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Africa and the Slave Trade

Arabs and their Muslim allies were the first to make use of large numbers of sub-Saharan black Africans. They developed a long-distance slave trade, which began in the seventh century and lasted into the twentieth. It delivered many millions of Africans across the Sahara Desert, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean to North Africa, the Mediterranean, and Persian Gulf. Although over a much longer period of time and comprising far more females, the number of Africans exported via these trans-Saharan or Indian Ocean slave trades probably equaled, or even outmatched, those of its transatlantic counterpart. The preexistence of these export trades facilitated Atlantic trade: systems of slave marketing were already in place. So numerous were black Africans at certain times and in certain places that they were able to launch massive slave revolts—in 869, for instance, in what is now southern Iraq, where the so-called Zanj (who came from the Swahili Coast and lands further north) worked in large gangs draining marshlands. While the Quran and Islamic law were essentially color-blind and while Muslims enslaved many so-called "white" people, medieval Arabs came to associate the most degrading forms of labor with black slaves. The Arabic word for slave, Dog Bowls Elevated Wood Elevated Dog Bowl Stand with Double Bowls Raised Feeder,NAUGHTY MONKEY SWING LOW FRINGE LEATHER BOOTS 7,

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The Atlantic Slave System

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As slavery underwent a resurgence in southern Europe, it gradually disappeared from the northwestern part of the continent. Economic changes help to explain this development, but perhaps more important were cultural constraints. Over the course of the Middle Ages, Christians always committed awful atrocities on each other, but increasingly they avoided enslaving one another. Apparently, a sense of unity had emerged in Christian Europe that effectively barred the enslavement of those deemed fellow Europeans. Christianity's long struggle with Islam no doubt played a major role in this development. That from 1500 to 1800 Muslims enslaved well over a million Western Europeans, many of whom were subsequently ransomed and celebrated as symbols of freedom, was a major element in the growing sense that Europeans should never be slaves. Nevertheless, these so-called free labor nations would develop some of the harshest slave regimes in the Americas. As David Brion Davis puts it, "it is an astonishing paradox that the first nations in the world to free themselves of chattel slavery—such nations as England, France, Holland, and even the Scandinavian states—became leaders during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in supporting plantation colonies based on African slave labor." He likens this divide to a primitive Mason-Dixon line, "drawn somewhere in the Atlantic, separating free soil master-states from tainted slave soil dependencies" (8).

This paradox illumines the unpredictability of events in the Americas. No European nation embarked on New World ventures with the intention of enslaving anyone. They had no blueprint but rather proceeded haphazardly and pragmatically. Their first resort was to forced Indian labor (the encomiendaShiseido The Makeup Lip Gloss G19,

Consequently, Europeans faced a huge labor shortage. The Ottoman Turkish empire blocked access to Black Sea or Baltic captives. European nations no longer enslaved Christian prisoners of war. Some dreamers talked of enslaving the poor or other marginal groups, but the practical and principled problems of reviving European slavery were considerable. Another expedient was the transportation of convicts, but their numbers were never sufficient. Temporary bondage—indentured servitude—was the most obvious and most widely used other option, particularly in the early years, but servants, if they survived, eventually became free, and in any case most servants would not travel to the areas where most labor was needed. Thus, almost by default, African slaves proved by far the best available labor supply. Consequently, from 1500 to 1820 almost 9 million African slaves left for the New World, compared to less than 3 million whites. In terms of migration, the New World was more black than white (10).

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New World slavery's other most distinctive aspect was its highly commercial character. While it is true that plantations—that is, large agricultural enterprises, managed for profit, producing a crop for export, with a hierarchically stratified labor organization—existed outside the New World, they reached their apogee there. The economies of scale, the expansion in unit size, the almost exclusive use of black slaves, a highly regimented and commodified labor force, and a system of close management all raised profit levels significantly. Such a productive system placed enormous demands on its laborers. As early as the 1630s a visitor to a Jesuit-owned sugar plantation in Brazil vividly described the unbearable horror of what had transpired: "People the color of the very night, working briskly and moaning at the same time without a moment of peace or rest, whoever sees all the confused and noisy machinery and apparatus of this Babylon, even if they have seen Mt. Etna and Vesuvius will say that this indeed is the image of Hell" (13).

