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Africa and the Slave Trade

Arabs and their Muslim allies were the first to make use of large numbers of sub-Saharan black Africans. They developed a long-distance slave trade, which began in the seventh century and lasted into the twentieth. It delivered many millions of Africans across the Sahara Desert, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean to North Africa, the Mediterranean, and Persian Gulf. Although over a much longer period of time and comprising far more females, the number of Africans exported via these trans-Saharan or Indian Ocean slave trades probably equaled, or even outmatched, those of its transatlantic counterpart. The preexistence of these export trades facilitated Atlantic trade: systems of slave marketing were already in place. So numerous were black Africans at certain times and in certain places that they were able to launch massive slave revolts—in 869, for instance, in what is now southern Iraq, where the so-called Zanj (who came from the Swahili Coast and lands further north) worked in large gangs draining marshlands. While the Quran and Islamic law were essentially color-blind and while Muslims enslaved many so-called "white" people, medieval Arabs came to associate the most degrading forms of labor with black slaves. The Arabic word for slave, Vtg Joan Rivers Ornate Peach Lucite Rhinestone Pin,Bogoff Womens brooch,

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The Atlantic Slave System

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As slavery underwent a resurgence in southern Europe, it gradually disappeared from the northwestern part of the continent. Economic changes help to explain this development, but perhaps more important were cultural constraints. Over the course of the Middle Ages, Christians always committed awful atrocities on each other, but increasingly they avoided enslaving one another. Apparently, a sense of unity had emerged in Christian Europe that effectively barred the enslavement of those deemed fellow Europeans. Christianity's long struggle with Islam no doubt played a major role in this development. That from 1500 to 1800 Muslims enslaved well over a million Western Europeans, many of whom were subsequently ransomed and celebrated as symbols of freedom, was a major element in the growing sense that Europeans should never be slaves. Nevertheless, these so-called free labor nations would develop some of the harshest slave regimes in the Americas. As David Brion Davis puts it, "it is an astonishing paradox that the first nations in the world to free themselves of chattel slavery—such nations as England, France, Holland, and even the Scandinavian states—became leaders during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in supporting plantation colonies based on African slave labor." He likens this divide to a primitive Mason-Dixon line, "drawn somewhere in the Atlantic, separating free soil master-states from tainted slave soil dependencies" (8).

This paradox illumines the unpredictability of events in the Americas. No European nation embarked on New World ventures with the intention of enslaving anyone. They had no blueprint but rather proceeded haphazardly and pragmatically. Their first resort was to forced Indian labor (the encomiendaBrand new gold jacket.,

Consequently, Europeans faced a huge labor shortage. The Ottoman Turkish empire blocked access to Black Sea or Baltic captives. European nations no longer enslaved Christian prisoners of war. Some dreamers talked of enslaving the poor or other marginal groups, but the practical and principled problems of reviving European slavery were considerable. Another expedient was the transportation of convicts, but their numbers were never sufficient. Temporary bondage—indentured servitude—was the most obvious and most widely used other option, particularly in the early years, but servants, if they survived, eventually became free, and in any case most servants would not travel to the areas where most labor was needed. Thus, almost by default, African slaves proved by far the best available labor supply. Consequently, from 1500 to 1820 almost 9 million African slaves left for the New World, compared to less than 3 million whites. In terms of migration, the New World was more black than white (10).

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New World slavery's other most distinctive aspect was its highly commercial character. While it is true that plantations—that is, large agricultural enterprises, managed for profit, producing a crop for export, with a hierarchically stratified labor organization—existed outside the New World, they reached their apogee there. The economies of scale, the expansion in unit size, the almost exclusive use of black slaves, a highly regimented and commodified labor force, and a system of close management all raised profit levels significantly. Such a productive system placed enormous demands on its laborers. As early as the 1630s a visitor to a Jesuit-owned sugar plantation in Brazil vividly described the unbearable horror of what had transpired: "People the color of the very night, working briskly and moaning at the same time without a moment of peace or rest, whoever sees all the confused and noisy machinery and apparatus of this Babylon, even if they have seen Mt. Etna and Vesuvius will say that this indeed is the image of Hell" (13).

