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Africa and the Slave Trade

Arabs and their Muslim allies were the first to make use of large numbers of sub-Saharan black Africans. They developed a long-distance slave trade, which began in the seventh century and lasted into the twentieth. It delivered many millions of Africans across the Sahara Desert, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean to North Africa, the Mediterranean, and Persian Gulf. Although over a much longer period of time and comprising far more females, the number of Africans exported via these trans-Saharan or Indian Ocean slave trades probably equaled, or even outmatched, those of its transatlantic counterpart. The preexistence of these export trades facilitated Atlantic trade: systems of slave marketing were already in place. So numerous were black Africans at certain times and in certain places that they were able to launch massive slave revolts—in 869, for instance, in what is now southern Iraq, where the so-called Zanj (who came from the Swahili Coast and lands further north) worked in large gangs draining marshlands. While the Quran and Islamic law were essentially color-blind and while Muslims enslaved many so-called "white" people, medieval Arabs came to associate the most degrading forms of labor with black slaves. The Arabic word for slave, NWT Natori Recharge Black Sports Bra,Light Tunic-Top with Gauze Details,

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The Atlantic Slave System

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As slavery underwent a resurgence in southern Europe, it gradually disappeared from the northwestern part of the continent. Economic changes help to explain this development, but perhaps more important were cultural constraints. Over the course of the Middle Ages, Christians always committed awful atrocities on each other, but increasingly they avoided enslaving one another. Apparently, a sense of unity had emerged in Christian Europe that effectively barred the enslavement of those deemed fellow Europeans. Christianity's long struggle with Islam no doubt played a major role in this development. That from 1500 to 1800 Muslims enslaved well over a million Western Europeans, many of whom were subsequently ransomed and celebrated as symbols of freedom, was a major element in the growing sense that Europeans should never be slaves. Nevertheless, these so-called free labor nations would develop some of the harshest slave regimes in the Americas. As David Brion Davis puts it, "it is an astonishing paradox that the first nations in the world to free themselves of chattel slavery—such nations as England, France, Holland, and even the Scandinavian states—became leaders during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in supporting plantation colonies based on African slave labor." He likens this divide to a primitive Mason-Dixon line, "drawn somewhere in the Atlantic, separating free soil master-states from tainted slave soil dependencies" (8).

This paradox illumines the unpredictability of events in the Americas. No European nation embarked on New World ventures with the intention of enslaving anyone. They had no blueprint but rather proceeded haphazardly and pragmatically. Their first resort was to forced Indian labor (the encomiendaBody Colombiano,

Consequently, Europeans faced a huge labor shortage. The Ottoman Turkish empire blocked access to Black Sea or Baltic captives. European nations no longer enslaved Christian prisoners of war. Some dreamers talked of enslaving the poor or other marginal groups, but the practical and principled problems of reviving European slavery were considerable. Another expedient was the transportation of convicts, but their numbers were never sufficient. Temporary bondage—indentured servitude—was the most obvious and most widely used other option, particularly in the early years, but servants, if they survived, eventually became free, and in any case most servants would not travel to the areas where most labor was needed. Thus, almost by default, African slaves proved by far the best available labor supply. Consequently, from 1500 to 1820 almost 9 million African slaves left for the New World, compared to less than 3 million whites. In terms of migration, the New World was more black than white (10).

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New World slavery's other most distinctive aspect was its highly commercial character. While it is true that plantations—that is, large agricultural enterprises, managed for profit, producing a crop for export, with a hierarchically stratified labor organization—existed outside the New World, they reached their apogee there. The economies of scale, the expansion in unit size, the almost exclusive use of black slaves, a highly regimented and commodified labor force, and a system of close management all raised profit levels significantly. Such a productive system placed enormous demands on its laborers. As early as the 1630s a visitor to a Jesuit-owned sugar plantation in Brazil vividly described the unbearable horror of what had transpired: "People the color of the very night, working briskly and moaning at the same time without a moment of peace or rest, whoever sees all the confused and noisy machinery and apparatus of this Babylon, even if they have seen Mt. Etna and Vesuvius will say that this indeed is the image of Hell" (13).

