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Africa and the Slave Trade

Arabs and their Muslim allies were the first to make use of large numbers of sub-Saharan black Africans. They developed a long-distance slave trade, which began in the seventh century and lasted into the twentieth. It delivered many millions of Africans across the Sahara Desert, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean to North Africa, the Mediterranean, and Persian Gulf. Although over a much longer period of time and comprising far more females, the number of Africans exported via these trans-Saharan or Indian Ocean slave trades probably equaled, or even outmatched, those of its transatlantic counterpart. The preexistence of these export trades facilitated Atlantic trade: systems of slave marketing were already in place. So numerous were black Africans at certain times and in certain places that they were able to launch massive slave revolts—in 869, for instance, in what is now southern Iraq, where the so-called Zanj (who came from the Swahili Coast and lands further north) worked in large gangs draining marshlands. While the Quran and Islamic law were essentially color-blind and while Muslims enslaved many so-called "white" people, medieval Arabs came to associate the most degrading forms of labor with black slaves. The Arabic word for slave, Everlane The Cashmere Crew in Caramel Size S,Peter Millar blue brown plaid l/s button down. XXL,

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The Atlantic Slave System

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As slavery underwent a resurgence in southern Europe, it gradually disappeared from the northwestern part of the continent. Economic changes help to explain this development, but perhaps more important were cultural constraints. Over the course of the Middle Ages, Christians always committed awful atrocities on each other, but increasingly they avoided enslaving one another. Apparently, a sense of unity had emerged in Christian Europe that effectively barred the enslavement of those deemed fellow Europeans. Christianity's long struggle with Islam no doubt played a major role in this development. That from 1500 to 1800 Muslims enslaved well over a million Western Europeans, many of whom were subsequently ransomed and celebrated as symbols of freedom, was a major element in the growing sense that Europeans should never be slaves. Nevertheless, these so-called free labor nations would develop some of the harshest slave regimes in the Americas. As David Brion Davis puts it, "it is an astonishing paradox that the first nations in the world to free themselves of chattel slavery—such nations as England, France, Holland, and even the Scandinavian states—became leaders during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in supporting plantation colonies based on African slave labor." He likens this divide to a primitive Mason-Dixon line, "drawn somewhere in the Atlantic, separating free soil master-states from tainted slave soil dependencies" (8).

This paradox illumines the unpredictability of events in the Americas. No European nation embarked on New World ventures with the intention of enslaving anyone. They had no blueprint but rather proceeded haphazardly and pragmatically. Their first resort was to forced Indian labor (the encomiendaCrossbody Phone Bag - Universal, up to 6.5” screen,

Consequently, Europeans faced a huge labor shortage. The Ottoman Turkish empire blocked access to Black Sea or Baltic captives. European nations no longer enslaved Christian prisoners of war. Some dreamers talked of enslaving the poor or other marginal groups, but the practical and principled problems of reviving European slavery were considerable. Another expedient was the transportation of convicts, but their numbers were never sufficient. Temporary bondage—indentured servitude—was the most obvious and most widely used other option, particularly in the early years, but servants, if they survived, eventually became free, and in any case most servants would not travel to the areas where most labor was needed. Thus, almost by default, African slaves proved by far the best available labor supply. Consequently, from 1500 to 1820 almost 9 million African slaves left for the New World, compared to less than 3 million whites. In terms of migration, the New World was more black than white (10).

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New World slavery's other most distinctive aspect was its highly commercial character. While it is true that plantations—that is, large agricultural enterprises, managed for profit, producing a crop for export, with a hierarchically stratified labor organization—existed outside the New World, they reached their apogee there. The economies of scale, the expansion in unit size, the almost exclusive use of black slaves, a highly regimented and commodified labor force, and a system of close management all raised profit levels significantly. Such a productive system placed enormous demands on its laborers. As early as the 1630s a visitor to a Jesuit-owned sugar plantation in Brazil vividly described the unbearable horror of what had transpired: "People the color of the very night, working briskly and moaning at the same time without a moment of peace or rest, whoever sees all the confused and noisy machinery and apparatus of this Babylon, even if they have seen Mt. Etna and Vesuvius will say that this indeed is the image of Hell" (13).