Patterns of New World Slavery

Variations over time and space existed within New World slavery. Three stand out. First, although all New World regions imported more African men than women (thereby in part explaining the harshness of New World slavery because of the policing problems associated with large gangs of men), over time the gender ratio among New World slaves became increasingly balanced. In that regard, the North American slave population is most notable, because, as its number of slave women increased the most rapidly, so it became one of the few self-reproducing slave populations in world history. This early and rapid natural increase explains why North America received such a small percentage of the overall transatlantic slave trade—about 5 percent. Second, North America was also distinctive in being much less tolerant of racial intermixture than Latin America or the Caribbean. Once again demography—particularly the ratio of white men to white women (more balanced in North America than in Latin America and the Caribbean) and the availability of black women—was a crucial part of the explanation, but also important were the role of the Church and cultural mores, based as much in Old World patterns of racial coexistence or segregation. The Spanish had mixed with Muslims for centuries; the English had created a Pale in their settlement of Ireland. Only in North America did the extremely arbitrary concept of "Negro"—denoting anyone with allegedly visible African ancestry—assume such a marked stigma. Third, the chances of gaining freedom varied from one society to the next. Except for the period surrounding the American Revolution, the North American colonies, and later the states, imposed the severest restrictions on the chances of a slave becoming free. Again, demography—the proportions of whites and blacks in the population—has some explanatory power as do economic and cultural forces (14).

North American slavery itself was hardly of a piece. The range encompasses New England's intimate "family slavery"; the Mid-Atlantic's mixed forms of slavery and servitude; the Chesapeake's patriarchal, small plantation, mixed farming and tobacco, heavily native-born form of slavery; and the low country's impersonal, large plantation, rice and indigo, more heavily African system of slavery. In addition, various borderland forms existed: from a fluid world of interracial alliances in the Lower Mississippi Valley to a flexible one of fugitives and ex-slaves in Spanish Florida to one in which Indian slaves were transformed from symbols of alliance into commodities of exchange in French Canada (15).

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  1. GBX Corduroy/Denim Moc Top Slip-on Loafers Sz 9M,The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-bellum South (New York: Knopf, 1956).

  2. STEVEN MADDEN LEATHER JACKET,International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, ed. David L. Sills and Robert King Merton (New York: Macmillan, 1968), 14: 307-13; Finley, Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology, reprint (Hammondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980), 9, 96, 102, 111, 113-14; Keith Hopkins, KAREN SCOTT Bermuda Short - New with tag,Silvertone Hammered Bracelet,MARC BY MARC JACOBS BLUE, ORS, WHITE WOOL HAT | MENS, 138 (1993): 3-27; Keith Bradley, Slavery and Society at RomeCabelas Men's Slippers Leather Loafers Walking Fur Moc Toe Brown Size 9 D,Marc Ecko Blackwelder Boots Brown Leather Men's Size 7 Ankle Boots Buckle Strap,Puma Men's Tricot Track Jacket,The Problem of Slavery in Western CultureMAC CUSTOM LIMITED EDITION FACE/LIP/EYE,Guess Plaid Jacket Men’s (Unisex) Size Large,Vionic Orthaheel Caballo Leopard Print Calf Hair Leather Flats Size 6,

