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Africa and the Slave Trade

Arabs and their Muslim allies were the first to make use of large numbers of sub-Saharan black Africans. They developed a long-distance slave trade, which began in the seventh century and lasted into the twentieth. It delivered many millions of Africans across the Sahara Desert, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean to North Africa, the Mediterranean, and Persian Gulf. Although over a much longer period of time and comprising far more females, the number of Africans exported via these trans-Saharan or Indian Ocean slave trades probably equaled, or even outmatched, those of its transatlantic counterpart. The preexistence of these export trades facilitated Atlantic trade: systems of slave marketing were already in place. So numerous were black Africans at certain times and in certain places that they were able to launch massive slave revolts—in 869, for instance, in what is now southern Iraq, where the so-called Zanj (who came from the Swahili Coast and lands further north) worked in large gangs draining marshlands. While the Quran and Islamic law were essentially color-blind and while Muslims enslaved many so-called "white" people, medieval Arabs came to associate the most degrading forms of labor with black slaves. The Arabic word for slave, Timo Weiland zebra print dress pants,Men’s Old Navy brown cargo pants,

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The Atlantic Slave System

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As slavery underwent a resurgence in southern Europe, it gradually disappeared from the northwestern part of the continent. Economic changes help to explain this development, but perhaps more important were cultural constraints. Over the course of the Middle Ages, Christians always committed awful atrocities on each other, but increasingly they avoided enslaving one another. Apparently, a sense of unity had emerged in Christian Europe that effectively barred the enslavement of those deemed fellow Europeans. Christianity's long struggle with Islam no doubt played a major role in this development. That from 1500 to 1800 Muslims enslaved well over a million Western Europeans, many of whom were subsequently ransomed and celebrated as symbols of freedom, was a major element in the growing sense that Europeans should never be slaves. Nevertheless, these so-called free labor nations would develop some of the harshest slave regimes in the Americas. As David Brion Davis puts it, "it is an astonishing paradox that the first nations in the world to free themselves of chattel slavery—such nations as England, France, Holland, and even the Scandinavian states—became leaders during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in supporting plantation colonies based on African slave labor." He likens this divide to a primitive Mason-Dixon line, "drawn somewhere in the Atlantic, separating free soil master-states from tainted slave soil dependencies" (8).

This paradox illumines the unpredictability of events in the Americas. No European nation embarked on New World ventures with the intention of enslaving anyone. They had no blueprint but rather proceeded haphazardly and pragmatically. Their first resort was to forced Indian labor (the encomiendaNike LeBron Soldier 13 Thunder Grey Men’s 7.5,

Consequently, Europeans faced a huge labor shortage. The Ottoman Turkish empire blocked access to Black Sea or Baltic captives. European nations no longer enslaved Christian prisoners of war. Some dreamers talked of enslaving the poor or other marginal groups, but the practical and principled problems of reviving European slavery were considerable. Another expedient was the transportation of convicts, but their numbers were never sufficient. Temporary bondage—indentured servitude—was the most obvious and most widely used other option, particularly in the early years, but servants, if they survived, eventually became free, and in any case most servants would not travel to the areas where most labor was needed. Thus, almost by default, African slaves proved by far the best available labor supply. Consequently, from 1500 to 1820 almost 9 million African slaves left for the New World, compared to less than 3 million whites. In terms of migration, the New World was more black than white (10).

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New World slavery's other most distinctive aspect was its highly commercial character. While it is true that plantations—that is, large agricultural enterprises, managed for profit, producing a crop for export, with a hierarchically stratified labor organization—existed outside the New World, they reached their apogee there. The economies of scale, the expansion in unit size, the almost exclusive use of black slaves, a highly regimented and commodified labor force, and a system of close management all raised profit levels significantly. Such a productive system placed enormous demands on its laborers. As early as the 1630s a visitor to a Jesuit-owned sugar plantation in Brazil vividly described the unbearable horror of what had transpired: "People the color of the very night, working briskly and moaning at the same time without a moment of peace or rest, whoever sees all the confused and noisy machinery and apparatus of this Babylon, even if they have seen Mt. Etna and Vesuvius will say that this indeed is the image of Hell" (13).

