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Africa and the Slave Trade

Arabs and their Muslim allies were the first to make use of large numbers of sub-Saharan black Africans. They developed a long-distance slave trade, which began in the seventh century and lasted into the twentieth. It delivered many millions of Africans across the Sahara Desert, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean to North Africa, the Mediterranean, and Persian Gulf. Although over a much longer period of time and comprising far more females, the number of Africans exported via these trans-Saharan or Indian Ocean slave trades probably equaled, or even outmatched, those of its transatlantic counterpart. The preexistence of these export trades facilitated Atlantic trade: systems of slave marketing were already in place. So numerous were black Africans at certain times and in certain places that they were able to launch massive slave revolts—in 869, for instance, in what is now southern Iraq, where the so-called Zanj (who came from the Swahili Coast and lands further north) worked in large gangs draining marshlands. While the Quran and Islamic law were essentially color-blind and while Muslims enslaved many so-called "white" people, medieval Arabs came to associate the most degrading forms of labor with black slaves. The Arabic word for slave, 2022 Disney Parks x Lilly Pulitzer Weekender Leggings,Coach Monogrammed leather Wristlet,

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The Atlantic Slave System

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As slavery underwent a resurgence in southern Europe, it gradually disappeared from the northwestern part of the continent. Economic changes help to explain this development, but perhaps more important were cultural constraints. Over the course of the Middle Ages, Christians always committed awful atrocities on each other, but increasingly they avoided enslaving one another. Apparently, a sense of unity had emerged in Christian Europe that effectively barred the enslavement of those deemed fellow Europeans. Christianity's long struggle with Islam no doubt played a major role in this development. That from 1500 to 1800 Muslims enslaved well over a million Western Europeans, many of whom were subsequently ransomed and celebrated as symbols of freedom, was a major element in the growing sense that Europeans should never be slaves. Nevertheless, these so-called free labor nations would develop some of the harshest slave regimes in the Americas. As David Brion Davis puts it, "it is an astonishing paradox that the first nations in the world to free themselves of chattel slavery—such nations as England, France, Holland, and even the Scandinavian states—became leaders during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in supporting plantation colonies based on African slave labor." He likens this divide to a primitive Mason-Dixon line, "drawn somewhere in the Atlantic, separating free soil master-states from tainted slave soil dependencies" (8).

This paradox illumines the unpredictability of events in the Americas. No European nation embarked on New World ventures with the intention of enslaving anyone. They had no blueprint but rather proceeded haphazardly and pragmatically. Their first resort was to forced Indian labor (the encomiendaRLM Studio Sterling & Rhodonite Ring (Rare),

Consequently, Europeans faced a huge labor shortage. The Ottoman Turkish empire blocked access to Black Sea or Baltic captives. European nations no longer enslaved Christian prisoners of war. Some dreamers talked of enslaving the poor or other marginal groups, but the practical and principled problems of reviving European slavery were considerable. Another expedient was the transportation of convicts, but their numbers were never sufficient. Temporary bondage—indentured servitude—was the most obvious and most widely used other option, particularly in the early years, but servants, if they survived, eventually became free, and in any case most servants would not travel to the areas where most labor was needed. Thus, almost by default, African slaves proved by far the best available labor supply. Consequently, from 1500 to 1820 almost 9 million African slaves left for the New World, compared to less than 3 million whites. In terms of migration, the New World was more black than white (10).

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New World slavery's other most distinctive aspect was its highly commercial character. While it is true that plantations—that is, large agricultural enterprises, managed for profit, producing a crop for export, with a hierarchically stratified labor organization—existed outside the New World, they reached their apogee there. The economies of scale, the expansion in unit size, the almost exclusive use of black slaves, a highly regimented and commodified labor force, and a system of close management all raised profit levels significantly. Such a productive system placed enormous demands on its laborers. As early as the 1630s a visitor to a Jesuit-owned sugar plantation in Brazil vividly described the unbearable horror of what had transpired: "People the color of the very night, working briskly and moaning at the same time without a moment of peace or rest, whoever sees all the confused and noisy machinery and apparatus of this Babylon, even if they have seen Mt. Etna and Vesuvius will say that this indeed is the image of Hell" (13).