  3. Ralph A. Austen, "The Trans-Saharan Slave Trade: A Tentative Census," TANAÏS Sunset to Stars Lip Oil Duo,, ed. Henry A. Gemery and Jan S. Hogendorn (New York: Academic Press, 1979), 23-76; Austen, "The Mediterranean Islamic Slave Trade out of Africa: A Tentative Census," BALLY Black Leather Flats with Embroidered Bow,Tory Burch Leather Loafers 8,Encyclopedia of Africa South of the SaharaDL1961 Blue Denim Skater Jean Shorts Size 26,International Journal of African Historical Studies 10 (1977): 443-61; Alexandre Popovic, The Revolt of African Slaves in Iraq in the IIIrd-IXth CenturyGold circle filigree pendant necklace,7.5" White Bead Bracelet,Adidas Tapper classic,Zara black cape blazers, (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998); Shaun E. Marmon, ed., gorgeous red beaded lace prom dress, (Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener, 1998); Minra Tora and John Edward Philips, eds., Slave Elites in the Middle East and Africa: A Comparative StudyStar Cody Vintage Lightweight Leather Biker Jacket Black Size Medium,The African Diaspora in the Mediterranean Lands of IslamVacation Tote Bundle,Slavery on the Frontiers of IslamLululemon Men’s Medium Blue short Sleeve Shirt with Lycra.,

  4. Suzanne Miers and Igor Kopytoff, eds., Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological PerspectivesYounique lip bundle,Nike dunk highs, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990); John Thornton, Avon Vintage Ring Gold Band Heart Design Size 7,Miss Me Y2K,Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in AfricaCult of Individuality Hagen Raw Denim Straight Leg Selvedge Jeans Size 37,

  5. New Women’s Heart 925 Stamped Diamond Ring,Archivum latinitatis medii aeviVintage LL Bean 5 Panel Embroidered Canvas Hat,L'Esclavage dans l'Europe médiévale, vol. 1, Pénisule Ibérique—France (Bruges: De Tempel, 1955); vol. 2, Italie, Colonies Italiennes du Levant, Levant Latin, Empire Bysantin (Ghent: 1977); and Verlinden, The Beginnings of Modern Colonization: Eleven Essays with an IntroductionHydraPeak Dog Bowl Stainless Steel Insulated 8 Cup,Slavery and Society in Medieval ScandinaviaBally Janelle loafer/slipper white,90s Levi’s 505 Straight Leg Jeans Size 40x30, (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 1995); Steven Epstein, Speaking of Slavery: Color, Ethnicity, and Human Bondage in Italy (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2001); and Sally McKee, "Inherited Status and Slavery in Late Medieval Italy and Venetian Crete," Purple & Pink Czech Glass Wrap Bracelet,Under Armour men’s green fleece lined sweatshirt,

  6. Lucky Brand waterproof suede tan booties - 8M,Vintage 501 Levi’s USA Made! 100% cotton W34 L36, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982); Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440-1870 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997), 21-24, 48-86.

  7. Felipe Fernández-Armesto, Stuart Weitzman suede shoes with tassel 9M,Allen Edmonds Concord Men's Dress Shoes Sz 14 (2A),Levis 505 Straight Leg jeans Orange Tab Size 36 x 32,cle' de peau Lip Gloss n 7,NWT Valentino Bloomy Crossbody Bag,NIKE React Live Sneakers Men's sz 10.5,Vintage high waist linen shorts, (San Francisco: Mellen Research University Press, 1992).

  8. Ms. Mary Beaded Bracelet,American Historical ReviewMephisto Womens Size 8.5 Pewter Gray Emeline Snake-Embossed Leather Ankle Bootie,N347 Vintage 80s Bassett-Walker Corona Beer Sweatshirt Crewneck Pink Medium, (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003), 14; Robert C. Davis, Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500-1800 (Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave MacMillan, 2003). For more on the development of freedom and slavery, see David Eltis, The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), and Sue Peabody, There Are No Slaves in France: The Political Culture of Race and Slavery in the Ancien RégimeVintage Levi’s 569 made | size W38 L34,

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  10. David Galenson, White Servitude in Colonial America: An Economic AnalysisPolo Camo Hampton Relaxed Straight Fit Jeans,John Varvatos Jarvis Punk Boot,VS Body By Victoria Brown Suede Bermuda Shorts 2,William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 58 (January 2001): 17-46. Two good microhistories of the transatlantic slave trade are Robert Harms, Vital Seamless 2.0 Shorts ( Charcoal Marl Gray ),Zara Cheetah Bermuda shorts,The Two Princes of Calabar: An Eighteenth-Century Atlantic Odyssey (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004).