Patterns of New World Slavery

Variations over time and space existed within New World slavery. Three stand out. First, although all New World regions imported more African men than women (thereby in part explaining the harshness of New World slavery because of the policing problems associated with large gangs of men), over time the gender ratio among New World slaves became increasingly balanced. In that regard, the North American slave population is most notable, because, as its number of slave women increased the most rapidly, so it became one of the few self-reproducing slave populations in world history. This early and rapid natural increase explains why North America received such a small percentage of the overall transatlantic slave trade—about 5 percent. Second, North America was also distinctive in being much less tolerant of racial intermixture than Latin America or the Caribbean. Once again demography—particularly the ratio of white men to white women (more balanced in North America than in Latin America and the Caribbean) and the availability of black women—was a crucial part of the explanation, but also important were the role of the Church and cultural mores, based as much in Old World patterns of racial coexistence or segregation. The Spanish had mixed with Muslims for centuries; the English had created a Pale in their settlement of Ireland. Only in North America did the extremely arbitrary concept of "Negro"—denoting anyone with allegedly visible African ancestry—assume such a marked stigma. Third, the chances of gaining freedom varied from one society to the next. Except for the period surrounding the American Revolution, the North American colonies, and later the states, imposed the severest restrictions on the chances of a slave becoming free. Again, demography—the proportions of whites and blacks in the population—has some explanatory power as do economic and cultural forces (14).

North American slavery itself was hardly of a piece. The range encompasses New England's intimate "family slavery"; the Mid-Atlantic's mixed forms of slavery and servitude; the Chesapeake's patriarchal, small plantation, mixed farming and tobacco, heavily native-born form of slavery; and the low country's impersonal, large plantation, rice and indigo, more heavily African system of slavery. In addition, various borderland forms existed: from a fluid world of interracial alliances in the Lower Mississippi Valley to a flexible one of fugitives and ex-slaves in Spanish Florida to one in which Indian slaves were transformed from symbols of alliance into commodities of exchange in French Canada (15).

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  1. True Religion Jeans size 46,The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-bellum South (New York: Knopf, 1956).

  2. CHANEL LACE UP COMBAT BOOTS,International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, ed. David L. Sills and Robert King Merton (New York: Macmillan, 1968), 14: 307-13; Finley, Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology, reprint (Hammondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980), 9, 96, 102, 111, 113-14; Keith Hopkins, Jimmy choo flats with buckle,Nike Air Zoom Infinity PRO NRG Golf Shoes Venom,Women’s Jordan/Nike collab, 138 (1993): 3-27; Keith Bradley, Slavery and Society at RomeFilson Outfitter SS Solid Pocket T-Shirt, NEW Grey heather MADE in USA,LEVEL 99 Floral Linen Blend 4.5" Mid-Rise Flat Front Chino Shorts,Irish Setter Red Wings Steel Toe Ultra Dry Waterproof Work Boots Size 10,The Problem of Slavery in Western CultureMAX STUDIO FAUX LEATHER BIKER JACKET BLACK…XL…LIKE NEW,Coach Bag with Wallet/ Check book,BUNDLE (4) Womens Boots, size 5.5,

  3. Ralph A. Austen, "The Trans-Saharan Slave Trade: A Tentative Census," Red wings Style 415 DYNAFORCE® MEN'S 6-INCH WATERPROOF SOFT TOE BOOT,, ed. Henry A. Gemery and Jan S. Hogendorn (New York: Academic Press, 1979), 23-76; Austen, "The Mediterranean Islamic Slave Trade out of Africa: A Tentative Census," Madewell The Frances Loafer in Snake Embossed Leather Shoes Size 8 New With Box,Jordan XI "Platinum Tint" sz 11,Encyclopedia of Africa South of the SaharaHarry Styles Baby Pink Fine Line Crewneck,International Journal of African Historical Studies 10 (1977): 443-61; Alexandre Popovic, The Revolt of African Slaves in Iraq in the IIIrd-IXth CenturyVINCE KHAKI CROP SKINNY ANKLE JEANS SZ 24,Mes demoiselles striped and plaid cotton dress,LANVIN Butterfly Ballet Flat,Vera Bradley eye wear and case, (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998); Shaun E. Marmon, ed., Vintage MCM Thomas KODIAK Coffee Pot Tea Pot Set, (Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener, 1998); Minra Tora and John Edward Philips, eds., Slave Elites in the Middle East and Africa: A Comparative StudyBally Suisse Belfit 882 Americano 03 Black Split Toe Oxford Dress Shoe Men 9.5 E,The African Diaspora in the Mediterranean Lands of IslamTory Burch Abstract Lines Blazer Jacket. Size 4,Slavery on the Frontiers of IslamLong boot leather,

  4. Suzanne Miers and Igor Kopytoff, eds., Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological PerspectivesThe North Face X2 Tan Red Black Waterproof Hiking Boots Size 7,Louis vuitton midtown ankle boots, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990); John Thornton, Leather bag - Neiman Marcus,1985-1987 Hakeem Olajuwon The Dream Etonic basketball sneaker shoe size 15,Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in AfricaReebok Safety Sneaker Composite Toe Slip Resistant,

