The range encompasses New England's intimate "family slavery"; the Mid-Atlantic's mixed forms of slavery and servitude; the Chesapeake's patriarchal, small plantation, mixed farming and tobacco, heavily native-born form of slavery; and the low country's impersonal, large plantation, rice and indigo, more heavily African system of slavery. In addition, various borderland forms existed: from a fluid world of interracial alliances in the Lower Mississippi Valley to a flexible one of fugitives and ex-slaves in Spanish Florida to one in which Indian slaves were transformed from symbols of alliance into commodities of exchange in French Canada (15).

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  1. Rita Row Green Cotton Fresno Dress - Size Small,The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-bellum South (New York: Knopf, 1956).

  2. GAP 100% Wool Made in Korea Black White Button Down Cardigan,International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, ed. David L. Sills and Robert King Merton (New York: Macmillan, 1968), 14: 307-13; Finley, Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology, reprint (Hammondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980), 9, 96, 102, 111, 113-14; Keith Hopkins, Kate Spade Embellished Black Silk Cashmere Blend Cardigan Sweater Medium,New Ann Taylor NWT chanel style jacket in Ivory,Samsonite Brief Case Notebook Laptop Case Style New Black With Shoulder Strap, 138 (1993): 3-27; Keith Bradley, Slavery and Society at RomeTeal Cache dress size 2,Jack Spade green leather briefcase,Luna by Luna translucent powder,The Problem of Slavery in Western CultureVelvet Fashion Inc Wedding Dress,IBM Think Pad,Authentic Pandora Entwined ring. Size 6,

  3. Ralph A. Austen, "The Trans-Saharan Slave Trade: A Tentative Census," S A L E ✨ White Lace Dress ❤️,, ed. Henry A. Gemery and Jan S. Hogendorn (New York: Academic Press, 1979), 23-76; Austen, "The Mediterranean Islamic Slave Trade out of Africa: A Tentative Census," Youngblood Lights Right Reflecting Highlighter,Ralph Lauren Ricky Bag XL Woman Men Briefcase,Encyclopedia of Africa South of the SaharaJoie Long Balloon Sleeve Button Up Knitted V Neck Blue Soft Cardigan,International Journal of African Historical Studies 10 (1977): 443-61; Alexandre Popovic, The Revolt of African Slaves in Iraq in the IIIrd-IXth CenturyABH Sugar Glow Kit,ZARA KNIT Multicolor Cardigan Sweater Twin Set,NWT brand new Bugatchi shape fit large multicolor letters,David’s bridal - bridesmaid dress, (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998); Shaun E. Marmon, ed., Hartman luggage briefcase never used but with some storage scuffs as seen in pic, (Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener, 1998); Minra Tora and John Edward Philips, eds., Slave Elites in the Middle East and Africa: A Comparative StudyNWT SOUL OF LONDON COTTON SHORT SLEEVE SHIRT SZ L,The African Diaspora in the Mediterranean Lands of IslamNo brand. Leather briefcase,Slavery on the Frontiers of IslamBodysuit mesh,

  4. Suzanne Miers and Igor Kopytoff, eds., Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological PerspectivesRawlings Black Leather Rugged Portfolio Folio Organizer,Levi’s 550 Relaxed Fit Tapered Leg Medium Wash Denim Jeans Size 42x32, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990); John Thornton, Palladium sneakers. Size 9M. Off-white,Louis Vuitton Taiga Serviette Robusto 1 Briefcase,Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in AfricaFree People Mid Summers Day Tunic Medium NWT,

  5. Tan skirt set.,Archivum latinitatis medii aeviDave Ramsay Financial Peace University Membership Kit & Coordinator Guide,L'Esclavage dans l'Europe médiévale, vol. 1, Pénisule Ibérique—France (Bruges: De Tempel, 1955); vol. 2, Italie, Colonies Italiennes du Levant, Levant Latin, Empire Bysantin (Ghent: 1977); and Verlinden, The Beginnings of Modern Colonization: Eleven Essays with an IntroductionMac studio fix powder plus foundation,Slavery and Society in Medieval ScandinaviaMisook XL Cardigan Sweater Knit Yellow Black,Jessica Howard sz 14 Petite seafoam/sage green dress with jacket, (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 1995); Steven Epstein, Speaking of Slavery: Color, Ethnicity, and Human Bondage in Italy (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2001); and Sally McKee, "Inherited Status and Slavery in Late Medieval Italy and Venetian Crete," BNWT New Joie Deme Halter Dress hi-lo Floral M,Madewell KAANAS Sumatra Heels Black Frayed Upper New Size 10,

  6. Peridot Gemstone 925 Earrings,Skechers Meridian air cooled womens shoes size 9.5, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982); Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440-1870 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997), 21-24, 48-86.

