Antecedents and Models
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Africa and the Slave Trade
Arabs and their Muslim allies were the first to make use of large numbers of sub-Saharan black Africans. They developed a long-distance slave trade, which began in the seventh century and lasted into the twentieth. It delivered many millions of Africans across the Sahara Desert, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean to North Africa, the Mediterranean, and Persian Gulf. Although over a much longer period of time and comprising far more females, the number of Africans exported via these trans-Saharan or Indian Ocean slave trades probably equaled, or even outmatched, those of its transatlantic counterpart. The preexistence of these export trades facilitated Atlantic trade: systems of slave marketing were already in place. So numerous were black Africans at certain times and in certain places that they were able to launch massive slave revolts—in 869, for instance, in what is now southern Iraq, where the so-called Zanj (who came from the Swahili Coast and lands further north) worked in large gangs draining marshlands. While the Quran and Islamic law were essentially color-blind and while Muslims enslaved many so-called "white" people, medieval Arabs came to associate the most degrading forms of labor with black slaves. The Arabic word for slave, DL1961 Lara Cropped Flare Step Hem Black 27 Dusk,VICTORIA'S SECRET Very Sexy Set 355,
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The Atlantic Slave System
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This paradox illumines the unpredictability of events in the Americas. No European nation embarked on New World ventures with the intention of enslaving anyone. They had no blueprint but rather proceeded haphazardly and pragmatically. Their first resort was to forced Indian labor (the encomienda26 DRESSES SIZE 6,6x, and 7 GIRL LOT,
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Patterns of New World Slavery
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Twill Twenty Two Cargo Jacket,International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, ed. David L. Sills and Robert King Merton (New York: Macmillan, 1968), 14: 307-13; Finley, Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology, reprint (Hammondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980), 9, 96, 102, 111, 113-14; Keith Hopkins, Under Armour Storm Layered Up Pants XLS,Cole Haan Makeup Cosmetic Bag,Amren Tulano red riding hood velvet cape, 138 (1993): 3-27; Keith Bradley, Slavery and Society at RomeHarley-Davidson women’s motorcycle jacket,Lululemon compression top bundle (2),FUR COAT, MUFF,The Problem of Slavery in Western CultureBlush/Nude & Gold Prom Dress,Quirky Lagenlook Asymmetrical Balloon Hem Dress 2,Size 27 mother crop step fray.faded black color,
Ralph A. Austen, "The Trans-Saharan Slave Trade: A Tentative Census," The Executive Suite Mens Tie Set,, ed. Henry A. Gemery and Jan S. Hogendorn (New York: Academic Press, 1979), 23-76; Austen, "The Mediterranean Islamic Slave Trade out of Africa: A Tentative Census," Nicole Miller Vintage ticket stub tie,Fairytale dreams 30 colors,Encyclopedia of Africa South of the SaharaTOMMY WINDBREAKER,International Journal of African Historical Studies 10 (1977): 443-61; Alexandre Popovic, The Revolt of African Slaves in Iraq in the IIIrd-IXth Century1892 Premium Denim,Jelly Green Lucky Brand Long Varsity Jacket,Chloe Snakeskin Booties,Alexis Yellow Pom Pom Romper, (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998); Shaun E. Marmon, ed., GORGEOUS NWT, Emerald green sequined formal!, (Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener, 1998); Minra Tora and John Edward Philips, eds., Slave Elites in the Middle East and Africa: A Comparative StudyLarge GUCCI Handbag Brown Leather Shoulder strap,The African Diaspora in the Mediterranean Lands of IslamDistressed cropped/frayed hem boyfriend jacket,Slavery on the Frontiers of IslamVix by Paula Hermanny Petrol Bikini Top,
Suzanne Miers and Igor Kopytoff, eds., Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological PerspectivesTracie Asymmetrical Lace Small Dress,Mens size 40, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990); John Thornton, Seattle Seahawks jersey #24 Lynch, Super Bowl XLIX, on field,Josh Smith Atlanta Hawks Adidas Jersey (stitched),Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in AfricaAnthropologie Joie Medium Anchor Sweater Top Navy Blue White Wool Cashmere Light,
Theory silk blend knit dollman knit sweater,Archivum latinitatis medii aeviVintage LOUIS VUITTON Monogram Canvas and Leather Bucket GM Shoulder Bag,L'Esclavage dans l'Europe médiévale, vol. 1, Pénisule Ibérique—France (Bruges: De Tempel, 1955); vol. 2, Italie, Colonies Italiennes du Levant, Levant Latin, Empire Bysantin (Ghent: 1977); and Verlinden, The Beginnings of Modern Colonization: Eleven Essays with an IntroductionNBD Cowl Neck Gown in Wine Red Satin Open Back Maxi Formal Dress Size 4 New,Slavery and Society in Medieval ScandinaviaNWT!!! MICHAEL KORS BAG!,BILLABONG - SPORTS BRA, (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 1995); Steven Epstein, Speaking of Slavery: Color, Ethnicity, and Human Bondage in Italy (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2001); and Sally McKee, "Inherited Status and Slavery in Late Medieval Italy and Venetian Crete," VICI black joggers,❤️ Miss Me JP63348 Bling Jeans Rhinestone Boot Cut K25,
Brooks Hyperion Tempo Blue Lace Up Men’s Running Sneakers Size 14D,Eagles Jersey # 29, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982); Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440-1870 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997), 21-24, 48-86.
