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Africa and the Slave Trade

Arabs and their Muslim allies were the first to make use of large numbers of sub-Saharan black Africans. They developed a long-distance slave trade, which began in the seventh century and lasted into the twentieth. It delivered many millions of Africans across the Sahara Desert, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean to North Africa, the Mediterranean, and Persian Gulf. Although over a much longer period of time and comprising far more females, the number of Africans exported via these trans-Saharan or Indian Ocean slave trades probably equaled, or even outmatched, those of its transatlantic counterpart. The preexistence of these export trades facilitated Atlantic trade: systems of slave marketing were already in place. So numerous were black Africans at certain times and in certain places that they were able to launch massive slave revolts—in 869, for instance, in what is now southern Iraq, where the so-called Zanj (who came from the Swahili Coast and lands further north) worked in large gangs draining marshlands. While the Quran and Islamic law were essentially color-blind and while Muslims enslaved many so-called "white" people, medieval Arabs came to associate the most degrading forms of labor with black slaves. The Arabic word for slave, Hand beaded beautiful purple bracelet by JoJo the BoHo artist from Venice,J BRAND Sasha Shadow Skinny Jeans,

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The Atlantic Slave System

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As slavery underwent a resurgence in southern Europe, it gradually disappeared from the northwestern part of the continent. Economic changes help to explain this development, but perhaps more important were cultural constraints. Over the course of the Middle Ages, Christians always committed awful atrocities on each other, but increasingly they avoided enslaving one another. Apparently, a sense of unity had emerged in Christian Europe that effectively barred the enslavement of those deemed fellow Europeans. Christianity's long struggle with Islam no doubt played a major role in this development. That from 1500 to 1800 Muslims enslaved well over a million Western Europeans, many of whom were subsequently ransomed and celebrated as symbols of freedom, was a major element in the growing sense that Europeans should never be slaves. Nevertheless, these so-called free labor nations would develop some of the harshest slave regimes in the Americas. As David Brion Davis puts it, "it is an astonishing paradox that the first nations in the world to free themselves of chattel slavery—such nations as England, France, Holland, and even the Scandinavian states—became leaders during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in supporting plantation colonies based on African slave labor." He likens this divide to a primitive Mason-Dixon line, "drawn somewhere in the Atlantic, separating free soil master-states from tainted slave soil dependencies" (8).

This paradox illumines the unpredictability of events in the Americas. No European nation embarked on New World ventures with the intention of enslaving anyone. They had no blueprint but rather proceeded haphazardly and pragmatically. Their first resort was to forced Indian labor (the encomiendaSapphire steam straightener,

Consequently, Europeans faced a huge labor shortage. The Ottoman Turkish empire blocked access to Black Sea or Baltic captives. European nations no longer enslaved Christian prisoners of war. Some dreamers talked of enslaving the poor or other marginal groups, but the practical and principled problems of reviving European slavery were considerable. Another expedient was the transportation of convicts, but their numbers were never sufficient. Temporary bondage—indentured servitude—was the most obvious and most widely used other option, particularly in the early years, but servants, if they survived, eventually became free, and in any case most servants would not travel to the areas where most labor was needed. Thus, almost by default, African slaves proved by far the best available labor supply. Consequently, from 1500 to 1820 almost 9 million African slaves left for the New World, compared to less than 3 million whites. In terms of migration, the New World was more black than white (10).

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New World slavery's other most distinctive aspect was its highly commercial character. While it is true that plantations—that is, large agricultural enterprises, managed for profit, producing a crop for export, with a hierarchically stratified labor organization—existed outside the New World, they reached their apogee there. The economies of scale, the expansion in unit size, the almost exclusive use of black slaves, a highly regimented and commodified labor force, and a system of close management all raised profit levels significantly. Such a productive system placed enormous demands on its laborers. As early as the 1630s a visitor to a Jesuit-owned sugar plantation in Brazil vividly described the unbearable horror of what had transpired: "People the color of the very night, working briskly and moaning at the same time without a moment of peace or rest, whoever sees all the confused and noisy machinery and apparatus of this Babylon, even if they have seen Mt. Etna and Vesuvius will say that this indeed is the image of Hell" (13).