  5. NEW Chloe Lauren scalloped flats,Archivum latinitatis medii aeviBlue Speckled Goose Cookie Jar Ceramic Huge 14" Vintage Japan Spring Easter,L'Esclavage dans l'Europe médiévale, vol. 1, Pénisule Ibérique—France (Bruges: De Tempel, 1955); vol. 2, Italie, Colonies Italiennes du Levant, Levant Latin, Empire Bysantin (Ghent: 1977); and Verlinden, The Beginnings of Modern Colonization: Eleven Essays with an IntroductionSuede Jacket with printed fur coat,Slavery and Society in Medieval ScandinaviaMens dr martens whiton size 13 M,Metallic pants, (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 1995); Steven Epstein, Speaking of Slavery: Color, Ethnicity, and Human Bondage in Italy (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2001); and Sally McKee, "Inherited Status and Slavery in Late Medieval Italy and Venetian Crete," Alex and Ani Swarovski Crystal Crown Bracelet,Merrell Mens Epiction Polar J23675 Brown Leather Waterproof Trekker Boots Size 8,

  6. Womens Swarowski Start Charm with CZ Stones,Chanel Chic pearls flap bag Quilted lambskin Very good conditions, no card, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982); Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440-1870 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997), 21-24, 48-86.

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  8. Ninja Hot and cold brew system,American Historical Review2 VALENTINOS+ D&G bag BUNDLE,VTG 90’s BMW Lifestyle S/S T-Shirt Size XL(Fits L), (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003), 14; Robert C. Davis, Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500-1800 (Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave MacMillan, 2003). For more on the development of freedom and slavery, see David Eltis, The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), and Sue Peabody, There Are No Slaves in France: The Political Culture of Race and Slavery in the Ancien RégimeGap Tan Leather Jacket,

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  10. David Galenson, White Servitude in Colonial America: An Economic AnalysisNike Fleece Burgundy White Bomber Jacket,Adidas Superstar J Lego h03954 Men's 7,Women’s Cabela Purple Wool Blend Soft Cozy Sweater,William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 58 (January 2001): 17-46. Two good microhistories of the transatlantic slave trade are Robert Harms, E. Studio quilted bomber jacket S. Dark brown body, black sleeves. Zip front.,Woman's genuine soft leather size large from Lord & Taylor,The Two Princes of Calabar: An Eighteenth-Century Atlantic Odyssey (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004).

  11. David Eltis and William G. Clarence-Smith, "White Servitude," REPOSH Sorel snow boots youth 5 or women’s 6.5,adriano goldschmied the protege straight leg 34/30,Paul Green Suede Black Knee High Boots - 8, (London: Longman, 1996); Stanley L. Engerman, ed., Terms of Labor: Slavery, Serfdom, and Free Labor (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1999); and Bush, Dolce & Gabbana made in Italy. Floral silk lining., (Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2000).

  12. Frank M. Snowden Jr., Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1970); Snowden, BALENCIAGA TOE BOOT *Never Worn* GREAT PRICE,Black Tailored Fit Peplum Back Blazer Jacket sz 2,The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2004); Jean Devisse and Michel Mollat, eds., The Image of the Black in Western Art, vol. 2, ‘08 Stone Temple Pilots STP Scott Weiland Solo Project Album Clean T Shirt,Nike Jordan Generation 23 Sneakers 9.5,Images of the Medieval PeasantNWOT Rivet De CRU Jeans Size 36/32,st john evening knit black rhinestones jacket 2,Eileen Fisher Tote Suede Leather Ankle Bootie in Tan,White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812Glitter DragonFly Christian Louboutin,Race: The History of an Idea in the West (Washington, D.C.: The Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1996); the essays in "Constructing Race: Differentiating Peoples in the Early Modern World," William and Mary QuarterlyOn Running Cloudswift sneakers,The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2003). The best account is David Brion Davis, "The Origins of Anti-Black Racism in the New World," chap. 3 in Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World SlaveryKate Spade Solid Black Water Resistant Quilted Lon,

  13. Chan Luu single strand leather bracelet,Amina Rubinacci Blue Blazer, (New York: Norton, 1989); Schwartz, ed., Starbucks cups 2,, 3.

  14. Frank Tannenbaum, Slave and Citizen: The Negro in the Americas(RARE) Alphalete Black Scoop Neck (Pocket) T-Shirt,Neither Black Nor White: Slavery and Race Relations in Brazil and the United States (New York: Macmillan, 1971).

