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Africa and the Slave Trade

Arabs and their Muslim allies were the first to make use of large numbers of sub-Saharan black Africans. They developed a long-distance slave trade, which began in the seventh century and lasted into the twentieth. It delivered many millions of Africans across the Sahara Desert, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean to North Africa, the Mediterranean, and Persian Gulf. Although over a much longer period of time and comprising far more females, the number of Africans exported via these trans-Saharan or Indian Ocean slave trades probably equaled, or even outmatched, those of its transatlantic counterpart. The preexistence of these export trades facilitated Atlantic trade: systems of slave marketing were already in place. So numerous were black Africans at certain times and in certain places that they were able to launch massive slave revolts—in 869, for instance, in what is now southern Iraq, where the so-called Zanj (who came from the Swahili Coast and lands further north) worked in large gangs draining marshlands. While the Quran and Islamic law were essentially color-blind and while Muslims enslaved many so-called "white" people, medieval Arabs came to associate the most degrading forms of labor with black slaves. The Arabic word for slave, Dolce Vita platform wedge in black nubuck leather,ANTHRO PARKER Sutton Gardenia Silk Romper Playsuit,

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The Atlantic Slave System

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As slavery underwent a resurgence in southern Europe, it gradually disappeared from the northwestern part of the continent. Economic changes help to explain this development, but perhaps more important were cultural constraints. Over the course of the Middle Ages, Christians always committed awful atrocities on each other, but increasingly they avoided enslaving one another. Apparently, a sense of unity had emerged in Christian Europe that effectively barred the enslavement of those deemed fellow Europeans. Christianity's long struggle with Islam no doubt played a major role in this development. That from 1500 to 1800 Muslims enslaved well over a million Western Europeans, many of whom were subsequently ransomed and celebrated as symbols of freedom, was a major element in the growing sense that Europeans should never be slaves. Nevertheless, these so-called free labor nations would develop some of the harshest slave regimes in the Americas. As David Brion Davis puts it, "it is an astonishing paradox that the first nations in the world to free themselves of chattel slavery—such nations as England, France, Holland, and even the Scandinavian states—became leaders during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in supporting plantation colonies based on African slave labor." He likens this divide to a primitive Mason-Dixon line, "drawn somewhere in the Atlantic, separating free soil master-states from tainted slave soil dependencies" (8).

This paradox illumines the unpredictability of events in the Americas. No European nation embarked on New World ventures with the intention of enslaving anyone. They had no blueprint but rather proceeded haphazardly and pragmatically. Their first resort was to forced Indian labor (the encomiendaVans - Yacht Club Old Skool - (NEVER WORN),

Consequently, Europeans faced a huge labor shortage. The Ottoman Turkish empire blocked access to Black Sea or Baltic captives. European nations no longer enslaved Christian prisoners of war. Some dreamers talked of enslaving the poor or other marginal groups, but the practical and principled problems of reviving European slavery were considerable. Another expedient was the transportation of convicts, but their numbers were never sufficient. Temporary bondage—indentured servitude—was the most obvious and most widely used other option, particularly in the early years, but servants, if they survived, eventually became free, and in any case most servants would not travel to the areas where most labor was needed. Thus, almost by default, African slaves proved by far the best available labor supply. Consequently, from 1500 to 1820 almost 9 million African slaves left for the New World, compared to less than 3 million whites. In terms of migration, the New World was more black than white (10).


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New World slavery's other most distinctive aspect was its highly commercial character. While it is true that plantations—that is, large agricultural enterprises, managed for profit, producing a crop for export, with a hierarchically stratified labor organization—existed outside the New World, they reached their apogee there. The economies of scale, the expansion in unit size, the almost exclusive use of black slaves, a highly regimented and commodified labor force, and a system of close management all raised profit levels significantly. Such a productive system placed enormous demands on its laborers. As early as the 1630s a visitor to a Jesuit-owned sugar plantation in Brazil vividly described the unbearable horror of what had transpired: "People the color of the very night, working briskly and moaning at the same time without a moment of peace or rest, whoever sees all the confused and noisy machinery and apparatus of this Babylon, even if they have seen Mt. Etna and Vesuvius will say that this indeed is the image of Hell" (13).