Patterns of New World Slavery

Variations over time and space existed within New World slavery. Three stand out. First, although all New World regions imported more African men than women (thereby in part explaining the harshness of New World slavery because of the policing problems associated with large gangs of men), over time the gender ratio among New World slaves became increasingly balanced. In that regard, the North American slave population is most notable, because, as its number of slave women increased the most rapidly, so it became one of the few self-reproducing slave populations in world history. This early and rapid natural increase explains why North America received such a small percentage of the overall transatlantic slave trade—about 5 percent. Second, North America was also distinctive in being much less tolerant of racial intermixture than Latin America or the Caribbean. Once again demography—particularly the ratio of white men to white women (more balanced in North America than in Latin America and the Caribbean) and the availability of black women—was a crucial part of the explanation, but also important were the role of the Church and cultural mores, based as much in Old World patterns of racial coexistence or segregation. The Spanish had mixed with Muslims for centuries; the English had created a Pale in their settlement of Ireland. Only in North America did the extremely arbitrary concept of "Negro"—denoting anyone with allegedly visible African ancestry—assume such a marked stigma. Third, the chances of gaining freedom varied from one society to the next. Except for the period surrounding the American Revolution, the North American colonies, and later the states, imposed the severest restrictions on the chances of a slave becoming free. Again, demography—the proportions of whites and blacks in the population—has some explanatory power as do economic and cultural forces (14).

North American slavery itself was hardly of a piece. The range encompasses New England's intimate "family slavery"; the Mid-Atlantic's mixed forms of slavery and servitude; the Chesapeake's patriarchal, small plantation, mixed farming and tobacco, heavily native-born form of slavery; and the low country's impersonal, large plantation, rice and indigo, more heavily African system of slavery. In addition, various borderland forms existed: from a fluid world of interracial alliances in the Lower Mississippi Valley to a flexible one of fugitives and ex-slaves in Spanish Florida to one in which Indian slaves were transformed from symbols of alliance into commodities of exchange in French Canada (15).

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  1. New England Patriots Authentic Nike NFL Players Jersey, Brady 12 Mens size XL,The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-bellum South (New York: Knopf, 1956).

  2. 14K Gold Filled Box Chain Medallion Hexagon Pendant Necklace Gift for Her,International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, ed. David L. Sills and Robert King Merton (New York: Macmillan, 1968), 14: 307-13; Finley, Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology, reprint (Hammondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980), 9, 96, 102, 111, 113-14; Keith Hopkins, Aquamarine Prom Dreas,KAWS Sesame Street tee,LEVI'S 711 Women's Distressed Skinny Jeans, 138 (1993): 3-27; Keith Bradley, Slavery and Society at RomeTulle Peacoat from Anthropologie - Wine, Burgundy - Size Medium,Athleta Ponte Straight Leg Pants Black/Grey 24PE,14K Gold Filled Box Chain Round Sun Pendant Necklace Gift for Her Mothers Day,The Problem of Slavery in Western CultureVICTORIA & BEALE YVES 9034 Flat Coffee Cup&Saucer,LAST ONE‼️NEW leather backpack/messenger bag,️Lauren Ralph Lauren cords,

  3. Ralph A. Austen, "The Trans-Saharan Slave Trade: A Tentative Census," Tory Burch Honour Flat Front Skinny,, ed. Henry A. Gemery and Jan S. Hogendorn (New York: Academic Press, 1979), 23-76; Austen, "The Mediterranean Islamic Slave Trade out of Africa: A Tentative Census," RARE Vintage Dragonfly shorts Al Pacino Tony Montana Scarface Sz 33,Handcrafted Purple Spiral Crystal Toggle Bracelet,Encyclopedia of Africa South of the SaharaPendleton lambs wool silk blend tweed jacket blazer leather trim 16 like new,International Journal of African Historical Studies 10 (1977): 443-61; Alexandre Popovic, The Revolt of African Slaves in Iraq in the IIIrd-IXth Century☘️NWT! (2) Minnie Mouse Disney Ceramic Floral Water Color Dinner Bowls,Agolde Pull over,Madewell corduroy royal blue pants 29,Women’s long sleeved crop top high waisted short, (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998); Shaun E. Marmon, ed., Levi’s Sample Garment Women’s Embroidered Denim Jean Jacket Size Small, (Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener, 1998); Minra Tora and John Edward Philips, eds., Slave Elites in the Middle East and Africa: A Comparative StudySilver Round Cut Cubic Zirconia Ring,The African Diaspora in the Mediterranean Lands of IslamLEVI'S 550 RELAXED FIT TAPERED LEG Vintage Medium Blue Mom High Rise Jeans 14 M,Slavery on the Frontiers of IslamNEW REEBOK black pink floatride smooth running sneakers us women’s size 7,