Patterns of New World Slavery

Variations over time and space existed within New World slavery. Three stand out. First, although all New World regions imported more African men than women (thereby in part explaining the harshness of New World slavery because of the policing problems associated with large gangs of men), over time the gender ratio among New World slaves became increasingly balanced. In that regard, the North American slave population is most notable, because, as its number of slave women increased the most rapidly, so it became one of the few self-reproducing slave populations in world history. This early and rapid natural increase explains why North America received such a small percentage of the overall transatlantic slave trade—about 5 percent. Second, North America was also distinctive in being much less tolerant of racial intermixture than Latin America or the Caribbean. Once again demography—particularly the ratio of white men to white women (more balanced in North America than in Latin America and the Caribbean) and the availability of black women—was a crucial part of the explanation, but also important were the role of the Church and cultural mores, based as much in Old World patterns of racial coexistence or segregation. The Spanish had mixed with Muslims for centuries; the English had created a Pale in their settlement of Ireland. Only in North America did the extremely arbitrary concept of "Negro"—denoting anyone with allegedly visible African ancestry—assume such a marked stigma. Third, the chances of gaining freedom varied from one society to the next. Except for the period surrounding the American Revolution, the North American colonies, and later the states, imposed the severest restrictions on the chances of a slave becoming free. Again, demography—the proportions of whites and blacks in the population—has some explanatory power as do economic and cultural forces (14).

North American slavery itself was hardly of a piece. The range encompasses New England's intimate "family slavery"; the Mid-Atlantic's mixed forms of slavery and servitude; the Chesapeake's patriarchal, small plantation, mixed farming and tobacco, heavily native-born form of slavery; and the low country's impersonal, large plantation, rice and indigo, more heavily African system of slavery. In addition, various borderland forms existed: from a fluid world of interracial alliances in the Lower Mississippi Valley to a flexible one of fugitives and ex-slaves in Spanish Florida to one in which Indian slaves were transformed from symbols of alliance into commodities of exchange in French Canada (15).

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  1. Pottery Barn Washed Cotton Euro Size Pillow Sham,The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-bellum South (New York: Knopf, 1956).

  2. Antique Ornate Gold Guild Sterling Flower Brooch,International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, ed. David L. Sills and Robert King Merton (New York: Macmillan, 1968), 14: 307-13; Finley, Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology, reprint (Hammondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980), 9, 96, 102, 111, 113-14; Keith Hopkins, Vintage 90s The North Face Mens Large Full zip Fleece Vest Jacket Red USA Made,Gown, prom or evening wear,Nike tech pack women’s jacket, 138 (1993): 3-27; Keith Bradley, Slavery and Society at RomeSkechers Ladies' Two Strap Black Sandal,Dixxon L Infidel Snap Front Flannel Shirt,Marc Fisher pre-owned size 7,The Problem of Slavery in Western CultureTory Burch Eva Clutch Bag. Black,Coach Charles Backpack Twill Plaid Print,Thomas Kinkade "The Light of Piece" Sailor Teddy Bear with Print in Frame to Han,

  3. Ralph A. Austen, "The Trans-Saharan Slave Trade: A Tentative Census," Maquillaje en polvo suelto mineral ivory,, ed. Henry A. Gemery and Jan S. Hogendorn (New York: Academic Press, 1979), 23-76; Austen, "The Mediterranean Islamic Slave Trade out of Africa: A Tentative Census," Tommy Bahama Riviera Tiles Reversible Side-Shirred Hipster Bikini Bottoms Cerise,American girl dining table and chairs,Encyclopedia of Africa South of the SaharaVtg Purple Blue Rivioli RS Starburst Gold Brooch,International Journal of African Historical Studies 10 (1977): 443-61; Alexandre Popovic, The Revolt of African Slaves in Iraq in the IIIrd-IXth CenturyPepsi Laptop's Carrying Sleeve New,Grateful Dead Skeleton Skiing Vintage 1995 Tie Dye Longsleeve T-Shirt,Yazbukey Piano Clutch,J. CREW Lace Panel Cardigan Sweater, (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998); Shaun E. Marmon, ed., Mikoh Frill Bikini Top, (Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener, 1998); Minra Tora and John Edward Philips, eds., Slave Elites in the Middle East and Africa: A Comparative StudyAlia Blue Retro Bikini Set,The African Diaspora in the Mediterranean Lands of IslamAmerican Girl doll Felicity baby foal horse pony Patriot red plaid blanket brown,Slavery on the Frontiers of IslamLillian - Gal Meets Glam,