Patterns of New World Slavery

Variations over time and space existed within New World slavery. Three stand out. First, although all New World regions imported more African men than women (thereby in part explaining the harshness of New World slavery because of the policing problems associated with large gangs of men), over time the gender ratio among New World slaves became increasingly balanced. In that regard, the North American slave population is most notable, because, as its number of slave women increased the most rapidly, so it became one of the few self-reproducing slave populations in world history. This early and rapid natural increase explains why North America received such a small percentage of the overall transatlantic slave trade—about 5 percent. Second, North America was also distinctive in being much less tolerant of racial intermixture than Latin America or the Caribbean. Once again demography—particularly the ratio of white men to white women (more balanced in North America than in Latin America and the Caribbean) and the availability of black women—was a crucial part of the explanation, but also important were the role of the Church and cultural mores, based as much in Old World patterns of racial coexistence or segregation. The Spanish had mixed with Muslims for centuries; the English had created a Pale in their settlement of Ireland. Only in North America did the extremely arbitrary concept of "Negro"—denoting anyone with allegedly visible African ancestry—assume such a marked stigma. Third, the chances of gaining freedom varied from one society to the next. Except for the period surrounding the American Revolution, the North American colonies, and later the states, imposed the severest restrictions on the chances of a slave becoming free. Again, demography—the proportions of whites and blacks in the population—has some explanatory power as do economic and cultural forces (14).

North American slavery itself was hardly of a piece. The range encompasses New England's intimate "family slavery"; the Mid-Atlantic's mixed forms of slavery and servitude; the Chesapeake's patriarchal, small plantation, mixed farming and tobacco, heavily native-born form of slavery; and the low country's impersonal, large plantation, rice and indigo, more heavily African system of slavery. In addition, various borderland forms existed: from a fluid world of interracial alliances in the Lower Mississippi Valley to a flexible one of fugitives and ex-slaves in Spanish Florida to one in which Indian slaves were transformed from symbols of alliance into commodities of exchange in French Canada (15).

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  1. Joe’s jeans. Grey. Size 32.,The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-bellum South (New York: Knopf, 1956).

  2. BROOKS BROTHERS MERINO WOOL XL GRAY 24”L 21”CHEST,International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, ed. David L. Sills and Robert King Merton (New York: Macmillan, 1968), 14: 307-13; Finley, Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology, reprint (Hammondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980), 9, 96, 102, 111, 113-14; Keith Hopkins, Kate Spade Charlotte Street Alek crossbody - blue,Y2k Cole Haan Gold Quilted Penny Loafers, Grandma Chic Size 6.5 Granny chic,,WMNS AIR JORDAN 11 RETRO LOW “CONCORD SKETCH”, 138 (1993): 3-27; Keith Bradley, Slavery and Society at RomePreowned H by bordeaux Long Zip Hoodie in Deep Purple/Burgundy Size S,Tom And Linda Platt Size 14 3 PC Suit,Fossil Vintage Morgan Navy Pebble Leather Traveler Crossbody Handbag & Wallet,The Problem of Slavery in Western CultureGolden Goose sneakers black 8,BETSEY JOHNSON FLAP wallet floral mauve xolana,Vintage 60s Red Rainbow Poncho ✨,