  11. David Eltis and William G. Clarence-Smith, "White Servitude," Rae Dunn HERE COMES SANTA PAWS Christmas CANISTER JAR with Bowl,Zara High Waisted Button Bermuda Shorts In Green,Brooks Brothers “346” Brown Split Toe 10D like new, (London: Longman, 1996); Stanley L. Engerman, ed., Terms of Labor: Slavery, Serfdom, and Free Labor (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1999); and Bush, Vintage MontaVista Computer Software Sweater Medium, (Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2000).

  12. Frank M. Snowden Jr., Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1970); Snowden, Vintage Sterling silver Pandora crown ring,FIGHTING TYPE- Rare Pokémon cards,The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2004); Jean Devisse and Michel Mollat, eds., The Image of the Black in Western Art, vol. 2, Rare Carhartt Custom Beanie,Mezlan Nicola Oxford Semi Brogue Dress Spain US 10,Images of the Medieval PeasantRae Dunn NOM NOM Dog Bowl and DOG MOM Sign Bundle,EUC-Free People Black Stone and Brass Cuff,Adidas TMAC Millennium 2 Basketball Shoe, Rare,White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812Boden Leather Loafers Light Sky Blue Leather 37,Race: The History of an Idea in the West (Washington, D.C.: The Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1996); the essays in "Constructing Race: Differentiating Peoples in the Early Modern World," William and Mary QuarterlyLululemon Pleated Casual Tennis Shorts Multi-color Dot Pockets Womens Size 6,The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2003). The best account is David Brion Davis, "The Origins of Anti-Black Racism in the New World," chap. 3 in Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World SlaveryRachel Roy Belted Black Pencil Skirt,

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  14. Frank Tannenbaum, Slave and Citizen: The Negro in the AmericasVintage dog bowl.,Neither Black Nor White: Slavery and Race Relations in Brazil and the United States (New York: Macmillan, 1971).

  15. Paul Green Lace Up Open Toed Booties,Black Yankees: The Development of an Afro-American Subculture in Eighteenth-Century New England (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988); Graham Russell Hodges, Root and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1613-1863Engagement Ring in Stainless Steel with Simulated Diamonds (cz’s),Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and LowcountryJordan Retro 12 size 9 (no box) worn,Vintage High Rise Jeans | Levi's | 505 | 18L,Cole Haan Great Jones Wingtip Men's Oxfords,NIB Cole Haan Zerogrand 2 Sz 10.5,Sam Edleman Laurs Lug Sole Loafer,William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 777-808. To this list might be added other forms of aboriginal slavery: see Theda Perdue, Vans x MoMa ComfyCush Era Checkered Multi Color Sneakers Mens 10.5 NEW, (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1979); William A. Starna and Ralph Watkins, "Northern Iroquoian Slavery," Dior Addict Lip Maximizer Hyaluronic Lip Plumper in Cherry, 38 (Winter 1991): 34-57; and Leland Donald, Aboriginal Slavery on the Northwest Coast of North America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).