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  8. High Low Gold Oscars Dress,American Historical ReviewNew Jack Rogers Lauren Snake Sandles 7.5,ASTR the Label Square Neck Long Sleeve Bodysuit L Ivory Cream, (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003), 14; Robert C. Davis, Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500-1800 (Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave MacMillan, 2003). For more on the development of freedom and slavery, see David Eltis, The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), and Sue Peabody, There Are No Slaves in France: The Political Culture of Race and Slavery in the Ancien RégimeVTG Curio Brown Multitextured Knit Cardigan Sweater Button Front Chunky Cozy XL,

  9. Gorgeous Silver Drop Earrings for Women CZ Zircon Jewelry,The Early Spanish MainIce Creams Billionaires Boys Club Shoes,8.15 August Fifteenth Shirt, (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1992); William L. Sherman, Forced Native Labor in Sixteenth-Century Central AmericaO'Neill Men's Basic Skins Short Sleeve Crew Rashguard Medium UV Protection NEW,Urban decay translucent setting powder,NC7 Mac Studio Fix powder plus foundation,The Indian Slave Trade: The Rise of the English Empire in the American South, 1670-1717HPBanana Republic Animal Print DressMint,unprocessed curly lace frontal wig Brazilian,, ed. Elizabeth Mancke and Carole Shammas (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005), 75-121. For a recent discussion of Indian population decline, see David S. Jones, "Virgin Soils Revisited," WHBM Sleeveless soft turtleneck/tunic extra small,, 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 703-42.

  10. David Galenson, White Servitude in Colonial America: An Economic AnalysisTED BAKER LONDON EMMU LONG SLEEVED LINNEN SHIRT,Frye Women's Motto Boots,Vintage St Dennis Disney Channel Black Leather Flap Satchel Briefcase,William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 58 (January 2001): 17-46. Two good microhistories of the transatlantic slave trade are Robert Harms, Scala Sequined Top and Skirt Set,Eva Mendez Blue Velvet,The Two Princes of Calabar: An Eighteenth-Century Atlantic Odyssey (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004).

  11. David Eltis and William G. Clarence-Smith, "White Servitude," TWO piece (MELANIN,POPPIN) half shirt and skirt,Tumi expandable briefcase. Fits 15" laptop/notebook.,UO Macrame Cotton Rope Storage Bin Laundry Basket, (London: Longman, 1996); Stanley L. Engerman, ed., Terms of Labor: Slavery, Serfdom, and Free Labor (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1999); and Bush, TYR Mens Glisade Jammer, Navy/Gold, Size 34, (Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2000).

  12. Frank M. Snowden Jr., Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1970); Snowden, White Skirt and Blouse Set,THE BRIDGE Vintage College Organizer Briefcase Document Holder Italian Leather,The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2004); Jean Devisse and Michel Mollat, eds., The Image of the Black in Western Art, vol. 2, Billabong UV Surf,Shalwar & kamze,Images of the Medieval PeasantBrooks Launch 5 Womens Size 9 Running Shoes Black Aqua Blue 1202661B090,OUTLAW Western Wear Vintage Mens' Long Sleeve Rodeo Western Style Shirt, L/G,Vintage black First leather motorcycle vest with fringe and chains Size Large,White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812Coach Black Leather and Nylon Briefcase,Race: The History of an Idea in the West (Washington, D.C.: The Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1996); the essays in "Constructing Race: Differentiating Peoples in the Early Modern World," William and Mary QuarterlyNWT Kappa ACTIVE 222 Banda Didy Body Suit Sz M,The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2003). The best account is David Brion Davis, "The Origins of Anti-Black Racism in the New World," chap. 3 in Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World Slaveryone of a kind outfits,

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  14. Frank Tannenbaum, Slave and Citizen: The Negro in the AmericasVintage Levi’s jeans 550 red tab 36 x 34,Neither Black Nor White: Slavery and Race Relations in Brazil and the United States (New York: Macmillan, 1971).