Patterns of New World Slavery

Variations over time and space existed within New World slavery. Three stand out. First, although all New World regions imported more African men than women (thereby in part explaining the harshness of New World slavery because of the policing problems associated with large gangs of men), over time the gender ratio among New World slaves became increasingly balanced. In that regard, the North American slave population is most notable, because, as its number of slave women increased the most rapidly, so it became one of the few self-reproducing slave populations in world history. This early and rapid natural increase explains why North America received such a small percentage of the overall transatlantic slave trade—about 5 percent. Second, North America was also distinctive in being much less tolerant of racial intermixture than Latin America or the Caribbean. Once again demography—particularly the ratio of white men to white women (more balanced in North America than in Latin America and the Caribbean) and the availability of black women—was a crucial part of the explanation, but also important were the role of the Church and cultural mores, based as much in Old World patterns of racial coexistence or segregation. The Spanish had mixed with Muslims for centuries; the English had created a Pale in their settlement of Ireland. Only in North America did the extremely arbitrary concept of "Negro"—denoting anyone with allegedly visible African ancestry—assume such a marked stigma. Third, the chances of gaining freedom varied from one society to the next. Except for the period surrounding the American Revolution, the North American colonies, and later the states, imposed the severest restrictions on the chances of a slave becoming free. Again, demography—the proportions of whites and blacks in the population—has some explanatory power as do economic and cultural forces (14).

North American slavery itself was hardly of a piece. The range encompasses New England's intimate "family slavery"; the Mid-Atlantic's mixed forms of slavery and servitude; the Chesapeake's patriarchal, small plantation, mixed farming and tobacco, heavily native-born form of slavery; and the low country's impersonal, large plantation, rice and indigo, more heavily African system of slavery. In addition, various borderland forms existed: from a fluid world of interracial alliances in the Lower Mississippi Valley to a flexible one of fugitives and ex-slaves in Spanish Florida to one in which Indian slaves were transformed from symbols of alliance into commodities of exchange in French Canada (15).

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  1. LULULEMON Rare Speed Up Short 2.5" in Translucence Alpine White Multi/Bl…,The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-bellum South (New York: Knopf, 1956).

  2. Theory black corduroy super cinched blazer 8,International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, ed. David L. Sills and Robert King Merton (New York: Macmillan, 1968), 14: 307-13; Finley, Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology, reprint (Hammondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980), 9, 96, 102, 111, 113-14; Keith Hopkins, Vineyard Vines Men’s Solid Stretch Board Shorts Red Size 38 Performance,Men’s coach leather backpack,St. John Collection by Marie Gray Pleated Santana Knit Pants Straight Leg Size 2, 138 (1993): 3-27; Keith Bradley, Slavery and Society at RomeGCT V Neck LACE Bralettes sexy- Red,VTG VS Lace Up Bra & Panty Set 34B,NWT PINK Victoria's Secret Date Push-Up Lace Bra Size 32B,The Problem of Slavery in Western CultureGeneration Love Revolve Nikki One Shoulder Top XS,❣️FREE SHIP❣️ J Jill Knit Tunic Top Double Layered Blue Black Floral Size S,❣️FREE SHIP❣️ J Jill V Neck Tunic Button Front Gray Cotton 3/4 Sleeve,

  3. Ralph A. Austen, "The Trans-Saharan Slave Trade: A Tentative Census," Jon jacket green/pink textured wool blend NWT 2,, ed. Henry A. Gemery and Jan S. Hogendorn (New York: Academic Press, 1979), 23-76; Austen, "The Mediterranean Islamic Slave Trade out of Africa: A Tentative Census," Balance Athletica Women's Orange Biker Shorts Size L,Lululemon Love to Layer Bra Black Size 4,Encyclopedia of Africa South of the SaharaIsabel Marant Relly Blue Embroidered Dress 44,International Journal of African Historical Studies 10 (1977): 443-61; Alexandre Popovic, The Revolt of African Slaves in Iraq in the IIIrd-IXth CenturyPlates china by Lynn’s - 2 salad plates 4 saucer,New Anthropologie Tote Purse,Ariat Wool Oversized Long Riding Blazer Jacket,Dior Bow Makeup Bag, (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998); Shaun E. Marmon, ed., RARE Lululemon Tracker Short lll Seawheeze, (Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener, 1998); Minra Tora and John Edward Philips, eds., Slave Elites in the Middle East and Africa: A Comparative Study36DD Victoria's Secret Floral Black Unlined Bra,The African Diaspora in the Mediterranean Lands of IslamVintage Collectible Ceramic Stoneware Beer Mug Stein,Slavery on the Frontiers of Islam❗️3/❗️ Byblos Velour Baby Boy Hat,

  4. Suzanne Miers and Igor Kopytoff, eds., Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological PerspectivesGap Maternity, size medium, red wool wrap coat.,Marc New York Suede and Faux Fur Jacket, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990); John Thornton, David's Bridal Gold Size 8 Bridesmaid Dress Never Worn,Dolce & Gabbana Sunglasses new with case and box,Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in AfricaSEXY Leather trench coat!,