Patterns of New World Slavery

Variations over time and space existed within New World slavery. Three stand out. First, although all New World regions imported more African men than women (thereby in part explaining the harshness of New World slavery because of the policing problems associated with large gangs of men), over time the gender ratio among New World slaves became increasingly balanced. In that regard, the North American slave population is most notable, because, as its number of slave women increased the most rapidly, so it became one of the few self-reproducing slave populations in world history. This early and rapid natural increase explains why North America received such a small percentage of the overall transatlantic slave trade—about 5 percent. Second, North America was also distinctive in being much less tolerant of racial intermixture than Latin America or the Caribbean. Once again demography—particularly the ratio of white men to white women (more balanced in North America than in Latin America and the Caribbean) and the availability of black women—was a crucial part of the explanation, but also important were the role of the Church and cultural mores, based as much in Old World patterns of racial coexistence or segregation. The Spanish had mixed with Muslims for centuries; the English had created a Pale in their settlement of Ireland. Only in North America did the extremely arbitrary concept of "Negro"—denoting anyone with allegedly visible African ancestry—assume such a marked stigma. Third, the chances of gaining freedom varied from one society to the next. Except for the period surrounding the American Revolution, the North American colonies, and later the states, imposed the severest restrictions on the chances of a slave becoming free. Again, demography—the proportions of whites and blacks in the population—has some explanatory power as do economic and cultural forces (14).

North American slavery itself was hardly of a piece. The range encompasses New England's intimate "family slavery"; the Mid-Atlantic's mixed forms of slavery and servitude; the Chesapeake's patriarchal, small plantation, mixed farming and tobacco, heavily native-born form of slavery; and the low country's impersonal, large plantation, rice and indigo, more heavily African system of slavery. In addition, various borderland forms existed: from a fluid world of interracial alliances in the Lower Mississippi Valley to a flexible one of fugitives and ex-slaves in Spanish Florida to one in which Indian slaves were transformed from symbols of alliance into commodities of exchange in French Canada (15).

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  1. Alice + Olivia Otis Open Knit Sweater S Nwot,The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-bellum South (New York: Knopf, 1956).

  2. Blue polka dot 7th Ave NY&Co skirt,International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, ed. David L. Sills and Robert King Merton (New York: Macmillan, 1968), 14: 307-13; Finley, Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology, reprint (Hammondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980), 9, 96, 102, 111, 113-14; Keith Hopkins, Invicta 21687 Angel Quartz Multi Function,Akris Punto glen check plaid shift dress,Krimson Klover Wool Turtleneck Sweater, Black/grey, Sz S, 138 (1993): 3-27; Keith Bradley, Slavery and Society at RomeCOPY - Authentic Michael Kors,MICHAEL KORS Grayson Large Monogram Satchel Bag,Cloth & Stone Eleanor Plaid Button Down Shirt,The Problem of Slavery in Western CultureIvory Chloe Kerala Equipped Satchel Handbag Purse,14th & Union ankle booties faux suede size 8.5,Ulla Johnson tan beige dress size 6,

  3. Ralph A. Austen, "The Trans-Saharan Slave Trade: A Tentative Census," Disney Frozen Elsa 32 inches tall talking doll,, ed. Henry A. Gemery and Jan S. Hogendorn (New York: Academic Press, 1979), 23-76; Austen, "The Mediterranean Islamic Slave Trade out of Africa: A Tentative Census," Almond Toe Chunky Heel Ankle Booties size 8.5,Like New Black Leather COACH Wristlet,Encyclopedia of Africa South of the SaharaBarbie Vintage Horse Riding 1997.,International Journal of African Historical Studies 10 (1977): 443-61; Alexandre Popovic, The Revolt of African Slaves in Iraq in the IIIrd-IXth Centuryclub monaco meredy long sleeve top in white,Anthropologie Blake Cowl Neck Sweater, Sz M/L,XCVI WOVA CARDIGAN SWEATER,Vintage Lamondiale Goat Hair boots, (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998); Shaun E. Marmon, ed., Cloth and Stone Striped V Neck Button Down Tie Front Short Sleeve Top, (Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener, 1998); Minra Tora and John Edward Philips, eds., Slave Elites in the Middle East and Africa: A Comparative StudyTory Burch cashmere sweater size M good condition,The African Diaspora in the Mediterranean Lands of IslamMICHAEL KORS Callie Micro Studded Leather Bag,Slavery on the Frontiers of IslamNeiman Marcus Blue Beaded Clutch,

