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Africa and the Slave Trade

Arabs and their Muslim allies were the first to make use of large numbers of sub-Saharan black Africans. They developed a long-distance slave trade, which began in the seventh century and lasted into the twentieth. It delivered many millions of Africans across the Sahara Desert, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean to North Africa, the Mediterranean, and Persian Gulf. Although over a much longer period of time and comprising far more females, the number of Africans exported via these trans-Saharan or Indian Ocean slave trades probably equaled, or even outmatched, those of its transatlantic counterpart. The preexistence of these export trades facilitated Atlantic trade: systems of slave marketing were already in place. So numerous were black Africans at certain times and in certain places that they were able to launch massive slave revolts—in 869, for instance, in what is now southern Iraq, where the so-called Zanj (who came from the Swahili Coast and lands further north) worked in large gangs draining marshlands. While the Quran and Islamic law were essentially color-blind and while Muslims enslaved many so-called "white" people, medieval Arabs came to associate the most degrading forms of labor with black slaves. The Arabic word for slave, NWOB Red Wings Moc Toe Oxford Brown Shoes,Beautiful dark brown short leather skirt(not fake ),

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The Atlantic Slave System

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As slavery underwent a resurgence in southern Europe, it gradually disappeared from the northwestern part of the continent. Economic changes help to explain this development, but perhaps more important were cultural constraints. Over the course of the Middle Ages, Christians always committed awful atrocities on each other, but increasingly they avoided enslaving one another. Apparently, a sense of unity had emerged in Christian Europe that effectively barred the enslavement of those deemed fellow Europeans. Christianity's long struggle with Islam no doubt played a major role in this development. That from 1500 to 1800 Muslims enslaved well over a million Western Europeans, many of whom were subsequently ransomed and celebrated as symbols of freedom, was a major element in the growing sense that Europeans should never be slaves. Nevertheless, these so-called free labor nations would develop some of the harshest slave regimes in the Americas. As David Brion Davis puts it, "it is an astonishing paradox that the first nations in the world to free themselves of chattel slavery—such nations as England, France, Holland, and even the Scandinavian states—became leaders during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in supporting plantation colonies based on African slave labor." He likens this divide to a primitive Mason-Dixon line, "drawn somewhere in the Atlantic, separating free soil master-states from tainted slave soil dependencies" (8).

This paradox illumines the unpredictability of events in the Americas. No European nation embarked on New World ventures with the intention of enslaving anyone. They had no blueprint but rather proceeded haphazardly and pragmatically. Their first resort was to forced Indian labor (the encomiendaDuo! 1 Rosé all Day LipSense, 1 Glossy Gloss,

Consequently, Europeans faced a huge labor shortage. The Ottoman Turkish empire blocked access to Black Sea or Baltic captives. European nations no longer enslaved Christian prisoners of war. Some dreamers talked of enslaving the poor or other marginal groups, but the practical and principled problems of reviving European slavery were considerable. Another expedient was the transportation of convicts, but their numbers were never sufficient. Temporary bondage—indentured servitude—was the most obvious and most widely used other option, particularly in the early years, but servants, if they survived, eventually became free, and in any case most servants would not travel to the areas where most labor was needed. Thus, almost by default, African slaves proved by far the best available labor supply. Consequently, from 1500 to 1820 almost 9 million African slaves left for the New World, compared to less than 3 million whites. In terms of migration, the New World was more black than white (10).

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New World slavery's other most distinctive aspect was its highly commercial character. While it is true that plantations—that is, large agricultural enterprises, managed for profit, producing a crop for export, with a hierarchically stratified labor organization—existed outside the New World, they reached their apogee there. The economies of scale, the expansion in unit size, the almost exclusive use of black slaves, a highly regimented and commodified labor force, and a system of close management all raised profit levels significantly. Such a productive system placed enormous demands on its laborers. As early as the 1630s a visitor to a Jesuit-owned sugar plantation in Brazil vividly described the unbearable horror of what had transpired: "People the color of the very night, working briskly and moaning at the same time without a moment of peace or rest, whoever sees all the confused and noisy machinery and apparatus of this Babylon, even if they have seen Mt. Etna and Vesuvius will say that this indeed is the image of Hell" (13).