  5. Kate Spade x Keds Double Decker,Archivum latinitatis medii aeviKnee-High over the Knee suede heeled boot,L'Esclavage dans l'Europe médiévale, vol. 1, Pénisule Ibérique—France (Bruges: De Tempel, 1955); vol. 2, Italie, Colonies Italiennes du Levant, Levant Latin, Empire Bysantin (Ghent: 1977); and Verlinden, The Beginnings of Modern Colonization: Eleven Essays with an IntroductionJ Jill Dolman Tunic Top Beige Size XL,Slavery and Society in Medieval ScandinaviaBlack Over the Knee Velvet Boots,White chiffon/beaded lace wedding gown, sz. 20, (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 1995); Steven Epstein, Speaking of Slavery: Color, Ethnicity, and Human Bondage in Italy (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2001); and Sally McKee, "Inherited Status and Slavery in Late Medieval Italy and Venetian Crete," Under armour Strapy back sports top!,Tumi Tech Convertible Laptop Brief Pack,

  6. Munthe Blazer,New MK Tote, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982); Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440-1870 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997), 21-24, 48-86.

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  8. NWT Soft White Galina wedding dress (separates),American Historical ReviewFoley + Corinna Disco City Crossbody Leather Bag,Babaton Club Double Breasted Blazer Black Sz 4, (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003), 14; Robert C. Davis, Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500-1800 (Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave MacMillan, 2003). For more on the development of freedom and slavery, see David Eltis, The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), and Sue Peabody, There Are No Slaves in France: The Political Culture of Race and Slavery in the Ancien Régime36DD Victoria's Secret Blue Unlined Bra,

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  10. David Galenson, White Servitude in Colonial America: An Economic AnalysisBlue tank bodysuit,Distressed slim boyfriend jeans,Cole Haan Village Flat Tote Purse & Wallet,William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 58 (January 2001): 17-46. Two good microhistories of the transatlantic slave trade are Robert Harms, Fjallraven | Greenland Top Backpack, 20L in Green,Eugenia Kim black pearl headband, never worn,The Two Princes of Calabar: An Eighteenth-Century Atlantic Odyssey (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004).

  11. David Eltis and William G. Clarence-Smith, "White Servitude," NIKE SFG LEBRON JAMES AA1352-005 Shoes Youth Sz 3.5Y Basketball Sneakers,Bridal headpiece/ headband,Keds COLLAB w/ Rifle Paper Co Floral Embroidered Canvas Double Stack Shoes N, (London: Longman, 1996); Stanley L. Engerman, ed., Terms of Labor: Slavery, Serfdom, and Free Labor (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1999); and Bush, Mother Kick It Jean size 30, (Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2000).

  12. Frank M. Snowden Jr., Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1970); Snowden, Girls shoes size 13,MOTHER jean jacket - denim fade with snaps,The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2004); Jean Devisse and Michel Mollat, eds., The Image of the Black in Western Art, vol. 2, J. Jill Womens Kurta Tunic Top Tassel Tie Blue Floral Tencel Semi Sheer Size XS,The blue beauty lace front ombré wig,Images of the Medieval PeasantGorgeous Bob Wig For Sale,Lightwash Wide Leg Jeans with Distressed Hems by We The Free!,Babaton Coat,White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812mk medium signature pvc brown tote bag.,Race: The History of an Idea in the West (Washington, D.C.: The Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1996); the essays in "Constructing Race: Differentiating Peoples in the Early Modern World," William and Mary QuarterlyPaige High Rise Bell Canyon Jeans in Nottingham,The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2003). The best account is David Brion Davis, "The Origins of Anti-Black Racism in the New World," chap. 3 in Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World SlaveryBoyish Jeans The Landon Puff Sleeve Cropped Denim Jacket in Steel Magnolia Blue,

  13. Tumi Sling Bag,Arden B Leather and Faux fur jacket XS, (New York: Norton, 1989); Schwartz, ed., Brand new ivory dress,, 3.

  14. Frank Tannenbaum, Slave and Citizen: The Negro in the AmericasReformation hi waisted Cher jeans 31,Neither Black Nor White: Slavery and Race Relations in Brazil and the United States (New York: Macmillan, 1971).

  15. Michael Kors Marina Large Canvas Tote,Black Yankees: The Development of an Afro-American Subculture in Eighteenth-Century New England (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988); Graham Russell Hodges, Root and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1613-1863Boyish Jeans The Landon Puff Sleeve Cropped Denim Jacket in Space Odyssey Black,Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and LowcountryNike Boys Kyrie 5 PS V Irving Wolf AQ2458-099 Grey Lime Sneaker Shoes Size 2 Y,Cosabella Blue Bra Wireless Small Lace,Sakura Collectible Plate by Angela Staehling,Day & Mood crossbody leather bag,Nike Air Max 97 GS Summer Pack White Blue Yellow CK0052 400 Size 45Y,William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 777-808. To this list might be added other forms of aboriginal slavery: see Theda Perdue, Lost Enterprises Surf T-Shirt Vintage RARE Made In USA, (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1979); William A. Starna and Ralph Watkins, "Northern Iroquoian Slavery," BAGGY JEANS! these jeans are so cute and a lighter medium wash!, 38 (Winter 1991): 34-57; and Leland Donald, Aboriginal Slavery on the Northwest Coast of North America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).

