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Africa and the Slave Trade

Arabs and their Muslim allies were the first to make use of large numbers of sub-Saharan black Africans. They developed a long-distance slave trade, which began in the seventh century and lasted into the twentieth. It delivered many millions of Africans across the Sahara Desert, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean to North Africa, the Mediterranean, and Persian Gulf. Although over a much longer period of time and comprising far more females, the number of Africans exported via these trans-Saharan or Indian Ocean slave trades probably equaled, or even outmatched, those of its transatlantic counterpart. The preexistence of these export trades facilitated Atlantic trade: systems of slave marketing were already in place. So numerous were black Africans at certain times and in certain places that they were able to launch massive slave revolts—in 869, for instance, in what is now southern Iraq, where the so-called Zanj (who came from the Swahili Coast and lands further north) worked in large gangs draining marshlands. While the Quran and Islamic law were essentially color-blind and while Muslims enslaved many so-called "white" people, medieval Arabs came to associate the most degrading forms of labor with black slaves. The Arabic word for slave, New Reebok Wmns Classics Rivyx Ripple Sneakers,Vintage 60s 70s collared white blouse.,

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The Atlantic Slave System

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As slavery underwent a resurgence in southern Europe, it gradually disappeared from the northwestern part of the continent. Economic changes help to explain this development, but perhaps more important were cultural constraints. Over the course of the Middle Ages, Christians always committed awful atrocities on each other, but increasingly they avoided enslaving one another. Apparently, a sense of unity had emerged in Christian Europe that effectively barred the enslavement of those deemed fellow Europeans. Christianity's long struggle with Islam no doubt played a major role in this development. That from 1500 to 1800 Muslims enslaved well over a million Western Europeans, many of whom were subsequently ransomed and celebrated as symbols of freedom, was a major element in the growing sense that Europeans should never be slaves. Nevertheless, these so-called free labor nations would develop some of the harshest slave regimes in the Americas. As David Brion Davis puts it, "it is an astonishing paradox that the first nations in the world to free themselves of chattel slavery—such nations as England, France, Holland, and even the Scandinavian states—became leaders during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in supporting plantation colonies based on African slave labor." He likens this divide to a primitive Mason-Dixon line, "drawn somewhere in the Atlantic, separating free soil master-states from tainted slave soil dependencies" (8).

This paradox illumines the unpredictability of events in the Americas. No European nation embarked on New World ventures with the intention of enslaving anyone. They had no blueprint but rather proceeded haphazardly and pragmatically. Their first resort was to forced Indian labor (the encomiendaVintage Duracell Rugrat backpack,

Consequently, Europeans faced a huge labor shortage. The Ottoman Turkish empire blocked access to Black Sea or Baltic captives. European nations no longer enslaved Christian prisoners of war. Some dreamers talked of enslaving the poor or other marginal groups, but the practical and principled problems of reviving European slavery were considerable. Another expedient was the transportation of convicts, but their numbers were never sufficient. Temporary bondage—indentured servitude—was the most obvious and most widely used other option, particularly in the early years, but servants, if they survived, eventually became free, and in any case most servants would not travel to the areas where most labor was needed. Thus, almost by default, African slaves proved by far the best available labor supply. Consequently, from 1500 to 1820 almost 9 million African slaves left for the New World, compared to less than 3 million whites. In terms of migration, the New World was more black than white (10).

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New World slavery's other most distinctive aspect was its highly commercial character. While it is true that plantations—that is, large agricultural enterprises, managed for profit, producing a crop for export, with a hierarchically stratified labor organization—existed outside the New World, they reached their apogee there. The economies of scale, the expansion in unit size, the almost exclusive use of black slaves, a highly regimented and commodified labor force, and a system of close management all raised profit levels significantly. Such a productive system placed enormous demands on its laborers. As early as the 1630s a visitor to a Jesuit-owned sugar plantation in Brazil vividly described the unbearable horror of what had transpired: "People the color of the very night, working briskly and moaning at the same time without a moment of peace or rest, whoever sees all the confused and noisy machinery and apparatus of this Babylon, even if they have seen Mt. Etna and Vesuvius will say that this indeed is the image of Hell" (13).

