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Africa and the Slave Trade

Arabs and their Muslim allies were the first to make use of large numbers of sub-Saharan black Africans. They developed a long-distance slave trade, which began in the seventh century and lasted into the twentieth. It delivered many millions of Africans across the Sahara Desert, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean to North Africa, the Mediterranean, and Persian Gulf. Although over a much longer period of time and comprising far more females, the number of Africans exported via these trans-Saharan or Indian Ocean slave trades probably equaled, or even outmatched, those of its transatlantic counterpart. The preexistence of these export trades facilitated Atlantic trade: systems of slave marketing were already in place. So numerous were black Africans at certain times and in certain places that they were able to launch massive slave revolts—in 869, for instance, in what is now southern Iraq, where the so-called Zanj (who came from the Swahili Coast and lands further north) worked in large gangs draining marshlands. While the Quran and Islamic law were essentially color-blind and while Muslims enslaved many so-called "white" people, medieval Arabs came to associate the most degrading forms of labor with black slaves. The Arabic word for slave, Reformation Cassandra Dress. Size 2,Ju-Ju-Be BeMine - Groovy Garden,

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The Atlantic Slave System

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As slavery underwent a resurgence in southern Europe, it gradually disappeared from the northwestern part of the continent. Economic changes help to explain this development, but perhaps more important were cultural constraints. Over the course of the Middle Ages, Christians always committed awful atrocities on each other, but increasingly they avoided enslaving one another. Apparently, a sense of unity had emerged in Christian Europe that effectively barred the enslavement of those deemed fellow Europeans. Christianity's long struggle with Islam no doubt played a major role in this development. That from 1500 to 1800 Muslims enslaved well over a million Western Europeans, many of whom were subsequently ransomed and celebrated as symbols of freedom, was a major element in the growing sense that Europeans should never be slaves. Nevertheless, these so-called free labor nations would develop some of the harshest slave regimes in the Americas. As David Brion Davis puts it, "it is an astonishing paradox that the first nations in the world to free themselves of chattel slavery—such nations as England, France, Holland, and even the Scandinavian states—became leaders during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in supporting plantation colonies based on African slave labor." He likens this divide to a primitive Mason-Dixon line, "drawn somewhere in the Atlantic, separating free soil master-states from tainted slave soil dependencies" (8).

This paradox illumines the unpredictability of events in the Americas. No European nation embarked on New World ventures with the intention of enslaving anyone. They had no blueprint but rather proceeded haphazardly and pragmatically. Their first resort was to forced Indian labor (the encomiendaTimberland Boots (brand new),

Consequently, Europeans faced a huge labor shortage. The Ottoman Turkish empire blocked access to Black Sea or Baltic captives. European nations no longer enslaved Christian prisoners of war. Some dreamers talked of enslaving the poor or other marginal groups, but the practical and principled problems of reviving European slavery were considerable. Another expedient was the transportation of convicts, but their numbers were never sufficient. Temporary bondage—indentured servitude—was the most obvious and most widely used other option, particularly in the early years, but servants, if they survived, eventually became free, and in any case most servants would not travel to the areas where most labor was needed. Thus, almost by default, African slaves proved by far the best available labor supply. Consequently, from 1500 to 1820 almost 9 million African slaves left for the New World, compared to less than 3 million whites. In terms of migration, the New World was more black than white (10).

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New World slavery's other most distinctive aspect was its highly commercial character. While it is true that plantations—that is, large agricultural enterprises, managed for profit, producing a crop for export, with a hierarchically stratified labor organization—existed outside the New World, they reached their apogee there. The economies of scale, the expansion in unit size, the almost exclusive use of black slaves, a highly regimented and commodified labor force, and a system of close management all raised profit levels significantly. Such a productive system placed enormous demands on its laborers. As early as the 1630s a visitor to a Jesuit-owned sugar plantation in Brazil vividly described the unbearable horror of what had transpired: "People the color of the very night, working briskly and moaning at the same time without a moment of peace or rest, whoever sees all the confused and noisy machinery and apparatus of this Babylon, even if they have seen Mt. Etna and Vesuvius will say that this indeed is the image of Hell" (13).