  3. Ralph A. Austen, "The Trans-Saharan Slave Trade: A Tentative Census," Of Mercer Beekman Pants 4,, ed. Henry A. Gemery and Jan S. Hogendorn (New York: Academic Press, 1979), 23-76; Austen, "The Mediterranean Islamic Slave Trade out of Africa: A Tentative Census," Nike airmax 90 lavender sneakers,Vintage The Eerie Book Illustrated Compilation of Ghost Horror Short Stories,Encyclopedia of Africa South of the SaharaWhite + Warren XS Crew Neck Long Sleeve Cashmere Sweater,International Journal of African Historical Studies 10 (1977): 443-61; Alexandre Popovic, The Revolt of African Slaves in Iraq in the IIIrd-IXth CenturyBetsey Johnson Pink Wristlet Wallet Faux Patent,NEW Anthropologie Pretty Brown Puff Sleeve Chunky Knit Cardigan Sweater,Size S - Black Genuine Suede Leather Jacket by Theory,Tahari Navy Blue Cape with Faux Fur Collar, (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998); Shaun E. Marmon, ed., NWT Vintage Silk Kimono Jacket, (Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener, 1998); Minra Tora and John Edward Philips, eds., Slave Elites in the Middle East and Africa: A Comparative StudyGymshark Borg Teddy Shearling Cropped Hoodie,The African Diaspora in the Mediterranean Lands of IslamSuede Leather Fringed Poncho Tan Southwestern Boho,Slavery on the Frontiers of IslamVintage Wedgwood Egyptian Collection Flower Pot 1979 Black Basalt Jasperware,

  4. Suzanne Miers and Igor Kopytoff, eds., Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological PerspectivesRalph Lauren leather Red & Gold crossbody or shoulder bag!,Big Star Brigette Mid Rise Medium Wash Slim Straight Leg Jeans Size 28R, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990); John Thornton, BETSEY JOHNSON patent zip around wallet / wristlet floral,Pamela McCoy Women’s Jeans 14 Blue Embroidered High Rise Dark Wash Denim Boho,Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in AfricaNine West Polka Dot Skirt Set sz 10,

  5. Yosi Samra ‘Drew’ Military Green Ankle Boot Sz. 10,Archivum latinitatis medii aeviKATE SPADE White Leather Continental Wallet Zipper,L'Esclavage dans l'Europe médiévale, vol. 1, Pénisule Ibérique—France (Bruges: De Tempel, 1955); vol. 2, Italie, Colonies Italiennes du Levant, Levant Latin, Empire Bysantin (Ghent: 1977); and Verlinden, The Beginnings of Modern Colonization: Eleven Essays with an IntroductionBrooks Brothers 346 Mens Button Up Shirt Plaid Orange XXL 2XL Cotton,Slavery and Society in Medieval ScandinaviaVintage Anne Klein III blue jean denim striped vest,Big Star ‘LIV’ Distressed Bootcut Jeans 27L, (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 1995); Steven Epstein, Speaking of Slavery: Color, Ethnicity, and Human Bondage in Italy (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2001); and Sally McKee, "Inherited Status and Slavery in Late Medieval Italy and Venetian Crete," Crystal Chaka Sterling Silver,Nike Tiger Woods collection Pelican Hill golf course polo,

  6. Pink or Blue Sapphire Ring,True Religion Jeans Dark Wash Flap Pockets Size 28, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982); Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440-1870 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997), 21-24, 48-86.

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  8. Red/Blue cardigan,American Historical ReviewLane Bryant genius high -rise straight jeans size 22/24P,Levi's Stonewash Button Fly 501 Jeans 30/28, (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003), 14; Robert C. Davis, Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500-1800 (Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave MacMillan, 2003). For more on the development of freedom and slavery, see David Eltis, The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), and Sue Peabody, There Are No Slaves in France: The Political Culture of Race and Slavery in the Ancien RégimeP448 sneakers new,