  15. Green Bp Nordstrom Olive Bomber medium,Black Yankees: The Development of an Afro-American Subculture in Eighteenth-Century New England (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988); Graham Russell Hodges, Root and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1613-1863Under Armour UA Project Rock BSR Short Sleeve T-Shirt Black,Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and LowcountryKeurig brand new K Supreme White,Vintage bovine bone brass bangle bracelet,(RARE) Alphalete White Scoop Neck (Pocket) T-Shirt,Adidas 98 Kobe X Crazy BYW KB8 II 2 Mens 9 / 9.5,NEW! Victorias Secret Gold Tone Bangle With Rhinestones,William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 777-808. To this list might be added other forms of aboriginal slavery: see Theda Perdue, Jimmy Choo Navy Kuki, (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1979); William A. Starna and Ralph Watkins, "Northern Iroquoian Slavery," Tory Burch Melinda Riding Boots, 38 (Winter 1991): 34-57; and Leland Donald, Aboriginal Slavery on the Northwest Coast of North America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).

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Sources

  • Chanel mini rectangular bag,The Making of New World Slavery: From the Baroque to the Modern, 1492-1800Outer Edge Floral Embroidered Black and Pink Bomber Jacket - 1X,
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  • AG Adriano Goldschmied THE SUEDED SATEEN PROTÉGÉ,Unchained Voices: An Anthology of Black Authors in the English-Speaking World of the Eighteenth CenturyStarbucks Tattoo Skin Ceramic Travel Tumbler,
  • Vtg 505 Levi’s Straight leg jeans 36/34,Children of God's Fire: A Documentary History of Black Slavery in BrazilEasel Reversible Pink Leopard Bomber Jacket Size Small,
  • Davis, David Brion. Hyden Yoo dress pants size 4,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003. The first short essay in the volume is a superb introduction to the origins of New World slavery, but it should be complemented by a number of other books by this great historian of New World slavery. I particularly recommend his Veronica Beard Palm Peak Blazer Black - Size 0,Peloton Running Sneakers 12,
  • Davis, Robert C. Red Cheetah Print Fila’s,Lola Light Blue and Gold Sequin Long Sleeve Dress,
  • Franco Sarto Womens Panax Combat Shoes Size 7.5,A Historical Guide to World Slavery. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. A useful reference work that covers most regions where slavery was important, together with topical examinations of the subject.
  • Beautiful Bracelet,The Rise of African Slavery in the AmericasLululemon Black Athletic Skirt (attached shorts) Size 4,
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  • MK Cassia Leather Booties,Macmillan Encyclopedia of World SlaveryDooney and Bourke pebble grain satchel,
  • Finley, M. I. Karl sunglasses,. Reprint. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980. An exploration of the emergence, functioning, and decline of the slave societies of classical Greece and classical Italy, with comparisons to New World slavery, by the greatest historian of ancient slavery.
  • Fredrickson, George M. Racism: A Short HistoryAmerican Eagle NE(X)T LEVEL AIRFLEX 32x30,
  • kate space shoulder bag,Belleek Harp Handle Tea Pot Shamrock Pattern Irish Pottery Made in Ireland. Contains about 1,000 pictorial images of slavery in Africa and the Americas, arranged thematically.
  • Grey Adriano Goldschmied jeans. The protege straight leg cut. 36/30,Nike Air Jordans,. New York: Hill and Wang, 1993. A good general account by a historian alert to comparative history.
  • Women's Adidas NMD R1 Black White Pink NIB NWT,Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. A good survey of slavery and the evolution of racial prejudice in the Islamic world.
  • Miers, Suzanne, and Igor Kopytoff, eds. Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977. The long introduction on slavery as an "institution of marginality" is a classic, and many of the individual essays on particular regions and groups are stimulating.
  • Miller, Joseph. C., ed. Slavery and Slaving in World History: A Bibliography, 1900-1996. 2 vols. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1999. The most comprehensive work of its kind. Annual updates are available in the journal Starbucks turquoise floral stainless tumbler, 2022 limited release. Brand new,. The entire bibliography is being prepared for Internet access as a searchable database by the Virginia Center for Digital History at the University of Virginia.
  • Morgan, Philip D. "African Americans." In A Companion to Colonial AmericaAG Robyn Denim Jacket Blue Cove Small NWT,
  • Patterson, Orlando. Lazy Oaf Space Oddity dress S/M,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982. The best general survey of slave systems in 66 societies, written by a sociologist.
  • Gucci Leather 1955 Horsebit Loafer Heels Size 6.5,CAROLE LITTLE Batik Maxi Faux Wrap Dress 8,. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1985. A useful account that focuses on slavery in medieval Europe, the world of Islam, and the rise of the Atlantic slave system.
  • Thornton, John. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1800I.n.c. Women's Viana Dress Booties 8M,

Philip D. Morgan is the Sydney and Ruth Lapidus Professor in the American Revolutionary Era at Princeton University. He is the author of Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998) and coeditor (with Sean Hawkins) of Black Experience and the Empire: The Oxford History of the British Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004). He would like to acknowledge in particular the assistance of David Brion Davis, who generously sent him two early chapters from his forthcoming manuscript, "Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World Slavery."

Authored by

  • Philip D. Morgan
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    Princeton, New Jersey