  4. Suzanne Miers and Igor Kopytoff, eds., Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological PerspectivesBCBG Maz Azria 8 Satchel Handbag Tote Purse Shoulder Bag Satchel Hobo NEW,NWT Evan-Picone Dress Sz 4, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990); John Thornton, Kate Spade Bag -Natalia Medium Flap Shoulder,Hayley Paige Decklyn Wedding Gown Size 12,Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in AfricaAlice + Olivia Chunky Knit Turtleneck,

  5. OLD NAVY off white button down shirt,Archivum latinitatis medii aeviCamera Bag Croc Small,L'Esclavage dans l'Europe médiévale, vol. 1, Pénisule Ibérique—France (Bruges: De Tempel, 1955); vol. 2, Italie, Colonies Italiennes du Levant, Levant Latin, Empire Bysantin (Ghent: 1977); and Verlinden, The Beginnings of Modern Colonization: Eleven Essays with an IntroductionChestnut short UGGs,Slavery and Society in Medieval ScandinaviaFree people savannah lace jumpsuit (size s),Vintage blue and white coach bag, (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 1995); Steven Epstein, Speaking of Slavery: Color, Ethnicity, and Human Bondage in Italy (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2001); and Sally McKee, "Inherited Status and Slavery in Late Medieval Italy and Venetian Crete," Squishmallow Cannon Candy Corn Plush Black Witch Hat Halloween Exclusive Size S,NWT Anthropologie Euphrates Dyed Tunic Dress SP,

  6. club monaco meredy ribbed turtleneck sweater,Tori Praver top, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982); Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440-1870 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997), 21-24, 48-86.

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  8. WHY Dress Ruffle Maxi Skirt,American Historical ReviewCare Bears 3 pack,By Paige Needlepoint Loafers, (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003), 14; Robert C. Davis, Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500-1800 (Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave MacMillan, 2003). For more on the development of freedom and slavery, see David Eltis, The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), and Sue Peabody, There Are No Slaves in France: The Political Culture of Race and Slavery in the Ancien RégimeAcacia Swimwear Queens bottom,

  9. Lumiere Metallic Mock Neck Sweater,The Early Spanish MainDooney and Bourke City Large Barlow,Baby doll bed frame, (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1992); William L. Sherman, Forced Native Labor in Sixteenth-Century Central AmericaWhite Fox Made You Famous Blazer Dress Steel,Elie Tahari navy blue Moriah Knit V-Neck A-Line Dress size 6,MICHAEL KORS Bedford Medium Satchel Bag,The Indian Slave Trade: The Rise of the English Empire in the American South, 1670-1717Madewell Classic Straight Jeans in Fawn Wash,Birkis Santosa Brown Cross Strap Sandals 6,, ed. Elizabeth Mancke and Carole Shammas (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005), 75-121. For a recent discussion of Indian population decline, see David S. Jones, "Virgin Soils Revisited," FREE PEOPLE Women's Cowl Neck Pullover,, 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 703-42.

  10. David Galenson, White Servitude in Colonial America: An Economic AnalysisMini sized bag Savannah Crossbody,Bebe Orange silk dress,Iggy the Iguana Teenie Beanie Baby (TY 1993),William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 58 (January 2001): 17-46. Two good microhistories of the transatlantic slave trade are Robert Harms, Star wars madalorian 20 in large plush squish toy nee,Frye Carson Metallic Bronze Ballet Flats,The Two Princes of Calabar: An Eighteenth-Century Atlantic Odyssey (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004).

  11. David Eltis and William G. Clarence-Smith, "White Servitude," NWT Tory Burch Isle Rope Romper, size Small,Kate Spade New York Sindy Rococo Pink T-Strap slide Sandals Women's size US 11M,Vine Street Floral Lace Cardigan Hoodie NWT, (London: Longman, 1996); Stanley L. Engerman, ed., Terms of Labor: Slavery, Serfdom, and Free Labor (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1999); and Bush, By Paige Needlepoint Loafer, (Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2000).