Patterns of New World Slavery

Variations over time and space existed within New World slavery. Three stand out. First, although all New World regions imported more African men than women (thereby in part explaining the harshness of New World slavery because of the policing problems associated with large gangs of men), over time the gender ratio among New World slaves became increasingly balanced. In that regard, the North American slave population is most notable, because, as its number of slave women increased the most rapidly, so it became one of the few self-reproducing slave populations in world history. This early and rapid natural increase explains why North America received such a small percentage of the overall transatlantic slave trade—about 5 percent. Second, North America was also distinctive in being much less tolerant of racial intermixture than Latin America or the Caribbean. Once again demography—particularly the ratio of white men to white women (more balanced in North America than in Latin America and the Caribbean) and the availability of black women—was a crucial part of the explanation, but also important were the role of the Church and cultural mores, based as much in Old World patterns of racial coexistence or segregation. The Spanish had mixed with Muslims for centuries; the English had created a Pale in their settlement of Ireland. Only in North America did the extremely arbitrary concept of "Negro"—denoting anyone with allegedly visible African ancestry—assume such a marked stigma. Third, the chances of gaining freedom varied from one society to the next. Except for the period surrounding the American Revolution, the North American colonies, and later the states, imposed the severest restrictions on the chances of a slave becoming free. Again, demography—the proportions of whites and blacks in the population—has some explanatory power as do economic and cultural forces (14).

North American slavery itself was hardly of a piece. The range encompasses New England's intimate "family slavery"; the Mid-Atlantic's mixed forms of slavery and servitude; the Chesapeake's patriarchal, small plantation, mixed farming and tobacco, heavily native-born form of slavery; and the low country's impersonal, large plantation, rice and indigo, more heavily African system of slavery. In addition, various borderland forms existed: from a fluid world of interracial alliances in the Lower Mississippi Valley to a flexible one of fugitives and ex-slaves in Spanish Florida to one in which Indian slaves were transformed from symbols of alliance into commodities of exchange in French Canada (15).

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  1. Vionic Debbie Driver Metallic Pewter Silver Moccasin Loafers,The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-bellum South (New York: Knopf, 1956).

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  3. Ralph A. Austen, "The Trans-Saharan Slave Trade: A Tentative Census," L *Space Maniac Retro White One Piece Swimsuit,, ed. Henry A. Gemery and Jan S. Hogendorn (New York: Academic Press, 1979), 23-76; Austen, "The Mediterranean Islamic Slave Trade out of Africa: A Tentative Census," Bill Blass Laverne High Heeled Loafer Navy SZ9,Tory Burch Logo Leather Espadrille Size 9 Cream,Encyclopedia of Africa South of the SaharaPassion Fruit Guava Home Fragrance Oil,International Journal of African Historical Studies 10 (1977): 443-61; Alexandre Popovic, The Revolt of African Slaves in Iraq in the IIIrd-IXth CenturyBud Light Spuds Mackenzie Vintage Tshirt,Guess Lincoln Slim Tweed-Print Jeans 29,NIKE White Puffer Down Hoodie Jacket,Magnificent Genuine Black Ethiopian Opal Ring, (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998); Shaun E. Marmon, ed., Vince Camuto Plunging V One Piece, (Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener, 1998); Minra Tora and John Edward Philips, eds., Slave Elites in the Middle East and Africa: A Comparative StudySterling Silver White Sapphire Cocktail Ring,The African Diaspora in the Mediterranean Lands of Islam1-3 Age Group Luxury Carseat Poncho,Slavery on the Frontiers of IslamAuth Louis Vuitton Speedy 30 Hand Bag #30409L26B,

  4. Suzanne Miers and Igor Kopytoff, eds., Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological PerspectivesBNWT Victoria's Secret Bombshell Bra 34C,Adidas x Ivy Park Bundle-READY TO SHIP NOW, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990); John Thornton, Baccarat Jem Stone By Pass Ring,6 NWT Bra and Panty sets,Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in AfricaJoe Rocket Phoenix Motorcycle Jacket Solid Black Mesh womensSize large,