Patterns of New World Slavery

Variations over time and space existed within New World slavery. Three stand out. First, although all New World regions imported more African men than women (thereby in part explaining the harshness of New World slavery because of the policing problems associated with large gangs of men), over time the gender ratio among New World slaves became increasingly balanced. In that regard, the North American slave population is most notable, because, as its number of slave women increased the most rapidly, so it became one of the few self-reproducing slave populations in world history. This early and rapid natural increase explains why North America received such a small percentage of the overall transatlantic slave trade—about 5 percent. Second, North America was also distinctive in being much less tolerant of racial intermixture than Latin America or the Caribbean. Once again demography—particularly the ratio of white men to white women (more balanced in North America than in Latin America and the Caribbean) and the availability of black women—was a crucial part of the explanation, but also important were the role of the Church and cultural mores, based as much in Old World patterns of racial coexistence or segregation. The Spanish had mixed with Muslims for centuries; the English had created a Pale in their settlement of Ireland. Only in North America did the extremely arbitrary concept of "Negro"—denoting anyone with allegedly visible African ancestry—assume such a marked stigma. Third, the chances of gaining freedom varied from one society to the next. Except for the period surrounding the American Revolution, the North American colonies, and later the states, imposed the severest restrictions on the chances of a slave becoming free. Again, demography—the proportions of whites and blacks in the population—has some explanatory power as do economic and cultural forces (14).

North American slavery itself was hardly of a piece. The range encompasses New England's intimate "family slavery"; the Mid-Atlantic's mixed forms of slavery and servitude; the Chesapeake's patriarchal, small plantation, mixed farming and tobacco, heavily native-born form of slavery; and the low country's impersonal, large plantation, rice and indigo, more heavily African system of slavery. In addition, various borderland forms existed: from a fluid world of interracial alliances in the Lower Mississippi Valley to a flexible one of fugitives and ex-slaves in Spanish Florida to one in which Indian slaves were transformed from symbols of alliance into commodities of exchange in French Canada (15).

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  1. UGG boots,The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-bellum South (New York: Knopf, 1956).

  2. EUC sz 14 Michelangelo off white satin bridal gown,International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, ed. David L. Sills and Robert King Merton (New York: Macmillan, 1968), 14: 307-13; Finley, Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology, reprint (Hammondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980), 9, 96, 102, 111, 113-14; Keith Hopkins, Lululemon Align Pant 25" *Diamond Dye Diamond Dye Cassis Black size 12,Vintage Gucci Bucket Bag W/ chain strap,Children mini handbag and face mask set, 138 (1993): 3-27; Keith Bradley, Slavery and Society at RomeHANDCRAFTED Handmade Winter Hat Women's OS Pink,LSpace Ross Top and Rachel Bottom,Michael Kors Signature Tote/Shoulder Bag,The Problem of Slavery in Western CultureThrills Billie Jeans Black Rinse Size 2,Lululemon Athletica Purple Wunder Under Quilt Crop size 8,Eddie Bauer Sp Dress Corduroy Dark Green Button Up Maxi Woman Pockets  Dimension,

  3. Ralph A. Austen, "The Trans-Saharan Slave Trade: A Tentative Census," A Luxury Coach Bag,, ed. Henry A. Gemery and Jan S. Hogendorn (New York: Academic Press, 1979), 23-76; Austen, "The Mediterranean Islamic Slave Trade out of Africa: A Tentative Census," Vintage Suede Heels,Fabletics Salar Capri Fold Over Leggings Pink,Encyclopedia of Africa South of the SaharaNike AF1 sneakers (Wmns sz8),International Journal of African Historical Studies 10 (1977): 443-61; Alexandre Popovic, The Revolt of African Slaves in Iraq in the IIIrd-IXth CenturyNautica active stretch travel ready dress pants,Pistola Monroe High Rise Cigarette Jean Ascending,GUCCI GREY-BEIGE STRETCH SEXY PANTS, 38,NWT “FRENCH CONNECTION” DRESS SIZE 8, (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998); Shaun E. Marmon, ed., Suno Mixed Pattern Peplum Babydoll Popover Top Short Sleeve Cotton 2, (Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener, 1998); Minra Tora and John Edward Philips, eds., Slave Elites in the Middle East and Africa: A Comparative StudyVan Heusen slim fit stretch Lavender Dress Shirt Size 17 XL 34/35,The African Diaspora in the Mediterranean Lands of IslamFurla Brown Leather Bag,Slavery on the Frontiers of Islam⭐ Ivory White Susielady update pant suit,

