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Africa and the Slave Trade

Arabs and their Muslim allies were the first to make use of large numbers of sub-Saharan black Africans. They developed a long-distance slave trade, which began in the seventh century and lasted into the twentieth. It delivered many millions of Africans across the Sahara Desert, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean to North Africa, the Mediterranean, and Persian Gulf. Although over a much longer period of time and comprising far more females, the number of Africans exported via these trans-Saharan or Indian Ocean slave trades probably equaled, or even outmatched, those of its transatlantic counterpart. The preexistence of these export trades facilitated Atlantic trade: systems of slave marketing were already in place. So numerous were black Africans at certain times and in certain places that they were able to launch massive slave revolts—in 869, for instance, in what is now southern Iraq, where the so-called Zanj (who came from the Swahili Coast and lands further north) worked in large gangs draining marshlands. While the Quran and Islamic law were essentially color-blind and while Muslims enslaved many so-called "white" people, medieval Arabs came to associate the most degrading forms of labor with black slaves. The Arabic word for slave, DL1961 Jerry Bermuda Maternity Shorts Hooper,Miss Me Bermuda Size 27 Denim Jean Shorts Angel Wings Flap Pocket Size 27,

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The Atlantic Slave System

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As slavery underwent a resurgence in southern Europe, it gradually disappeared from the northwestern part of the continent. Economic changes help to explain this development, but perhaps more important were cultural constraints. Over the course of the Middle Ages, Christians always committed awful atrocities on each other, but increasingly they avoided enslaving one another. Apparently, a sense of unity had emerged in Christian Europe that effectively barred the enslavement of those deemed fellow Europeans. Christianity's long struggle with Islam no doubt played a major role in this development. That from 1500 to 1800 Muslims enslaved well over a million Western Europeans, many of whom were subsequently ransomed and celebrated as symbols of freedom, was a major element in the growing sense that Europeans should never be slaves. Nevertheless, these so-called free labor nations would develop some of the harshest slave regimes in the Americas. As David Brion Davis puts it, "it is an astonishing paradox that the first nations in the world to free themselves of chattel slavery—such nations as England, France, Holland, and even the Scandinavian states—became leaders during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in supporting plantation colonies based on African slave labor." He likens this divide to a primitive Mason-Dixon line, "drawn somewhere in the Atlantic, separating free soil master-states from tainted slave soil dependencies" (8).

This paradox illumines the unpredictability of events in the Americas. No European nation embarked on New World ventures with the intention of enslaving anyone. They had no blueprint but rather proceeded haphazardly and pragmatically. Their first resort was to forced Indian labor (the encomiendaMadewell Topstitch Jumpsuit in Mint Green Size 6,

Consequently, Europeans faced a huge labor shortage. The Ottoman Turkish empire blocked access to Black Sea or Baltic captives. European nations no longer enslaved Christian prisoners of war. Some dreamers talked of enslaving the poor or other marginal groups, but the practical and principled problems of reviving European slavery were considerable. Another expedient was the transportation of convicts, but their numbers were never sufficient. Temporary bondage—indentured servitude—was the most obvious and most widely used other option, particularly in the early years, but servants, if they survived, eventually became free, and in any case most servants would not travel to the areas where most labor was needed. Thus, almost by default, African slaves proved by far the best available labor supply. Consequently, from 1500 to 1820 almost 9 million African slaves left for the New World, compared to less than 3 million whites. In terms of migration, the New World was more black than white (10).

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New World slavery's other most distinctive aspect was its highly commercial character. While it is true that plantations—that is, large agricultural enterprises, managed for profit, producing a crop for export, with a hierarchically stratified labor organization—existed outside the New World, they reached their apogee there. The economies of scale, the expansion in unit size, the almost exclusive use of black slaves, a highly regimented and commodified labor force, and a system of close management all raised profit levels significantly. Such a productive system placed enormous demands on its laborers. As early as the 1630s a visitor to a Jesuit-owned sugar plantation in Brazil vividly described the unbearable horror of what had transpired: "People the color of the very night, working briskly and moaning at the same time without a moment of peace or rest, whoever sees all the confused and noisy machinery and apparatus of this Babylon, even if they have seen Mt. Etna and Vesuvius will say that this indeed is the image of Hell" (13).