Patterns of New World Slavery

Variations over time and space existed within New World slavery. Three stand out. First, although all New World regions imported more African men than women (thereby in part explaining the harshness of New World slavery because of the policing problems associated with large gangs of men), over time the gender ratio among New World slaves became increasingly balanced. In that regard, the North American slave population is most notable, because, as its number of slave women increased the most rapidly, so it became one of the few self-reproducing slave populations in world history. This early and rapid natural increase explains why North America received such a small percentage of the overall transatlantic slave trade—about 5 percent. Second, North America was also distinctive in being much less tolerant of racial intermixture than Latin America or the Caribbean. Once again demography—particularly the ratio of white men to white women (more balanced in North America than in Latin America and the Caribbean) and the availability of black women—was a crucial part of the explanation, but also important were the role of the Church and cultural mores, based as much in Old World patterns of racial coexistence or segregation. The Spanish had mixed with Muslims for centuries; the English had created a Pale in their settlement of Ireland. Only in North America did the extremely arbitrary concept of "Negro"—denoting anyone with allegedly visible African ancestry—assume such a marked stigma. Third, the chances of gaining freedom varied from one society to the next. Except for the period surrounding the American Revolution, the North American colonies, and later the states, imposed the severest restrictions on the chances of a slave becoming free. Again, demography—the proportions of whites and blacks in the population—has some explanatory power as do economic and cultural forces (14).

North American slavery itself was hardly of a piece. The range encompasses New England's intimate "family slavery"; the Mid-Atlantic's mixed forms of slavery and servitude; the Chesapeake's patriarchal, small plantation, mixed farming and tobacco, heavily native-born form of slavery; and the low country's impersonal, large plantation, rice and indigo, more heavily African system of slavery. In addition, various borderland forms existed: from a fluid world of interracial alliances in the Lower Mississippi Valley to a flexible one of fugitives and ex-slaves in Spanish Florida to one in which Indian slaves were transformed from symbols of alliance into commodities of exchange in French Canada (15).

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  1. Edie Parker Rebekah Metal Giraffe Pattern Clutch Bag Golden,The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-bellum South (New York: Knopf, 1956).

  2. Cordani Calzature Made in Spain, Wedge Sandals Size 36/US Size 5/5.5.,International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, ed. David L. Sills and Robert King Merton (New York: Macmillan, 1968), 14: 307-13; Finley, Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology, reprint (Hammondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980), 9, 96, 102, 111, 113-14; Keith Hopkins, Judy Blue distressed destructed destroyed girlfriend jeans size 5 / 27,Adriano Goldschmied high rise slouchy skinny , size 28 regular blue jeans.,Varina Ballet Flat by Salvatore Ferragamo. Color: Navy, 138 (1993): 3-27; Keith Bradley, Slavery and Society at RomeExpress high rise ripped jean leggings!,Calvin Klein One Euro Pillow Sham Chambray Dots,XS Silver prom dress,The Problem of Slavery in Western CultureToms Majorca Woven Leather Sandals,Frame | Le High Embellished Straight Jeans NWT,Michael Michael Kors Teal Bikini Bottoms Size XS,

  3. Ralph A. Austen, "The Trans-Saharan Slave Trade: A Tentative Census," 2 Custom Made Shams Pair Pillowcases Vintage,, ed. Henry A. Gemery and Jan S. Hogendorn (New York: Academic Press, 1979), 23-76; Austen, "The Mediterranean Islamic Slave Trade out of Africa: A Tentative Census," 2 Nobility Luxury Quilted Pillowcases Shams Yellow,Nike By You Men's Air Max 90 Blue Green White Shoes CT3621-991 Size 10.5,Encyclopedia of Africa South of the SaharaNWT Chelsea28 off the shoulder navy bomber jacket,International Journal of African Historical Studies 10 (1977): 443-61; Alexandre Popovic, The Revolt of African Slaves in Iraq in the IIIrd-IXth CenturyNike Air Raid metallic gold 642330-700. Size 9,NWT J. Crew Linen Striped Tie Jumpsuit Romper,Joe’s Collection Bomber Jacket,NWT - TINIBIKINI BRIGHT SALMON TWO PIECE SWIMWEAR, (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998); Shaun E. Marmon, ed., I.E. Olive Green Geometric Skorts Sz 18W, (Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener, 1998); Minra Tora and John Edward Philips, eds., Slave Elites in the Middle East and Africa: A Comparative StudyHand crafted wood burning,The African Diaspora in the Mediterranean Lands of IslamTall Leather Ugg Boots,Slavery on the Frontiers of IslamAmerican Eagle THE DREAM highest rise jegging crop jeans size 16 R,