  9. Self-Portrait Dress NEW WITH TAGS SIZE 4,The Early Spanish MainNWT Gottex D-Cup Lace Up V-Neck One Piece Swimsuit,Natural raspberry pink tourmaline and Sterling silver handmade adjustable ring, (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1992); William L. Sherman, Forced Native Labor in Sixteenth-Century Central AmericaSorel sz 10.5 Joan of Artic Wedge II brown wedge booties,DEAR JOHN DENIM OFFENSE ELLA HIGH RISE SLIM STRAIGHT JEANS size 33 nwt,Tasso Elba Red Blue Tan 55% Silk 45% Rayon Spring/Summer Men's Shirt Size Large,The Indian Slave Trade: The Rise of the English Empire in the American South, 1670-1717Danner Mountain Pass Hiking Boots - Women's Size 8,B9etb Kut From The Kloth Felicia Baby Bootcut Je…,, ed. Elizabeth Mancke and Carole Shammas (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005), 75-121. For a recent discussion of Indian population decline, see David S. Jones, "Virgin Soils Revisited," Miss Me Loose Saddle Stitch Border Bootcut Jeans Flap Pocket Size 27 H12595,, 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 703-42.

  10. David Galenson, White Servitude in Colonial America: An Economic AnalysisAlice in Wonderland Vintage 90s Andazia Cheshire Cat Single Stitch T-Shirt - XL,Marc Jacobs New York Textured Leather Brown Wallet,LLADRO FIGURE 06401 "DREAMS OF A SUMMER PAST" MINT with Box Retired 1997 EVENT,William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 58 (January 2001): 17-46. Two good microhistories of the transatlantic slave trade are Robert Harms, Psycho Bunny acid green yellow polo shirt,Josie Natori White Beaded Sweater,The Two Princes of Calabar: An Eighteenth-Century Atlantic Odyssey (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004).

  11. David Eltis and William G. Clarence-Smith, "White Servitude," NWT Heather Charcoal Gray Sweater Cape,Black cashmere gucci sweater,Kanye West “Glow in the Dark tour” 07’ promotional tee, (London: Longman, 1996); Stanley L. Engerman, ed., Terms of Labor: Slavery, Serfdom, and Free Labor (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1999); and Bush, G Star Raw Cargo Line Knit Sweater, (Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2000).

  12. Frank M. Snowden Jr., Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1970); Snowden, NYDJ Lift Tuck Technology Marilyn Straight Jean Size 10,Ablanche New York Shirt Mens Sz XL Short Sleeves Two Pockets Button Up Plaid Top,The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2004); Jean Devisse and Michel Mollat, eds., The Image of the Black in Western Art, vol. 2, Nike Cutout Colorblock Front Zip Swimsuit NWT,Katie Todd Faux Suede With Faux Fur Lining Hooded Poncho S/M,Images of the Medieval PeasantGorgeous Sterling & Rhodium bird in a nest of Emeralds Peridot & Aquamarines,Ralph Lauren Slim Cable Cashmere Sweater,New GUESS Destroyed Denim Mini Skirt sz Small,White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812NWT Gottex Dusk Rose D-Cup Lace Up V-Neck Swimsuit,Race: The History of an Idea in the West (Washington, D.C.: The Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1996); the essays in "Constructing Race: Differentiating Peoples in the Early Modern World," William and Mary QuarterlySunflower Home Frag Oil Bath & …,The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2003). The best account is David Brion Davis, "The Origins of Anti-Black Racism in the New World," chap. 3 in Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World SlaveryISO Corley,

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  14. Frank Tannenbaum, Slave and Citizen: The Negro in the AmericasExpress Fitted Long Sleeve Front Button Shirt NWT,Neither Black Nor White: Slavery and Race Relations in Brazil and the United States (New York: Macmillan, 1971).

  15. Guess Low Rise Reg Boot Reg Fit, Boot Cut Jeans, NWT,Black Yankees: The Development of an Afro-American Subculture in Eighteenth-Century New England (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988); Graham Russell Hodges, Root and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1613-1863Lilac Blossom Home Fragrance Oil Bath & Body,Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and LowcountryBlack Vince Camuto One Piece Swimsuit Cutout Size 14,A&F - Floral Print Polo,Black and White Jasper Stone on Long Drop Chain,Nike Vintage Shirt Mens L Short Sleeve Collared Logo Kansas Made in USA,Judy Blue Button Fly High Rise Dark Wash Jeans Size 2XL,William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 777-808. To this list might be added other forms of aboriginal slavery: see Theda Perdue, Green/ purple tie dye small, (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1979); William A. Starna and Ralph Watkins, "Northern Iroquoian Slavery," Daigisi tan and brown wallet for women, 38 (Winter 1991): 34-57; and Leland Donald, Aboriginal Slavery on the Northwest Coast of North America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).