  5. Turquoise and coral sterling silver ring,Archivum latinitatis medii aeviTalbots leather jacket. NWOT,L'Esclavage dans l'Europe médiévale, vol. 1, Pénisule Ibérique—France (Bruges: De Tempel, 1955); vol. 2, Italie, Colonies Italiennes du Levant, Levant Latin, Empire Bysantin (Ghent: 1977); and Verlinden, The Beginnings of Modern Colonization: Eleven Essays with an IntroductionBorn Leather Boots Women’s Size 6 Gorgeous! New!!,Slavery and Society in Medieval ScandinaviaBrand new. NEVER WORN. No tag (band habit of ripping tags off),Vintage Marcus Brothers clutch, (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 1995); Steven Epstein, Speaking of Slavery: Color, Ethnicity, and Human Bondage in Italy (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2001); and Sally McKee, "Inherited Status and Slavery in Late Medieval Italy and Venetian Crete," Michael kors High boots,Valentino Beaded top baby-doll dress,

  6. Gray Givenchy Fierce Dog Rottweiler t-shirt,《Vintage》 gold earrings, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982); Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440-1870 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997), 21-24, 48-86.

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  9. Cole Haan navy down coat, xs,The Early Spanish MainAuth Louis Vuitton Speedy 30 Hand Bag #30408L27B,NWT PACO RABANNE Metallic Logo Waistband Leggings, (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1992); William L. Sherman, Forced Native Labor in Sixteenth-Century Central AmericaAubrielle Sequin Puff-Sleeve Mini Dress,Fossil Gray Leather Full Sized Wallet,Island Coconut Tempations Home Fragrance Oil,The Indian Slave Trade: The Rise of the English Empire in the American South, 1670-1717Vintage Sears Work Leisure Men Insulates Coveralls Ski One Piece Size 42 Average,Anthropologie swim seamed underwire one piece,, ed. Elizabeth Mancke and Carole Shammas (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005), 75-121. For a recent discussion of Indian population decline, see David S. Jones, "Virgin Soils Revisited," Charter Club Bonnie’s red geometric top on Mom L,, 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 703-42.

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  11. David Eltis and William G. Clarence-Smith, "White Servitude," Pink Victoria’s Secret lace bra!! New,Patricia Nash Prairie Rose Midi iPad Clutch,ISO Pamela love gravitation earring lapis/silver, (London: Longman, 1996); Stanley L. Engerman, ed., Terms of Labor: Slavery, Serfdom, and Free Labor (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1999); and Bush, *NWOT* Empyre Men’s Ski/Snowboard Softshell Small, (Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2000).

  12. Frank M. Snowden Jr., Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1970); Snowden, Ben Sherman jeans for sale, size is 32W/32L slim fit, never worn before.,Men’s GUCCI Leather T-Shirt,The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2004); Jean Devisse and Michel Mollat, eds., The Image of the Black in Western Art, vol. 2, Profile by Gottex One Piece Swimsuit Designer Bathing Suit Size 6,Nike ID Shox 326907-992 Yellow Blue Custom Running Shoes UC University CA Size 8,Images of the Medieval PeasantKate Spade Pink and Black Wristlet,Jug Vase Siesta Man Pedro Clear Glass Hand Painted,Rare Autographed Mister Cartoon Shirt - Los Angeles Tattoo Legend,White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812Kate Spade x Minnie Mouse Ring,Race: The History of an Idea in the West (Washington, D.C.: The Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1996); the essays in "Constructing Race: Differentiating Peoples in the Early Modern World," William and Mary QuarterlyCole Haan Heels Stephanie Lattice Peep Toe NikeAir 8 1/2B Black,The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2003). The best account is David Brion Davis, "The Origins of Anti-Black Racism in the New World," chap. 3 in Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World SlaveryLisa Todd Lickety Split Embellished Ice Cream Sweater, size 1X,

  13. Gap Cashmere,Obermeyer ski jacket all terrain storm shield hydro block dure guard medium, (New York: Norton, 1989); Schwartz, ed., Coconut Leaves Home Fragrance Oil Bath & Body,, 3.

  14. Frank Tannenbaum, Slave and Citizen: The Negro in the AmericasTANZANITE & WHITE TOPAZ RING STERLING 925 SZ 9,Neither Black Nor White: Slavery and Race Relations in Brazil and the United States (New York: Macmillan, 1971).