  4. Suzanne Miers and Igor Kopytoff, eds., Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological PerspectivesA ORIGINAL Wonderful Spiritual&Bear ART,Gypsya compute bag, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990); John Thornton, SPERRY Wedge Rain Boots Insulated Quilted Snow Boots Women's 6 Draw Cord Warm,KATE SPADE “Spencer Court Large Monday” Crossbody,Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in AfricaMichael Kors Hamilton Signature Print Brown,

  5. Green timberland boots not dirty just suede,Archivum latinitatis medii aeviAlexander Wang Stretch Crepe Shoulder Midi Dress,L'Esclavage dans l'Europe médiévale, vol. 1, Pénisule Ibérique—France (Bruges: De Tempel, 1955); vol. 2, Italie, Colonies Italiennes du Levant, Levant Latin, Empire Bysantin (Ghent: 1977); and Verlinden, The Beginnings of Modern Colonization: Eleven Essays with an IntroductionApiece Apart Cream Shirred Georgia Dress,Slavery and Society in Medieval ScandinaviaDiane von Furstenberg Seanna Dots Silk dress,L*Space Limelight Sensual Rachel Bikini Bottom Lime Size Large, (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 1995); Steven Epstein, Speaking of Slavery: Color, Ethnicity, and Human Bondage in Italy (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2001); and Sally McKee, "Inherited Status and Slavery in Late Medieval Italy and Venetian Crete," Firefly,Kanaas • Black Leather Backless Loafer,

  6. Columbia sportswear button up collared shirt,Splendid Tan Shoes, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982); Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440-1870 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997), 21-24, 48-86.

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  8. Sinful Affliction Guns & Roses Sequin Bikini Top Size Medium,American Historical ReviewExpress Green Moto Mid Rise Jeggings,Dress - only used once, (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003), 14; Robert C. Davis, Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500-1800 (Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave MacMillan, 2003). For more on the development of freedom and slavery, see David Eltis, The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), and Sue Peabody, There Are No Slaves in France: The Political Culture of Race and Slavery in the Ancien RégimeHugo Boss Black Textured Button Down Dress Shirt,

  9. Louis Vuitton pochette authenticated,The Early Spanish MainChambray collarless tuxedo shirt in West wash,Bratz Doll MGA 2015” Jade Shopping Fashionista”with clothes and accessory, (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1992); William L. Sherman, Forced Native Labor in Sixteenth-Century Central AmericaSkirt with flair.,Floral print, Michael Kors jumpsuit,Pronivias Princia wedding dress,The Indian Slave Trade: The Rise of the English Empire in the American South, 1670-1717Uniqlo maxi skirt new without tags blue size Medium,Nautica Rose Gold Watch,, ed. Elizabeth Mancke and Carole Shammas (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005), 75-121. For a recent discussion of Indian population decline, see David S. Jones, "Virgin Soils Revisited," Lucky Brand Short Sleeve Blue Plaid Blouse,, 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 703-42.

  10. David Galenson, White Servitude in Colonial America: An Economic AnalysisSuede Sorel booties,Nike Cosmic Unity,Lace up canvas sneakers. Size 9M. NWOT!,William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 58 (January 2001): 17-46. Two good microhistories of the transatlantic slave trade are Robert Harms, BAREFOOT DREAMS Black Bamboo Chic Cardigan,Carhartt Men's Jeans Carpenter Canvas Loose Fit B159 GKH Golden Khaki Sz 38x32,The Two Princes of Calabar: An Eighteenth-Century Atlantic Odyssey (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004).

  11. David Eltis and William G. Clarence-Smith, "White Servitude," New juttis,NWT Tommy Bahama MLB Sea Glass Linen Shirt MENS MEDIUM Blue NY Yankees Baseball,RAE DUNN ● Hello Spring Tulip Throw Pillow, (London: Longman, 1996); Stanley L. Engerman, ed., Terms of Labor: Slavery, Serfdom, and Free Labor (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1999); and Bush, Joan & David Too Brown Leather Boots Hand Made In Italy Size 8 BEAUTIFUL., (Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2000).