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David Galenson, White Servitude in Colonial America: An Economic AnalysisBCBGMAXAZRIA Women’s Plum Colored Dress Size Small,Vintage 80’s 90’s Levi’s Orange Tab 550 Relaxed Tapered Fit Blue Denim Jeans,New Free People Brown Magnolia Macrame Tote Bag,William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 58 (January 2001): 17-46. Two good microhistories of the transatlantic slave trade are Robert Harms, SEA NEW YORK lace & denim shortsuit / romper,Seychelles Blue Suede Platform Wedge Sandals 8.5,The Two Princes of Calabar: An Eighteenth-Century Atlantic Odyssey (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004).
David Eltis and William G. Clarence-Smith, "White Servitude," JAY GODFREY sequined halter romper,Rebecca Taylor Stripe jumpsuit,Betsy Johnson girls dress, (London: Longman, 1996); Stanley L. Engerman, ed., Terms of Labor: Slavery, Serfdom, and Free Labor (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1999); and Bush, NY&CO Curvy Bootcut Denim Jeans For Women, (Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2000).
Frank M. Snowden Jr., Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1970); Snowden, Kids adidas tracksuit WITH shoes,NYDJ 6 Alina Convertible Ankle Jean Pale Guava,The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2004); Jean Devisse and Michel Mollat, eds., The Image of the Black in Western Art, vol. 2, Vintage Metal Bolo Tie, Metal Butterfly, Enamel, Nice Design, Quality, Heavy Dut,NWOT Three Floor Be jeweled dress-S,Images of the Medieval PeasantNWOT JOA sweater,Vintage Urban equipment country jacket,Brand new woods. Rimless with clear lens. Brand new,White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812Price CUT 8, NWT, Michael Kors Coral Bucket Bag,Race: The History of an Idea in the West (Washington, D.C.: The Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1996); the essays in "Constructing Race: Differentiating Peoples in the Early Modern World," William and Mary QuarterlyLevi's 529 Curvy Bootcut Jeans Womens Size 14M/32 White Mid-Rise NWT,The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2003). The best account is David Brion Davis, "The Origins of Anti-Black Racism in the New World," chap. 3 in Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World SlaveryLu lu lemon running jacket,
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Frank Tannenbaum, Slave and Citizen: The Negro in the AmericasLululemon white rest less pullover size 8- worn once!,Neither Black Nor White: Slavery and Race Relations in Brazil and the United States (New York: Macmillan, 1971).
Large vanilla signature Fulton set,Black Yankees: The Development of an Afro-American Subculture in Eighteenth-Century New England (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988); Graham Russell Hodges, Root and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1613-1863Helmut Lang Black Draped Dress,Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and LowcountryNike Kevin Durant Nets Jersey - Men's Size L,Fernando Wong Jumpsuit,Anthropologie Saha Bikini bottom,Victoria’s Secret PINK Knit Full Zip Hoodie Plum,Blue lace dress.,William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 777-808. To this list might be added other forms of aboriginal slavery: see Theda Perdue, GAP jean jacket!, (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1979); William A. Starna and Ralph Watkins, "Northern Iroquoian Slavery," Victoria's Secret Pink & White Cotton Tote Bag, 38 (Winter 1991): 34-57; and Leland Donald, Aboriginal Slavery on the Northwest Coast of North America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).
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- Davis, David Brion. AFLColorado Crush John Dutton#8 Majestic Jersey Size XL X-Large,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003. The first short essay in the volume is a superb introduction to the origins of New World slavery, but it should be complemented by a number of other books by this great historian of New World slavery. I particularly recommend his Coconuts By Matisse Women's 8 Wedge Sandals Black Leather,Valentino Garavani hand bag,
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- Aldo Calf Hair wedge made of leopard/animal print,A Historical Guide to World Slavery. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. A useful reference work that covers most regions where slavery was important, together with topical examinations of the subject.
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- Finley, M. I. Stussy bomber Jacket.,. Reprint. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980. An exploration of the emergence, functioning, and decline of the slave societies of classical Greece and classical Italy, with comparisons to New World slavery, by the greatest historian of ancient slavery.
- Fredrickson, George M. Racism: A Short HistoryDistressed denim jacket (great stretch),
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- Miller, Joseph. C., ed. Slavery and Slaving in World History: A Bibliography, 1900-1996. 2 vols. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1999. The most comprehensive work of its kind. Annual updates are available in the journal Stunning Cargo Camo Dress,. The entire bibliography is being prepared for Internet access as a searchable database by the Virginia Center for Digital History at the University of Virginia.
- Morgan, Philip D. "African Americans." In A Companion to Colonial AmericaReflective 2 piece set,
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