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Sources

  • Chala Turtle Keychain Coin Purse Bag NWT,The Making of New World Slavery: From the Baroque to the Modern, 1492-1800Vince Camuto | ‘Fritzey’ Perforated Bootie NWT,
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  • Davis, David Brion. Griselda rebirth t-shirt,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003. The first short essay in the volume is a superb introduction to the origins of New World slavery, but it should be complemented by a number of other books by this great historian of New World slavery. I particularly recommend his n:Philanthrophy Petra Zip Sweater,Helmut Lang LEATHER Diagonal Seam Leggings Gray,
  • Davis, Robert C. Blue Topaz crome Diopside & Tourmaline Sterling floral vine wreath ring sz6.75,Balmain Suede Sneakers,
  • Molly & Isadora jeans,A Historical Guide to World Slavery. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. A useful reference work that covers most regions where slavery was important, together with topical examinations of the subject.
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  • Cabi #5166 The Straight Dark Wash Mid Rise Jeans,Macmillan Encyclopedia of World SlaveryMiss Me Boot Cut Denim Jeans Sequined Embroidered Pockets Blue Women’s Size 28,
  • Finley, M. I. Charter Club Cashmere Open Black Sequin Cardigan,. Reprint. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980. An exploration of the emergence, functioning, and decline of the slave societies of classical Greece and classical Italy, with comparisons to New World slavery, by the greatest historian of ancient slavery.
  • Fredrickson, George M. Racism: A Short HistoryVery good condition gold earrings,
  • ❤1999❤ WHITNEY POPPIN PORCELINE DOLL,cape, made in Ireland, Hourihan of Dublin, size M, black. Contains about 1,000 pictorial images of slavery in Africa and the Americas, arranged thematically.
  • Helmut Lang Stretch Embossed Suede LEATHER Legging,⬇️⬇️ Converse Denim Straight Leg Jeans Women 2,. New York: Hill and Wang, 1993. A good general account by a historian alert to comparative history.
  • Coach Tipper Canvas loafers,Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. A good survey of slavery and the evolution of racial prejudice in the Islamic world.
  • Miers, Suzanne, and Igor Kopytoff, eds. Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977. The long introduction on slavery as an "institution of marginality" is a classic, and many of the individual essays on particular regions and groups are stimulating.
  • Miller, Joseph. C., ed. Slavery and Slaving in World History: A Bibliography, 1900-1996. 2 vols. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1999. The most comprehensive work of its kind. Annual updates are available in the journal Incredible Sultans Mystic center stone fancy multi gem setting Sterling ring 7.5,. The entire bibliography is being prepared for Internet access as a searchable database by the Virginia Center for Digital History at the University of Virginia.
  • Morgan, Philip D. "African Americans." In A Companion to Colonial AmericaMadewell Cashmere Sweatshirt In Hendry Stripe,
  • Patterson, Orlando. Alex & Ani Jesus Necklace,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982. The best general survey of slave systems in 66 societies, written by a sociologist.
  • Authentic Versace T-shirts,JOE’s men’s jeans,. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1985. A useful account that focuses on slavery in medieval Europe, the world of Islam, and the rise of the Atlantic slave system.
  • Thornton, John. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1800Faux Fur Cream Knit Vest M,

Philip D. Morgan is the Sydney and Ruth Lapidus Professor in the American Revolutionary Era at Princeton University. He is the author of Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998) and coeditor (with Sean Hawkins) of Black Experience and the Empire: The Oxford History of the British Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004). He would like to acknowledge in particular the assistance of David Brion Davis, who generously sent him two early chapters from his forthcoming manuscript, "Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World Slavery."

Authored by

  • Philip D. Morgan
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    Princeton, New Jersey