  4. Suzanne Miers and Igor Kopytoff, eds., Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological PerspectivesDessy collection dress,Nike golf light yellow skort with pockets, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990); John Thornton, Dakine cheeky bikini bottoms,JJs House Prom Dress,Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in AfricaTall Glossy Hunter Boots,

  5. 2013 Pokémon Center collection Xerneas 20 inches plush.,Archivum latinitatis medii aeviReformation Amethyst Linen Midi Dress in White,L'Esclavage dans l'Europe médiévale, vol. 1, Pénisule Ibérique—France (Bruges: De Tempel, 1955); vol. 2, Italie, Colonies Italiennes du Levant, Levant Latin, Empire Bysantin (Ghent: 1977); and Verlinden, The Beginnings of Modern Colonization: Eleven Essays with an IntroductionBRAND NEW Celebrate IT Foundation,Slavery and Society in Medieval ScandinaviaNike Victory Tennis Skort Sz L,Vintage Levi 506 black jeans, (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 1995); Steven Epstein, Speaking of Slavery: Color, Ethnicity, and Human Bondage in Italy (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2001); and Sally McKee, "Inherited Status and Slavery in Late Medieval Italy and Venetian Crete," Supreme Global Standard Long Sleeve Top NWT 2020,Omorfia by Rovina watch,

  6. ASOS Design Maternity Pull On Jeggings In Mid Wash,True Religion Premium Basic Women’s Leggings, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982); Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440-1870 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997), 21-24, 48-86.

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  8. Kenneth Cole Cami Slingback Espadrille Sandals,American Historical ReviewA Like New⭐️Llbean wool fair isle cardigan with zipper,Blank NYC Woven and Faux Leather Bomber Jacket XS, (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003), 14; Robert C. Davis, Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500-1800 (Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave MacMillan, 2003). For more on the development of freedom and slavery, see David Eltis, The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), and Sue Peabody, There Are No Slaves in France: The Political Culture of Race and Slavery in the Ancien RégimeCoach brown embossed leather c wristlet clutch bag,

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  10. David Galenson, White Servitude in Colonial America: An Economic AnalysisAdidas Unisex Skateboarding Meade 2.0 Vest Men’s Size L GD3528 Bodywarmer NEW,NEW Good American Good Boy High Waist Distressed Nonstretch Denim Jeans 16 NWT,Michael Kors Gold Chronograph Watch w/Rhinestones,William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 58 (January 2001): 17-46. Two good microhistories of the transatlantic slave trade are Robert Harms, Aila Blue Yellow Cathedral top and bottom set.,ASOS | Dark Green Gown | Wrap V-Neck Bridesmaids Dress,The Two Princes of Calabar: An Eighteenth-Century Atlantic Odyssey (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004).

  11. David Eltis and William G. Clarence-Smith, "White Servitude," NWT VITAMIN A bikini SET Opposites Attract Small,Athleta Retro Palm Twister Tankini Top & Bottom Swimsuit 34 B/C Medium,NWT laptop backpack., (London: Longman, 1996); Stanley L. Engerman, ed., Terms of Labor: Slavery, Serfdom, and Free Labor (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1999); and Bush, Coconuts by Matisse V Shape Booties with Fringe / Color: Brown / Size 7.5, (Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2000).