Patterns of New World Slavery

Variations over time and space existed within New World slavery. Three stand out. First, although all New World regions imported more African men than women (thereby in part explaining the harshness of New World slavery because of the policing problems associated with large gangs of men), over time the gender ratio among New World slaves became increasingly balanced. In that regard, the North American slave population is most notable, because, as its number of slave women increased the most rapidly, so it became one of the few self-reproducing slave populations in world history. This early and rapid natural increase explains why North America received such a small percentage of the overall transatlantic slave trade—about 5 percent. Second, North America was also distinctive in being much less tolerant of racial intermixture than Latin America or the Caribbean. Once again demography—particularly the ratio of white men to white women (more balanced in North America than in Latin America and the Caribbean) and the availability of black women—was a crucial part of the explanation, but also important were the role of the Church and cultural mores, based as much in Old World patterns of racial coexistence or segregation. The Spanish had mixed with Muslims for centuries; the English had created a Pale in their settlement of Ireland. Only in North America did the extremely arbitrary concept of "Negro"—denoting anyone with allegedly visible African ancestry—assume such a marked stigma. Third, the chances of gaining freedom varied from one society to the next. Except for the period surrounding the American Revolution, the North American colonies, and later the states, imposed the severest restrictions on the chances of a slave becoming free. Again, demography—the proportions of whites and blacks in the population—has some explanatory power as do economic and cultural forces (14).

North American slavery itself was hardly of a piece. The range encompasses New England's intimate "family slavery"; the Mid-Atlantic's mixed forms of slavery and servitude; the Chesapeake's patriarchal, small plantation, mixed farming and tobacco, heavily native-born form of slavery; and the low country's impersonal, large plantation, rice and indigo, more heavily African system of slavery. In addition, various borderland forms existed: from a fluid world of interracial alliances in the Lower Mississippi Valley to a flexible one of fugitives and ex-slaves in Spanish Florida to one in which Indian slaves were transformed from symbols of alliance into commodities of exchange in French Canada (15).

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  1. Octagon Black Stone Carved Box Jar Canister Etched Floral Flower Vintage,The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-bellum South (New York: Knopf, 1956).

  2. Free People Oversized Boyfriend Cardigan Sweater Small,International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, ed. David L. Sills and Robert King Merton (New York: Macmillan, 1968), 14: 307-13; Finley, Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology, reprint (Hammondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980), 9, 96, 102, 111, 113-14; Keith Hopkins, Coldwater Creek skirt PXS,NWT Anthro Farm Rio Palila Fringe Tropical Parrot Print Flowy Midi Dress,Dress The Population V-neck Black Bronze Sequins Animal print dress Sz. XL, 138 (1993): 3-27; Keith Bradley, Slavery and Society at RomeBetsy Johnson Crocheted Skir Pink and White,Free People Gray Tie Dye Coastal long sleeve Top S,Max Studio brown blazer size 12,The Problem of Slavery in Western CultureConverse All Star Chuck Taylor Leather Shearling High Top Sneakers,Kate Spade New York purse. Small shoulder bag. Pink.,Tank Top. NWT.,

  3. Ralph A. Austen, "The Trans-Saharan Slave Trade: A Tentative Census," Like New Purple North Face Jacket with Detachable Fur Hood,, ed. Henry A. Gemery and Jan S. Hogendorn (New York: Academic Press, 1979), 23-76; Austen, "The Mediterranean Islamic Slave Trade out of Africa: A Tentative Census," Very elegant black evning dress color black size 12 it has all the tags on it,J Brand Womens Denim Relaxed Fit Distressed Bermuda Women's Shorts Blue SZ 28,Encyclopedia of Africa South of the SaharaBrand New Louis Vuitton Neverfull GM,International Journal of African Historical Studies 10 (1977): 443-61; Alexandre Popovic, The Revolt of African Slaves in Iraq in the IIIrd-IXth CenturyAnchor Hocking Soreno Gold Bowl,Talbots sunshine yellow textured open blazer,Harve Benard charcoal gray blazer,NWT Lilly Pulitzer Chipper Short Croc My World, 00, (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998); Shaun E. Marmon, ed., Red fur parka, (Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener, 1998); Minra Tora and John Edward Philips, eds., Slave Elites in the Middle East and Africa: A Comparative StudyCoach Citysole Runner G4969 Aqua,The African Diaspora in the Mediterranean Lands of IslamGIVENCHY Le Rouge Couture Edition#306 CARMIN ESCAR,Slavery on the Frontiers of IslamBlack and white plaid curtains set,