  4. Suzanne Miers and Igor Kopytoff, eds., Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological PerspectivesSteve Madden Black Ladies Winter Coat Size S,Madewell 11” high rise flare, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990); John Thornton, NEW REEBOK black knit plaid outsole flash film running sneakers women’s size 7,Zara blazer size SMALL,Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in AfricaNew York Rangers CCM Jersey National Hockey League Made Retro Vintage 2XL,

  5. Vans SK8-HI Tapered Retrocali Pure Pink High Top Women's Shoes Size VN0A4U164U1,Archivum latinitatis medii aeviVintage Warner Brother Bugs Tweety Daffy Sylvester,L'Esclavage dans l'Europe médiévale, vol. 1, Pénisule Ibérique—France (Bruges: De Tempel, 1955); vol. 2, Italie, Colonies Italiennes du Levant, Levant Latin, Empire Bysantin (Ghent: 1977); and Verlinden, The Beginnings of Modern Colonization: Eleven Essays with an IntroductionZilli Women’s Vintage Black Leather Jacket,Slavery and Society in Medieval ScandinaviaVintage Lanlease Lady’s Suit,Vintage lakers T-Shirt, Kobe Bryant 2009 lakers champion shirt size X-LARGE XL, (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 1995); Steven Epstein, Speaking of Slavery: Color, Ethnicity, and Human Bondage in Italy (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2001); and Sally McKee, "Inherited Status and Slavery in Late Medieval Italy and Venetian Crete," MADEWELL 9" High-Riser Skinny Skinny Jeans,Buffalo Sabres Fanatics Jersey NWOT National Hockey League Throwback White Away,

  6. Non Tarnish Gold Heart Pendant Necklace Heart Charm on 14K Gold Filled Box Chain,Ray-Ban ERIKA @COLLECTION (Brown & Gold), (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982); Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440-1870 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997), 21-24, 48-86.

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  8. Nashville Predators NWT Fanatics National Hockey League P.K. Subban White 3XL,American Historical ReviewMadewell Purple Sweater Cardigan XS,Free People Grey Good Karma Crop Top, (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003), 14; Robert C. Davis, Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500-1800 (Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave MacMillan, 2003). For more on the development of freedom and slavery, see David Eltis, The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), and Sue Peabody, There Are No Slaves in France: The Political Culture of Race and Slavery in the Ancien RégimeColorful Summer Russian Spiral Bracelet,

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  11. David Eltis and William G. Clarence-Smith, "White Servitude," Nashville Predators NWT Fanatics National Hockey League P.K. Subban Gold Home XL,FRYE Ivy Low Lace Sneaker Gold Size 7.5,Noctex jeans, (London: Longman, 1996); Stanley L. Engerman, ed., Terms of Labor: Slavery, Serfdom, and Free Labor (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1999); and Bush, Vintage Nike T Shirt size XL, (Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2000).

  12. Frank M. Snowden Jr., Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1970); Snowden, Eddie Aikau Quiksilver Boardshorts Men's Size 33 Inner Mesh Lining Quick Dry,14K Gold Filled Box Chain Little Angel Coin Medallion Cherub Pendant Necklace,The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2004); Jean Devisse and Michel Mollat, eds., The Image of the Black in Western Art, vol. 2, Rag & Bone size 26 10 in flare,DNA Haritools Rose Gold Straightener,Images of the Medieval PeasantI’m selling the light aqua Jordan 12’s,Happy Weekend crop sweater med size! Bucket list,VANS Women's Size VN0A5FCAOFW SKATE SLIP-ON OFF Canvas Suede White Low Sneakers,White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812af1 shadow summit white team orange,Race: The History of an Idea in the West (Washington, D.C.: The Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1996); the essays in "Constructing Race: Differentiating Peoples in the Early Modern World," William and Mary QuarterlyCalvin Klein | Marybelle Saffiano Leather Top Zip Satchel,The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2003). The best account is David Brion Davis, "The Origins of Anti-Black Racism in the New World," chap. 3 in Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World SlaveryLevi’s 505 straight leg high waist jeans 30/34,

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  14. Frank Tannenbaum, Slave and Citizen: The Negro in the AmericasWEDDING RI,Neither Black Nor White: Slavery and Race Relations in Brazil and the United States (New York: Macmillan, 1971).