  15. Via Spiga suede open toe booties/ pumps,Black Yankees: The Development of an Afro-American Subculture in Eighteenth-Century New England (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988); Graham Russell Hodges, Root and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1613-1863Authentic Louis Vuitton Satchel Bag Bedford Yellow Vernis Used LV Handbag Vintag,Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and LowcountryKate Spade Brown Croc Embossed Leather Heel Sandals Size 9.5B,Anthropologie Fig & Flower Paisley Tunic Top,Lamo Piper White Canvas Low Top Twin Gore Slip on Sneakers Women' US 8.5,Tommy Bahama Womens Ikat Diamonds Colorblock Bandeau One Piece Swimsuit Size 10,Weave Clutch/Crossbody Purse,William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 777-808. To this list might be added other forms of aboriginal slavery: see Theda Perdue, (2) REAL 10K (not 14k) White Gold Natural Diamond Open Heart Ring Set Mommy & Me, (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1979); William A. Starna and Ralph Watkins, "Northern Iroquoian Slavery," Host Pick! Dorothy Thorpe Resin Shell Dish, 38 (Winter 1991): 34-57; and Leland Donald, Aboriginal Slavery on the Northwest Coast of North America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).

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Sources

  • My Swaggs New York yoga pants and matching sports bra,The Making of New World Slavery: From the Baroque to the Modern, 1492-1800Tory Burch Max Glitter Espadrille Slide Glitter,
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  • Davis, David Brion. NWT Gerry High Country Snow Jacket,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003. The first short essay in the volume is a superb introduction to the origins of New World slavery, but it should be complemented by a number of other books by this great historian of New World slavery. I particularly recommend his Sterling Silver Diamond Accent Ring Size 7,❤️ Boden puffer coat! ❤️,
  • Davis, Robert C. Adidas AKTiv Climalite Pullover in Vapour Pink,Stuart Weitzman sandal Heels,
  • VTG 80's Obermeyer Sport Nathan Unisex Red Full Zip Ski Jacket NO HOOD Size L,A Historical Guide to World Slavery. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. A useful reference work that covers most regions where slavery was important, together with topical examinations of the subject.
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  • Finley, M. I. AG Jeans/32R. The Graduate, tailored leg.,. Reprint. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980. An exploration of the emergence, functioning, and decline of the slave societies of classical Greece and classical Italy, with comparisons to New World slavery, by the greatest historian of ancient slavery.
  • Fredrickson, George M. Racism: A Short HistoryStoney Clover Lane x Target Rainbow Tie-Dye One Piece Swimsuit,
  • Empyre Ski & Snowboarding jacket,New Dolce Vita Issa Amber Snake Booties. Contains about 1,000 pictorial images of slavery in Africa and the Americas, arranged thematically.
  • Kate Spade Pink Leather Wallet Snap Closure Card Slots Embossed Folding,1 hr saleChanel dust bag,. New York: Hill and Wang, 1993. A good general account by a historian alert to comparative history.
  • Size small various Nike running tights,Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. A good survey of slavery and the evolution of racial prejudice in the Islamic world.
  • Miers, Suzanne, and Igor Kopytoff, eds. Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977. The long introduction on slavery as an "institution of marginality" is a classic, and many of the individual essays on particular regions and groups are stimulating.
  • Miller, Joseph. C., ed. Slavery and Slaving in World History: A Bibliography, 1900-1996. 2 vols. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1999. The most comprehensive work of its kind. Annual updates are available in the journal Dolce Gabbana Monogram All Over T Shirt Size 52,. The entire bibliography is being prepared for Internet access as a searchable database by the Virginia Center for Digital History at the University of Virginia.
  • Morgan, Philip D. "African Americans." In A Companion to Colonial AmericaKate Spade Saturday Leather Color Block Stack Heeled Almond Toe Shoes Booties 8,
  • Patterson, Orlando. 《Vintage》 earrings,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982. The best general survey of slave systems in 66 societies, written by a sociologist.
  • Joie Red Strappy Sexy Heels Size 9,J CREW WOMEN"S ORANGE SUEDE LEATHER SLIP ON BALLET FLAT SHOES,. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1985. A useful account that focuses on slavery in medieval Europe, the world of Islam, and the rise of the Atlantic slave system.
  • Thornton, John. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1800Last dealBetsey Johnson Coin sparkly purse,

Philip D. Morgan is the Sydney and Ruth Lapidus Professor in the American Revolutionary Era at Princeton University. He is the author of Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998) and coeditor (with Sean Hawkins) of Black Experience and the Empire: The Oxford History of the British Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004). He would like to acknowledge in particular the assistance of David Brion Davis, who generously sent him two early chapters from his forthcoming manuscript, "Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World Slavery."

Authored by

  • Philip D. Morgan
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    Princeton, New Jersey