  12. Frank M. Snowden Jr., Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1970); Snowden, Racheal Roy excellent condition black white dress,BCBGeneration coat XS,The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2004); Jean Devisse and Michel Mollat, eds., The Image of the Black in Western Art, vol. 2, PB Pottery Barn Teen U R The Cats Meow Square Throw Pillow Cover 12",Cole Haan Sadie Wedge Snake Print Leather Size 4.5,Images of the Medieval PeasantNew Kate spade sparkly metallic clutch Wristlet,Smashbox Camera Ready BB Cream w/ SPF 35 NIB,Original Donald Pliner wedges,White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812NWT Blank NYC Salt & Pepper Gray Cardigan Sweater,Race: The History of an Idea in the West (Washington, D.C.: The Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1996); the essays in "Constructing Race: Differentiating Peoples in the Early Modern World," William and Mary QuarterlyArmani Exchange Relaxed Straight/ Ample Droite Jeans size 36R,The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2003). The best account is David Brion Davis, "The Origins of Anti-Black Racism in the New World," chap. 3 in Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World SlaveryVintage 1980s Red Canvas Brief Laptop Case Bag,

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  14. Frank Tannenbaum, Slave and Citizen: The Negro in the AmericasNWT Michael Kors double zipper wristlet wallet,Neither Black Nor White: Slavery and Race Relations in Brazil and the United States (New York: Macmillan, 1971).

  15. Tory Burch quilted flat,Black Yankees: The Development of an Afro-American Subculture in Eighteenth-Century New England (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988); Graham Russell Hodges, Root and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1613-1863Tory Burch Claire Ballet Flat Patent Leather,Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and LowcountryVintage Clown Fashions For Cabbage Patch Dolls, Pumpkin and Hugga Bunch,Anthropologie pilcro mint colored script jeans,David’s Bridal City Triangles bridesmaid prom Gown,Zimmerman canvas clutch,NWT KellyToy Squishmallows Benny & Caparinne 8”,William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 777-808. To this list might be added other forms of aboriginal slavery: see Theda Perdue, Ella Jayne Standard Pillow Down Like Soft pillow, (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1979); William A. Starna and Ralph Watkins, "Northern Iroquoian Slavery," Stuart Weitzman Glover Stretch Wedge Size 8.5, 38 (Winter 1991): 34-57; and Leland Donald, Aboriginal Slavery on the Northwest Coast of North America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).



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  • Davis, David Brion. Name brand jeans are for sales!!!,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003. The first short essay in the volume is a superb introduction to the origins of New World slavery, but it should be complemented by a number of other books by this great historian of New World slavery. I particularly recommend his Marc Jacobs Cleo Studded Flats,A/X Armani Exchange Watch.,
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  • Finley, M. I. Isabella rose Bikini,. Reprint. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980. An exploration of the emergence, functioning, and decline of the slave societies of classical Greece and classical Italy, with comparisons to New World slavery, by the greatest historian of ancient slavery.
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  • NEW ~ FDJ French Dressing Suzanne High Rise Slim Leg Black Jeans Size 6,7 For All Mankind Grey Button Fly Standard Jeans. Contains about 1,000 pictorial images of slavery in Africa and the Americas, arranged thematically.
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  • Burberry London backpack,Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. A good survey of slavery and the evolution of racial prejudice in the Islamic world.
  • Miers, Suzanne, and Igor Kopytoff, eds. Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977. The long introduction on slavery as an "institution of marginality" is a classic, and many of the individual essays on particular regions and groups are stimulating.
  • Miller, Joseph. C., ed. Slavery and Slaving in World History: A Bibliography, 1900-1996. 2 vols. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1999. The most comprehensive work of its kind. Annual updates are available in the journal Fossil-Monty Chronograph Brown Leather Watch,. The entire bibliography is being prepared for Internet access as a searchable database by the Virginia Center for Digital History at the University of Virginia.
  • Morgan, Philip D. "African Americans." In A Companion to Colonial AmericaNWT save the duck quilted vest size Small,
  • Patterson, Orlando. Elegant Embroidered Long Dress/ lined with a slip,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982. The best general survey of slave systems in 66 societies, written by a sociologist.
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  • Thornton, John. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1800How To Train Your Dragon fleece vest,

Philip D. Morgan is the Sydney and Ruth Lapidus Professor in the American Revolutionary Era at Princeton University. He is the author of Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998) and coeditor (with Sean Hawkins) of Black Experience and the Empire: The Oxford History of the British Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004). He would like to acknowledge in particular the assistance of David Brion Davis, who generously sent him two early chapters from his forthcoming manuscript, "Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World Slavery."

Authored by

  • Philip D. Morgan
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    Princeton, New Jersey