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Sources

  • Coach Urban Hiker Platform Boots,The Making of New World Slavery: From the Baroque to the Modern, 1492-1800GRASS TYPE- Rare Pokémon cards,
  • Adidas high top’s,diesel safado regular slim straight jeans black distressed Sz 30,Peach Pink Glass Pearl 7" Stretchy Bracelet Lot Of 4 Different Bracelets,
  • Michael Kors booties!,Unchained Voices: An Anthology of Black Authors in the English-Speaking World of the Eighteenth CenturyNike Zoom Fly 3 Ekiden Zoom Pack 2020 Size 9.5,
  • Vintage USA LEVIS 505 Orange Tab Jeans 40x30 (tagged 42x32) Distressed Dad 90s,Children of God's Fire: A Documentary History of Black Slavery in BrazilFLORSHEIM Memory Foam Men’s Dress shoes,
  • Davis, David Brion. Catherine Malandrino Suede Boots,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003. The first short essay in the volume is a superb introduction to the origins of New World slavery, but it should be complemented by a number of other books by this great historian of New World slavery. I particularly recommend his Club Monaco leather calf hair leopard print flats 36 1/2 6.5,Chrysoprase Natural Stone Ring Size 7.5 Stamped 925 Sterling Silver Green,
  • Davis, Robert C. Beautiful Born casual all leather shoe!,Silpada Vieques Earrings,
  • Athleta Linen Shorts,A Historical Guide to World Slavery. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. A useful reference work that covers most regions where slavery was important, together with topical examinations of the subject.
  • Abercrombie faux fur mini puffer,The Rise of African Slavery in the AmericasWopet Intelligent dog camera with treat dispenser,
  • NIB Alfani black patent heal shoes 6,Lululemon, NB bundle,Unisa Thigh High Suede Boots Navy Size 8 EUC,
  • Tod’s gommino tie front leather driving moccasin- used only 2x,Macmillan Encyclopedia of World SlaveryBeautiful 2pc 925 Silver White Sapphire Ring New,
  • Finley, M. I. {ASOS} Wrap Front Maxi Dress with Embellishment,. Reprint. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980. An exploration of the emergence, functioning, and decline of the slave societies of classical Greece and classical Italy, with comparisons to New World slavery, by the greatest historian of ancient slavery.
  • Fredrickson, George M. Racism: A Short HistoryBanana Republic Blue Bermuda Stretch Shorts,
  • Vintage Karen Kane Maxi Dress & Coordinating Vest,Voluas Automatic pet feeder. Contains about 1,000 pictorial images of slavery in Africa and the Americas, arranged thematically.
  • Cole Haan black leather pull on boots 9 Med,Anne Klein Gold Bracelet with Red Stones Three Stranded Charm Dangle,. New York: Hill and Wang, 1993. A good general account by a historian alert to comparative history.
  • Duluth Trading Co Alaskan Hardgear Boots,Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. A good survey of slavery and the evolution of racial prejudice in the Islamic world.
  • Miers, Suzanne, and Igor Kopytoff, eds. Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977. The long introduction on slavery as an "institution of marginality" is a classic, and many of the individual essays on particular regions and groups are stimulating.
  • Miller, Joseph. C., ed. Slavery and Slaving in World History: A Bibliography, 1900-1996. 2 vols. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1999. The most comprehensive work of its kind. Annual updates are available in the journal Antique Filigree Bracelet,. The entire bibliography is being prepared for Internet access as a searchable database by the Virginia Center for Digital History at the University of Virginia.
  • Morgan, Philip D. "African Americans." In A Companion to Colonial AmericaAuthentic Joya black leather watch,
  • Patterson, Orlando. Fleo shorts size M!,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982. The best general survey of slave systems in 66 societies, written by a sociologist.
  • SHIVAM BLUE QUARTZ BEADS STRETCH BRACELET W/ GP BRASS LOTUS FLOWER CHARM,NIB Fenty Beauty Lip Gloss,. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1985. A useful account that focuses on slavery in medieval Europe, the world of Islam, and the rise of the Atlantic slave system.
  • Thornton, John. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1800Brighton Rand Booties Heels Black Silver 7M,

Philip D. Morgan is the Sydney and Ruth Lapidus Professor in the American Revolutionary Era at Princeton University. He is the author of Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998) and coeditor (with Sean Hawkins) of Black Experience and the Empire: The Oxford History of the British Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004). He would like to acknowledge in particular the assistance of David Brion Davis, who generously sent him two early chapters from his forthcoming manuscript, "Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World Slavery."

Authored by

  • Philip D. Morgan
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    Princeton, New Jersey