  12. Frank M. Snowden Jr., Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1970); Snowden, Pronovias Hopkins wedding dress,Blush by Hayley Paige Jardin Wedding Gown size 12,The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2004); Jean Devisse and Michel Mollat, eds., The Image of the Black in Western Art, vol. 2, Emporio Armani Men Stainless Steel watch,NWT Sun + Stone Kiva lace up sneakers,Images of the Medieval PeasantWHITING & DAVIS CLUTCH,Abercrombie & Fitch Simone High Rise Slim White Distressed Jeans,TY Li’l Ones Quantity (3) Hello Kitty, Snoopy & Smurf,White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812VDM Tie Dye Bikini Set,Race: The History of an Idea in the West (Washington, D.C.: The Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1996); the essays in "Constructing Race: Differentiating Peoples in the Early Modern World," William and Mary QuarterlyHayley Paige Marsden Ivory/Cashmere Size 12,The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2003). The best account is David Brion Davis, "The Origins of Anti-Black Racism in the New World," chap. 3 in Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World SlaverySorrento Sterling vintage brooch EUC,

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  14. Frank Tannenbaum, Slave and Citizen: The Negro in the AmericasThe Limited Ashton, Size L, Women’s Black A-Line Button Front Dress,Neither Black Nor White: Slavery and Race Relations in Brazil and the United States (New York: Macmillan, 1971).

  15. Carmar Los Angeles jeans distressed jeans 23,Black Yankees: The Development of an Afro-American Subculture in Eighteenth-Century New England (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988); Graham Russell Hodges, Root and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1613-1863Lucky Brand Emberleigh Boot,Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and LowcountryDL1961 Freja utility Jumpsuit,Brand new. Jessica Simpson Wedges,Kirks Folly Brooch Pin new!!,Marc Jacobs Werdie Messenger Bag,PacSun Women’s Light Wash 100% Cotton High Waist Mom Jeans,William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 777-808. To this list might be added other forms of aboriginal slavery: see Theda Perdue, Vintage Jacobsons’ Animal Print Button Down Shirt, (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1979); William A. Starna and Ralph Watkins, "Northern Iroquoian Slavery," 5 piece XS bikini set, 38 (Winter 1991): 34-57; and Leland Donald, Aboriginal Slavery on the Northwest Coast of North America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).

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  • Davis, David Brion. Kate Spade Cobble Hill Mini Carson Crossbody in Grace Blue/Mint,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003. The first short essay in the volume is a superb introduction to the origins of New World slavery, but it should be complemented by a number of other books by this great historian of New World slavery. I particularly recommend his Faithfull The Brand Nora Orange Dusty Floral Long Sleeve Midi Dress,10 BROOKS BROTHERS RED CRISP WHITE HOUNDSTOOTH BUTTON FRONT TOP large,
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  • Finley, M. I. Permanent pleats maxi broomstick skirt Saks Fifth,. Reprint. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980. An exploration of the emergence, functioning, and decline of the slave societies of classical Greece and classical Italy, with comparisons to New World slavery, by the greatest historian of ancient slavery.
  • Fredrickson, George M. Racism: A Short HistoryElsa Peretti® and Tiffany & Co Leather Backpack,
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  • Michael kors "unisex" mens GOLD watches / realy good condition's new battery's,Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. A good survey of slavery and the evolution of racial prejudice in the Islamic world.
  • Miers, Suzanne, and Igor Kopytoff, eds. Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977. The long introduction on slavery as an "institution of marginality" is a classic, and many of the individual essays on particular regions and groups are stimulating.
  • Miller, Joseph. C., ed. Slavery and Slaving in World History: A Bibliography, 1900-1996. 2 vols. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1999. The most comprehensive work of its kind. Annual updates are available in the journal Spell Hendrix Boho Dress - Cream Medium,. The entire bibliography is being prepared for Internet access as a searchable database by the Virginia Center for Digital History at the University of Virginia.
  • Morgan, Philip D. "African Americans." In A Companion to Colonial AmericaMexicana Leather Crossbody Bag Cleobella,
  • Patterson, Orlando. Mikado beaded wedding dress with blue accent,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982. The best general survey of slave systems in 66 societies, written by a sociologist.
  • Joie rabbit fur sweater,Patricia Nash Potenaz Frame Clutch New,. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1985. A useful account that focuses on slavery in medieval Europe, the world of Islam, and the rise of the Atlantic slave system.
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Philip D. Morgan is the Sydney and Ruth Lapidus Professor in the American Revolutionary Era at Princeton University. He is the author of Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998) and coeditor (with Sean Hawkins) of Black Experience and the Empire: The Oxford History of the British Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004). He would like to acknowledge in particular the assistance of David Brion Davis, who generously sent him two early chapters from his forthcoming manuscript, "Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World Slavery."

Authored by

  • Philip D. Morgan
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    Princeton, New Jersey