  12. Frank M. Snowden Jr., Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1970); Snowden, Authentic Fendi Zucca Print Logo Jeans Trouser,Ball of Cotton cardigan,The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2004); Jean Devisse and Michel Mollat, eds., The Image of the Black in Western Art, vol. 2, Chic Nostalgia Echo wedding gown,70s Hawaiian Button Front Shirt by LIBERTY HOUSE,Images of the Medieval PeasantSale Betsey Johnson Silver Stain Julia Sandal Size 8.5 NIB,girl doll 18,Hunter Boots Size 9 NWOT,White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812Dakine seashell bikini bottoms,Race: The History of an Idea in the West (Washington, D.C.: The Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1996); the essays in "Constructing Race: Differentiating Peoples in the Early Modern World," William and Mary QuarterlyNIB Glo Minerals Foundation Beige Medium *2 PACK* Satin II.,The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2003). The best account is David Brion Davis, "The Origins of Anti-Black Racism in the New World," chap. 3 in Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World SlaveryEP Pro Coral Floral Pleated Golf Skort | 10,

  13. Size 12 Allure wedding dress,Louis Vuitton Rucksack Backpack Dark Infinity Pm Noir Calf Leather, (New York: Norton, 1989); Schwartz, ed., Ralph Lauren Rare Vintage Cream Penthouse Jacquard 2 Pillowcases New in Package,, 3.

  14. Frank Tannenbaum, Slave and Citizen: The Negro in the AmericasCasual Men's Crane Print Shirt & Set,Neither Black Nor White: Slavery and Race Relations in Brazil and the United States (New York: Macmillan, 1971).

  15. Designer Straight Leg Jeans Size 38 x 37 Tall,Black Yankees: The Development of an Afro-American Subculture in Eighteenth-Century New England (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988); Graham Russell Hodges, Root and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1613-1863Vintage Effanbee George Washington Doll,Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and LowcountryFranco Sarto Flirt Sandal Wedges Black 9.5,Badgley Mischka Tan clutch,NEW Emerson Fry EmersonMade. Straight Leg Pins Jeans Blue Size 29,J Brand blue medium washed jeggings,Coach bag! I love it and it's original nice purse.,William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 777-808. To this list might be added other forms of aboriginal slavery: see Theda Perdue, The FLEXX Shore Line Leather Sandal, (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1979); William A. Starna and Ralph Watkins, "Northern Iroquoian Slavery," Low rise jeggings, 38 (Winter 1991): 34-57; and Leland Donald, Aboriginal Slavery on the Northwest Coast of North America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).

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  • Davis, David Brion. NW Jambi Cali Studs Clog Charcoal Leather,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003. The first short essay in the volume is a superb introduction to the origins of New World slavery, but it should be complemented by a number of other books by this great historian of New World slavery. I particularly recommend his Salvatore Ferragamo brown vintage wedge suede shoes size 6,Abercrombie and Fitch Fur Winter Jacket,
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  • Finley, M. I. NWT women Chloe White Slim Fit Jeans Was 5,. Reprint. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980. An exploration of the emergence, functioning, and decline of the slave societies of classical Greece and classical Italy, with comparisons to New World slavery, by the greatest historian of ancient slavery.
  • Fredrickson, George M. Racism: A Short HistoryPaul Green Black Leather Boot, Size 8.,
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  • Miers, Suzanne, and Igor Kopytoff, eds. Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977. The long introduction on slavery as an "institution of marginality" is a classic, and many of the individual essays on particular regions and groups are stimulating.
  • Miller, Joseph. C., ed. Slavery and Slaving in World History: A Bibliography, 1900-1996. 2 vols. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1999. The most comprehensive work of its kind. Annual updates are available in the journal Van Dell sterling silver 12K GF rhinestone flower pin brooch vintage,. The entire bibliography is being prepared for Internet access as a searchable database by the Virginia Center for Digital History at the University of Virginia.
  • Morgan, Philip D. "African Americans." In A Companion to Colonial AmericaAmerican Girl doll 2012 Strawberry reddish blonde hair blue eyes,
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Philip D. Morgan is the Sydney and Ruth Lapidus Professor in the American Revolutionary Era at Princeton University. He is the author of Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998) and coeditor (with Sean Hawkins) of Black Experience and the Empire: The Oxford History of the British Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004). He would like to acknowledge in particular the assistance of David Brion Davis, who generously sent him two early chapters from his forthcoming manuscript, "Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World Slavery."

Authored by

  • Philip D. Morgan
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    Princeton, New Jersey