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Sources

  • American Lucky Brand jeans women's,The Making of New World Slavery: From the Baroque to the Modern, 1492-1800Nike Air Jordan 1 Mid ‘Siren Red’ Shoes NIB,
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  • Betsey Johnson Leather Crossbody Bag,Unchained Voices: An Anthology of Black Authors in the English-Speaking World of the Eighteenth CenturyDKNY sport Shorts Colorblock High Waist Women Sz L,
  • Madewell The High Rise Slim Boy Jean Distressed Raw Hem,Children of God's Fire: A Documentary History of Black Slavery in BrazilUniversal Standard "Bae" jeans size 30"/Size 2 Long (Stretch) Dark Indigio,
  • Davis, David Brion. ✨NWT✨Tommy Hilfiger Flowing 3/4 sleeve High front/Lower back Tunic,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003. The first short essay in the volume is a superb introduction to the origins of New World slavery, but it should be complemented by a number of other books by this great historian of New World slavery. I particularly recommend his Le Temps de Cerises Womens Genuine Leather Jacket M,Vintage Colin Stuart Brown Leather Flap Satchel Crossbody Bag,
  • Davis, Robert C. J.Crew jacket100%wool black classic blazer 10,Short curly,
  • Adidas yeezy boost, yeezy Waverunners, and yeezy m,A Historical Guide to World Slavery. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. A useful reference work that covers most regions where slavery was important, together with topical examinations of the subject.
  • Western Trench Jacket by Tasha Polizzi,The Rise of African Slavery in the AmericasSexy black bodysuit .NWT,
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  • Derek Lam 10 Crosby pleated front Straight Leg pull on Pants elasticized waist,Macmillan Encyclopedia of World SlaveryAdidas best sellers Youth NMD_R1 size Boys 4 1/2,
  • Finley, M. I. Coach Hamptons Signature large tote - black,. Reprint. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980. An exploration of the emergence, functioning, and decline of the slave societies of classical Greece and classical Italy, with comparisons to New World slavery, by the greatest historian of ancient slavery.
  • Fredrickson, George M. Racism: A Short HistoryLevi’s 311 Shaping Skinny Jeans Kabekona Camo Women’s Plus 16W M NWT ,
  • Vintage LUISA SPAGNOLI angora bolero off white sm/med,NWT Carmen Marc Valvo Dot-Print Peplum Cocktail Dress. Contains about 1,000 pictorial images of slavery in Africa and the Americas, arranged thematically.
  • Wilfred over the shoulder bodysuit,Woman jeans 7 for All Mankind,. New York: Hill and Wang, 1993. A good general account by a historian alert to comparative history.
  • Madewell Tall Cali Demi-Boot Jeans in Lucille Wash Size 27,Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. A good survey of slavery and the evolution of racial prejudice in the Islamic world.
  • Miers, Suzanne, and Igor Kopytoff, eds. Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977. The long introduction on slavery as an "institution of marginality" is a classic, and many of the individual essays on particular regions and groups are stimulating.
  • Miller, Joseph. C., ed. Slavery and Slaving in World History: A Bibliography, 1900-1996. 2 vols. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1999. The most comprehensive work of its kind. Annual updates are available in the journal Michael Kors black PVC tote,. The entire bibliography is being prepared for Internet access as a searchable database by the Virginia Center for Digital History at the University of Virginia.
  • Morgan, Philip D. "African Americans." In A Companion to Colonial AmericaLe Temps de Cerises Womens Genuine Leather Moto Jacket M,
  • Patterson, Orlando. Aer Fit Pack,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982. The best general survey of slave systems in 66 societies, written by a sociologist.
  • Flare JUICY Couture jeans,Rebecca Minkoff White Crossbody,. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1985. A useful account that focuses on slavery in medieval Europe, the world of Islam, and the rise of the Atlantic slave system.
  • Thornton, John. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1800Gorman Life Drawing Hoodie,

Philip D. Morgan is the Sydney and Ruth Lapidus Professor in the American Revolutionary Era at Princeton University. He is the author of Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998) and coeditor (with Sean Hawkins) of Black Experience and the Empire: The Oxford History of the British Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004). He would like to acknowledge in particular the assistance of David Brion Davis, who generously sent him two early chapters from his forthcoming manuscript, "Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World Slavery."

Authored by

  • Philip D. Morgan
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    Princeton, New Jersey