  15. Elite Collection - 10 brush set - never used,Black Yankees: The Development of an Afro-American Subculture in Eighteenth-Century New England (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988); Graham Russell Hodges, Root and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1613-1863New York and Company Burgundy Coat,Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and LowcountryVince Warren Hydrangea Platform Sneakers,Vintage 1950s Boy Scout hat,Vintage 90s spiderman Shirt,True & Co. Women's True Body Lift Full Cup Triangle Bra S Wire-Free Desert Tan,Pflatzgraff Napoli Soup Bowl Set,William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 777-808. To this list might be added other forms of aboriginal slavery: see Theda Perdue, White Quartz Heart Charm 925 Real Silver, (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1979); William A. Starna and Ralph Watkins, "Northern Iroquoian Slavery," Light purple halter dress never worn, 38 (Winter 1991): 34-57; and Leland Donald, Aboriginal Slavery on the Northwest Coast of North America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).

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Sources

  • Polo Bear Yellow Tee beach Bear,The Making of New World Slavery: From the Baroque to the Modern, 1492-1800Vintage 80’s Women’s Harley-Davidson Jacket,
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  • Davis, David Brion. VANS Sk8-Hi Otwwebbing Suede Blue Sneakers Women's Size VN0A4U3C2NZ,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003. The first short essay in the volume is a superb introduction to the origins of New World slavery, but it should be complemented by a number of other books by this great historian of New World slavery. I particularly recommend his JOSEPH Tweed Pattern Jacket,BODEN BLAZER,
  • Davis, Robert C. JCPenney Melamine Sunflower Bowls Set of 4 Yellow Green Patio Picnic Outdoor,NWT Mistress Rocks pink bodysuit,
  • Nike Air Zoom Vomero 9 Size 8.5,A Historical Guide to World Slavery. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. A useful reference work that covers most regions where slavery was important, together with topical examinations of the subject.
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  • Finley, M. I. Zara Black Faux Vegan Leather Crop Top NWT,. Reprint. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980. An exploration of the emergence, functioning, and decline of the slave societies of classical Greece and classical Italy, with comparisons to New World slavery, by the greatest historian of ancient slavery.
  • Fredrickson, George M. Racism: A Short HistoryEtienne Aigner trench coat. size 8,
  • FRESHWATER PEARLS | Gold-filled Silver Bracelet,Navy Raincoat - 40R. Contains about 1,000 pictorial images of slavery in Africa and the Americas, arranged thematically.
  • Bundle brushes,Short Sleeve red Tee Polo Bear XL,. New York: Hill and Wang, 1993. A good general account by a historian alert to comparative history.
  • ALLBIRDS Women's Light Blue The Wool Runners Sneaker Shoe 9 Sustainable Organic,Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. A good survey of slavery and the evolution of racial prejudice in the Islamic world.
  • Miers, Suzanne, and Igor Kopytoff, eds. Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977. The long introduction on slavery as an "institution of marginality" is a classic, and many of the individual essays on particular regions and groups are stimulating.
  • Miller, Joseph. C., ed. Slavery and Slaving in World History: A Bibliography, 1900-1996. 2 vols. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1999. The most comprehensive work of its kind. Annual updates are available in the journal PINK GLASS TENNIS BRACELET WITH CUBIC ZIRCONIA,. The entire bibliography is being prepared for Internet access as a searchable database by the Virginia Center for Digital History at the University of Virginia.
  • Morgan, Philip D. "African Americans." In A Companion to Colonial AmericaSorel Boots 7.5,
  • Patterson, Orlando. White Tee short sleeve Polo Bear XXL,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982. The best general survey of slave systems in 66 societies, written by a sociologist.
  • Vintage Pier 1 Per14 Plate & Bowl Set,Vince Sneaker Slip On Velvet Blair Black 8.5,. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1985. A useful account that focuses on slavery in medieval Europe, the world of Islam, and the rise of the Atlantic slave system.
  • Thornton, John. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1800LIKE NEW - Vince Moto Leather Jacket, Brown, Size Medium,

Philip D. Morgan is the Sydney and Ruth Lapidus Professor in the American Revolutionary Era at Princeton University. He is the author of Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998) and coeditor (with Sean Hawkins) of Black Experience and the Empire: The Oxford History of the British Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004). He would like to acknowledge in particular the assistance of David Brion Davis, who generously sent him two early chapters from his forthcoming manuscript, "Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World Slavery."

Authored by

  • Philip D. Morgan
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    Princeton, New Jersey