  4. Suzanne Miers and Igor Kopytoff, eds., Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological PerspectivesMen’s Burnt Red/Burgundy UNTUCKit vest,Vera Bradley Passport and Boarding Pass Wallet, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990); John Thornton, Cache Real Leather Black Pants,Do + Be Black One Shoulder Long Sleeve Sequin Top Women's Size Small S,Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in AfricaBILLABONG - TIE TRI BIKINI SET,

  5. Tote bag. Free People. Gently used. Can be carried as a bookbag,Archivum latinitatis medii aeviNWOT PIXI By Petra face palette,L'Esclavage dans l'Europe médiévale, vol. 1, Pénisule Ibérique—France (Bruges: De Tempel, 1955); vol. 2, Italie, Colonies Italiennes du Levant, Levant Latin, Empire Bysantin (Ghent: 1977); and Verlinden, The Beginnings of Modern Colonization: Eleven Essays with an IntroductionNWOT AKRIS punto Waist chino pants size 12,Slavery and Society in Medieval ScandinaviaNWT Monrow Supersoft Rib Tank Dress Green Size M,Brand new authentic juicy couture key case, (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 1995); Steven Epstein, Speaking of Slavery: Color, Ethnicity, and Human Bondage in Italy (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2001); and Sally McKee, "Inherited Status and Slavery in Late Medieval Italy and Venetian Crete," Children mini handbag and face mask(mustard color),Levi’s Premium 501 Cropped High Rise Women’s Jeans/Sz:26x28/NWT,

  6. Pendleton Merino Wool Ribbed Long Sleeve Turtle Neck Dress,AE Men’s Maroon Extreme Flex Slim Chinos Sz 31x34, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982); Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440-1870 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997), 21-24, 48-86.

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  8. Nike Air Force 1 Crater Flyknit PRICE FIRM,American Historical ReviewSan Diego Hat Co paper poly straw hat billed,Prana Mens Brown Long Sleeve Crew Neck Cotton Pullover Sweatshirt Size XL, (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003), 14; Robert C. Davis, Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500-1800 (Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave MacMillan, 2003). For more on the development of freedom and slavery, see David Eltis, The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), and Sue Peabody, There Are No Slaves in France: The Political Culture of Race and Slavery in the Ancien RégimeAllbirds Men’s Shoes. Size 9. Black and Grey.,

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  10. David Galenson, White Servitude in Colonial America: An Economic AnalysisLancôme cils booster xl and ombré hypnose stylo,NWT PAIGE Ava Cotton Peasant Top Blouse White S,NEW Large L Mens Nike Sportswear Tech Red/Black Fleece Jogger Pants CU4495-605,William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 58 (January 2001): 17-46. Two good microhistories of the transatlantic slave trade are Robert Harms, PREFECTION WOMEN JACKET TOP PANTS 18W. 24x2 across the chest,Dockers Crewneck Faire Isle Lambswool Sweater Size Extra Large,The Two Princes of Calabar: An Eighteenth-Century Atlantic Odyssey (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004).

  11. David Eltis and William G. Clarence-Smith, "White Servitude," Paula Thomas for Thomas Wylde Nude Bikini,Nike Air Max Motion 2. size 6 women’s,Vintage Donnybrook Coat_Long_Wool_Shawl Collar_Navy Blue_Shoulder Pads_Petite M, (London: Longman, 1996); Stanley L. Engerman, ed., Terms of Labor: Slavery, Serfdom, and Free Labor (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1999); and Bush, Lululemon Rush Hour 21” Crop Black, (Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2000).

  12. Frank M. Snowden Jr., Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1970); Snowden, THE VOLON Chateau Colorblock Bag, White & Blue,New Wow Pow hard case cross body bag.,The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2004); Jean Devisse and Michel Mollat, eds., The Image of the Black in Western Art, vol. 2, Zara two pc. Snake skin print pant set. Sz. Med.,NWT Show Me Your MuMu Samantha Wrap Dress,Images of the Medieval PeasantKate Spade Metallic Silver Shoulder Bag,TALBOTS size 12 Tartan Plaid Vneck Wrap Luxe Fabric Silk Cotton SideZip 9 NEW,Baroni Mens Sports Coat Max Davoli 46L Black 2-Button 100% Wool Super 160s,White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812BRAND NEW Zara Sneakers with tags,Race: The History of an Idea in the West (Washington, D.C.: The Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1996); the essays in "Constructing Race: Differentiating Peoples in the Early Modern World," William and Mary QuarterlyCOACH Ashley Purse & Soho Clutch (wallet),The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2003). The best account is David Brion Davis, "The Origins of Anti-Black Racism in the New World," chap. 3 in Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World SlaveryStar Wars Sperry Slip On Loafer Sneakers Size 9 White r2d2,

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  14. Frank Tannenbaum, Slave and Citizen: The Negro in the AmericasKylie Cosmetics Burgundy Eyeshadow Palette,Neither Black Nor White: Slavery and Race Relations in Brazil and the United States (New York: Macmillan, 1971).