  4. Suzanne Miers and Igor Kopytoff, eds., Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological PerspectivesLucky Brand 30x32 khaki pants,The North Face Gotham Jacket size Medium, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990); John Thornton, Coogi Jeans mens colorfully embroidery black 42x35,Flirty Lingerie,Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in AfricaKate spade ♠️ New York navy wool kilt wrap skirt 6,

  5. Vila Milano Black/Eggwhite Open Front Cardigan,Archivum latinitatis medii aeviNarciso Rodriguez Italian-made Aline skirt size 6,L'Esclavage dans l'Europe médiévale, vol. 1, Pénisule Ibérique—France (Bruges: De Tempel, 1955); vol. 2, Italie, Colonies Italiennes du Levant, Levant Latin, Empire Bysantin (Ghent: 1977); and Verlinden, The Beginnings of Modern Colonization: Eleven Essays with an IntroductionLaura Mercier Lipstick BUNDLE,Slavery and Society in Medieval ScandinaviaNew sterling silver heart hoop earrings,Reformation Red Fauna Casual Maxi Dress size 4, (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 1995); Steven Epstein, Speaking of Slavery: Color, Ethnicity, and Human Bondage in Italy (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2001); and Sally McKee, "Inherited Status and Slavery in Late Medieval Italy and Venetian Crete," Marc Jacobs Le Marc Lipstick Boy Gorgeous 222,Brand new mother denim the tomcat Bermuda shorts,

  6. New Vintage Gorgeous Beaded & Sequined Party Dress,NWOT Neiman Marcus Exclusive Khaki Bermuda Shorts, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982); Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440-1870 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997), 21-24, 48-86.

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  8. Frye Double Monk Loafer, Tan,American Historical ReviewMen’s Vineyard Vines Gray Pants,John Varvatos Fleetwood Coal Wingtips 9, (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003), 14; Robert C. Davis, Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500-1800 (Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave MacMillan, 2003). For more on the development of freedom and slavery, see David Eltis, The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), and Sue Peabody, There Are No Slaves in France: The Political Culture of Race and Slavery in the Ancien RégimeLilly Pulitzer Tropical The Walsh Short in Ladies’ Size 4,

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  10. David Galenson, White Servitude in Colonial America: An Economic AnalysisSam Edelman Anorak Puffer Reversible faux Fur jacket New size Medium,CAbi emerald green cropped blazer,Hawaiian Floral Print Poly Cotton Fabric, 5 Yards,William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 58 (January 2001): 17-46. Two good microhistories of the transatlantic slave trade are Robert Harms, Lilly Pulitzer Originals pandamonium panda shift dress 10,Host And Porter Rose Gold Plastic Banquet Ware 12 oz Tumbler Glass Set Of 24,The Two Princes of Calabar: An Eighteenth-Century Atlantic Odyssey (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004).

  11. David Eltis and William G. Clarence-Smith, "White Servitude," CAbi brown corduroy jacket,COPY - Mac x Mariah Carey "Bit of Bubbly" lipstick,Vintage Gap Stitched Leather Shoulder Bag, (London: Longman, 1996); Stanley L. Engerman, ed., Terms of Labor: Slavery, Serfdom, and Free Labor (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1999); and Bush, Misa Los Angeles Madison Dress, Size M, (Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2000).

  12. Frank M. Snowden Jr., Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1970); Snowden, EILEEN FISHER long A-line skirt Size L,Free People Cassidy Cargo Mid Calf Shorts/0/NWOT,The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2004); Jean Devisse and Michel Mollat, eds., The Image of the Black in Western Art, vol. 2, Tahari gray on gray striped blazer,Mizuno Wave Creation 20 womens size 8,Images of the Medieval PeasantNew BETSEY JOHNSON Snake Skin Puffer Jacket Coat,J Crew Ludlow Semi Brogue Oxford Shoes Size 10 Brown Leather English Tan dress,Elle Sasson Red Suede Leather Skirt , size 36 or 4,White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812Roxy Cardigan Wear me Share me Button Front Wool Blend Sweater Size Small,Race: The History of an Idea in the West (Washington, D.C.: The Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1996); the essays in "Constructing Race: Differentiating Peoples in the Early Modern World," William and Mary QuarterlyLucky Brand Black Embroidered Warm Layered Cardigan,The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2003). The best account is David Brion Davis, "The Origins of Anti-Black Racism in the New World," chap. 3 in Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World SlaveryBRAND NEW BELLA JACK Set of Two Layering Necklaces ❤️❤️❤️,