  15. B. Smart High low taffeta green dress,Black Yankees: The Development of an Afro-American Subculture in Eighteenth-Century New England (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988); Graham Russell Hodges, Root and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1613-1863Chico’s Notch Neck Linen Tunic with Sequin Detail (Chico’s Size 0),Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry2-piece Skirt Set,Show Me Your Mimi Fruit Basket Plaza Midi Skirt in Blue and White Stripe,TED BAKER LONDON NWT CHARTZ BIRD PRINT RELAXED FIT BUTTON DOWN SHIRT,HOLIDAY SALE FRANK LYMAN,Print Chintz Jacket.,William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 777-808. To this list might be added other forms of aboriginal slavery: see Theda Perdue, Print Chintz jacket, (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1979); William A. Starna and Ralph Watkins, "Northern Iroquoian Slavery," Men's Coach Brown/Black Color Block Leather Business Briefcase F71639, 38 (Winter 1991): 34-57; and Leland Donald, Aboriginal Slavery on the Northwest Coast of North America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).

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  • Davis, David Brion. BECCA x Chrissy Teigen Flow Face pallette,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003. The first short essay in the volume is a superb introduction to the origins of New World slavery, but it should be complemented by a number of other books by this great historian of New World slavery. I particularly recommend his World Market Mango Wood Serving Bowl Set,Jil Sander 2 Button Black Blazer,
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  • Sitka Plaid Flannel Organic Cotton Button Up Shirt,A Historical Guide to World Slavery. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. A useful reference work that covers most regions where slavery was important, together with topical examinations of the subject.
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  • Finley, M. I. Aleeda Classic Short John Australian Made Wetsuit- Men’s 39 Medium,. Reprint. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980. An exploration of the emergence, functioning, and decline of the slave societies of classical Greece and classical Italy, with comparisons to New World slavery, by the greatest historian of ancient slavery.
  • Fredrickson, George M. Racism: A Short HistoryBoulder Ridge Black Leather Briefcase / Laptop Bag,
  • Selling pitvipers and they are in good quality,Sympli Canada Solid Black Stretch Long Sleeve Single Button Casual Cardigan 14. Contains about 1,000 pictorial images of slavery in Africa and the Americas, arranged thematically.
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  • Miers, Suzanne, and Igor Kopytoff, eds. Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977. The long introduction on slavery as an "institution of marginality" is a classic, and many of the individual essays on particular regions and groups are stimulating.
  • Miller, Joseph. C., ed. Slavery and Slaving in World History: A Bibliography, 1900-1996. 2 vols. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1999. The most comprehensive work of its kind. Annual updates are available in the journal COPY - NWT Zara colorblock cutout bodysuit M,. The entire bibliography is being prepared for Internet access as a searchable database by the Virginia Center for Digital History at the University of Virginia.
  • Morgan, Philip D. "African Americans." In A Companion to Colonial AmericaAnthro One September Barranco Embroidered Tunic XS,
  • Patterson, Orlando. Specs By Lux 'Kovdor' Acetate Frame Sunglasses,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982. The best general survey of slave systems in 66 societies, written by a sociologist.
  • Hurley Women's Dri-FIT Long Sleeve Surf Rashguard Shirt UPF 50+ Sun Protection,Show Me Your MuMu Lace Tunic,. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1985. A useful account that focuses on slavery in medieval Europe, the world of Islam, and the rise of the Atlantic slave system.
  • Thornton, John. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1800R 13 Allison Cropped White Denim Jeans Made In Italy,

Philip D. Morgan is the Sydney and Ruth Lapidus Professor in the American Revolutionary Era at Princeton University. He is the author of Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998) and coeditor (with Sean Hawkins) of Black Experience and the Empire: The Oxford History of the British Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004). He would like to acknowledge in particular the assistance of David Brion Davis, who generously sent him two early chapters from his forthcoming manuscript, "Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World Slavery."

Authored by

  • Philip D. Morgan
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    Princeton, New Jersey