  15. Tommy Hilfiger Colorblock Striped Sweater Dress M,Black Yankees: The Development of an Afro-American Subculture in Eighteenth-Century New England (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988); Graham Russell Hodges, Root and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1613-1863Puma Mens Dark Grey Golf Pants Size W30 L30,Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and LowcountryNWB SCHUTZ NOMI Leather Sandal,NWT Mens Gap Khaki Pants,Eileen Fisher Ribbed KnitTurtleneck Gray Cardigan,Free People FP Movement Mesh Panel High Rise Leggings M,Weworewhat floral scoop front pants,William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 777-808. To this list might be added other forms of aboriginal slavery: see Theda Perdue, Lululemon Wunder Under SE* Shine On High Rise Crop, (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1979); William A. Starna and Ralph Watkins, "Northern Iroquoian Slavery," Coach Disney Minnie Mouse PhoneWallet.Vintage Pink, 38 (Winter 1991): 34-57; and Leland Donald, Aboriginal Slavery on the Northwest Coast of North America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).

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  • Davis, David Brion. Frederick's Of Hollywood Vintage 70's embroidered shirt,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003. The first short essay in the volume is a superb introduction to the origins of New World slavery, but it should be complemented by a number of other books by this great historian of New World slavery. I particularly recommend his Disney The Incredibles Dash Small Duffle Bag,Authentic White Gold Louis Vuitton Ring,
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  • Alice + Olivia by Stacey Bendet Reversible Bucket Hat - Floral Print,A Historical Guide to World Slavery. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. A useful reference work that covers most regions where slavery was important, together with topical examinations of the subject.
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  • Finley, M. I. Anthropologie | Akemi + Kin Beaded Karmina Dress,. Reprint. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980. An exploration of the emergence, functioning, and decline of the slave societies of classical Greece and classical Italy, with comparisons to New World slavery, by the greatest historian of ancient slavery.
  • Fredrickson, George M. Racism: A Short HistoryReigning Champ Mens Jogger Pants Black Drawstring Waist Pockets Pima Cotton S,
  • Vintage Dark Academia Professor Grandpa Brown Tan Plaid Wool Men's Sport Coat 42,Platinum Princess Cut Diamond 9-Stone Band Ring .4. Contains about 1,000 pictorial images of slavery in Africa and the Americas, arranged thematically.
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  • Miers, Suzanne, and Igor Kopytoff, eds. Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977. The long introduction on slavery as an "institution of marginality" is a classic, and many of the individual essays on particular regions and groups are stimulating.
  • Miller, Joseph. C., ed. Slavery and Slaving in World History: A Bibliography, 1900-1996. 2 vols. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1999. The most comprehensive work of its kind. Annual updates are available in the journal Land Baby Diaper bag,. The entire bibliography is being prepared for Internet access as a searchable database by the Virginia Center for Digital History at the University of Virginia.
  • Morgan, Philip D. "African Americans." In A Companion to Colonial AmericaNew Hayley Paige Occasions 5857 Bridesmaid Dress,
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  • Black Hood Gothic Victorian Steampunk Coat Sz XL,Nike Tech Fleece Sportswear Men's Joggers Pants Size Small S Blue Black,. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1985. A useful account that focuses on slavery in medieval Europe, the world of Islam, and the rise of the Atlantic slave system.
  • Thornton, John. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1800Lorac: LE/RARE Dazzling Dozen 2 Eyeshadows (NEW!),

Philip D. Morgan is the Sydney and Ruth Lapidus Professor in the American Revolutionary Era at Princeton University. He is the author of Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998) and coeditor (with Sean Hawkins) of Black Experience and the Empire: The Oxford History of the British Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004). He would like to acknowledge in particular the assistance of David Brion Davis, who generously sent him two early chapters from his forthcoming manuscript, "Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World Slavery."

Authored by

  • Philip D. Morgan
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    Princeton, New Jersey