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  14. Frank Tannenbaum, Slave and Citizen: The Negro in the AmericasTOMMY HILFIGER Designer Wallet Black Snap Closure NWT,Neither Black Nor White: Slavery and Race Relations in Brazil and the United States (New York: Macmillan, 1971).

  15. Farm Rio Mixed Patchwork Midi Dress - Size Large,Black Yankees: The Development of an Afro-American Subculture in Eighteenth-Century New England (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988); Graham Russell Hodges, Root and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1613-1863Vintage act 1 dress size xs or small,Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and LowcountryVintage Liz Claiborne plaid blazer,MAC Lip Kit in Red,Maxine Tropical Trip Draped One Piece,Lipstick sets,{Spiritual Gangster} Brand New Love Crop Tank,William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 777-808. To this list might be added other forms of aboriginal slavery: see Theda Perdue, The North Face winter puffer, (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1979); William A. Starna and Ralph Watkins, "Northern Iroquoian Slavery," TROSMAN CHURBA Skirt and SportCoat set . 6 and Small, 38 (Winter 1991): 34-57; and Leland Donald, Aboriginal Slavery on the Northwest Coast of North America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).

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  • Davis, David Brion. PHILOSOPHY DI LORENZO SERAFINI Spring 2018 Runway Dress sz 6,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003. The first short essay in the volume is a superb introduction to the origins of New World slavery, but it should be complemented by a number of other books by this great historian of New World slavery. I particularly recommend his Gucci Mens Loafers Shoes Brown Leather Slip-On Moc,BCBG faux leather black skirt,
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  • Finley, M. I. EUC Bearded Goat Luna Tee olive Size Small,. Reprint. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980. An exploration of the emergence, functioning, and decline of the slave societies of classical Greece and classical Italy, with comparisons to New World slavery, by the greatest historian of ancient slavery.
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  • Little Yellow Button Womens Lace Cuff T Shirt Sz S,Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. A good survey of slavery and the evolution of racial prejudice in the Islamic world.
  • Miers, Suzanne, and Igor Kopytoff, eds. Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977. The long introduction on slavery as an "institution of marginality" is a classic, and many of the individual essays on particular regions and groups are stimulating.
  • Miller, Joseph. C., ed. Slavery and Slaving in World History: A Bibliography, 1900-1996. 2 vols. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1999. The most comprehensive work of its kind. Annual updates are available in the journal Liz Claiborne Blue Silk tank top bedroom S New Tags,. The entire bibliography is being prepared for Internet access as a searchable database by the Virginia Center for Digital History at the University of Virginia.
  • Morgan, Philip D. "African Americans." In A Companion to Colonial AmericaEstancias Boho SM Blue,
  • Patterson, Orlando. Cupcakes and Cashmere sequined tank top S,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982. The best general survey of slave systems in 66 societies, written by a sociologist.
  • Nephrite Jade Dangle Earrings-Genuine Jade Earrings-Rare Earrings,French Connection "Fast Sam" burgundy dress NWT,. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1985. A useful account that focuses on slavery in medieval Europe, the world of Islam, and the rise of the Atlantic slave system.
  • Thornton, John. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1800Michael kors winter puffer jacket,

Philip D. Morgan is the Sydney and Ruth Lapidus Professor in the American Revolutionary Era at Princeton University. He is the author of Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998) and coeditor (with Sean Hawkins) of Black Experience and the Empire: The Oxford History of the British Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004). He would like to acknowledge in particular the assistance of David Brion Davis, who generously sent him two early chapters from his forthcoming manuscript, "Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World Slavery."

Authored by

  • Philip D. Morgan
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    Princeton, New Jersey