Patterns of New World Slavery

Variations over time and space existed within New World slavery. Three stand out. First, although all New World regions imported more African men than women (thereby in part explaining the harshness of New World slavery because of the policing problems associated with large gangs of men), over time the gender ratio among New World slaves became increasingly balanced. In that regard, the North American slave population is most notable, because, as its number of slave women increased the most rapidly, so it became one of the few self-reproducing slave populations in world history. This early and rapid natural increase explains why North America received such a small percentage of the overall transatlantic slave trade—about 5 percent. Second, North America was also distinctive in being much less tolerant of racial intermixture than Latin America or the Caribbean. Once again demography—particularly the ratio of white men to white women (more balanced in North America than in Latin America and the Caribbean) and the availability of black women—was a crucial part of the explanation, but also important were the role of the Church and cultural mores, based as much in Old World patterns of racial coexistence or segregation. The Spanish had mixed with Muslims for centuries; the English had created a Pale in their settlement of Ireland. Only in North America did the extremely arbitrary concept of "Negro"—denoting anyone with allegedly visible African ancestry—assume such a marked stigma. Third, the chances of gaining freedom varied from one society to the next. Except for the period surrounding the American Revolution, the North American colonies, and later the states, imposed the severest restrictions on the chances of a slave becoming free. Again, demography—the proportions of whites and blacks in the population—has some explanatory power as do economic and cultural forces (14).

North American slavery itself was hardly of a piece. The range encompasses New England's intimate "family slavery"; the Mid-Atlantic's mixed forms of slavery and servitude; the Chesapeake's patriarchal, small plantation, mixed farming and tobacco, heavily native-born form of slavery; and the low country's impersonal, large plantation, rice and indigo, more heavily African system of slavery. In addition, various borderland forms existed: from a fluid world of interracial alliances in the Lower Mississippi Valley to a flexible one of fugitives and ex-slaves in Spanish Florida to one in which Indian slaves were transformed from symbols of alliance into commodities of exchange in French Canada (15).

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  1. LOGO Lounge Lori Goldstein French Terry Cardigan S,The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-bellum South (New York: Knopf, 1956).

  2. Lafayette 148 Ryerson Wool Blend Bermuda Short,International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, ed. David L. Sills and Robert King Merton (New York: Macmillan, 1968), 14: 307-13; Finley, Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology, reprint (Hammondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980), 9, 96, 102, 111, 113-14; Keith Hopkins, Dora's Boutique cardigan,NWOT Wildfox Blah Blah Blase Waffle Knit Top S,Joe’s Jeans NEW Women’s Vintage Stretch Bermuda Pink Pastel Raw Hem Shorts 26, 138 (1993): 3-27; Keith Bradley, Slavery and Society at RomeSmashbox's Studio Pop For Lips,NEW RETRO Miss Candy Floss Agustina Tartan Dress,NEW Jones New York Sport Women’s Slim Boot Cut,The Problem of Slavery in Western CultureVintage Golden Egg Shaped Hardshell Clutch Purse,G-Star slim chino pants,Cover girl lip tint set of 3 NEW,

  3. Ralph A. Austen, "The Trans-Saharan Slave Trade: A Tentative Census," Vintage RARE Ty Beanie Baby Jolly the Walrus,, ed. Henry A. Gemery and Jan S. Hogendorn (New York: Academic Press, 1979), 23-76; Austen, "The Mediterranean Islamic Slave Trade out of Africa: A Tentative Census," NWT J. Crew Freshwater Pearl Disc Drop Earrings,BARIANO DIAMANTE GLITTER STRAPLESS FORMAL DRESS,Encyclopedia of Africa South of the SaharaGenuine stone diamond accent necklace!,International Journal of African Historical Studies 10 (1977): 443-61; Alexandre Popovic, The Revolt of African Slaves in Iraq in the IIIrd-IXth CenturyAuthentic Dior clutch NEW,Peruvian Link Alpaca Cardigan Gray L EUC,Yeezys yechile,Rare flawless 1980 Vintage purse/clutch&wallet, (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998); Shaun E. Marmon, ed., Burberry 6 purple and black plaid dress, (Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener, 1998); Minra Tora and John Edward Philips, eds., Slave Elites in the Middle East and Africa: A Comparative StudyLucy Jacket and Capri Legging set size small,The African Diaspora in the Mediterranean Lands of IslamLipstick and lipgloss,Slavery on the Frontiers of IslamAthleta Teal Grenada Cinch Detail Sleeveless Dress,

  4. Suzanne Miers and Igor Kopytoff, eds., Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological PerspectivesNike Nyjahs Women’s Size 6.5,Stuart Weiztman Pointed Toe Suede Calf Boots, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990); John Thornton, Brand New silver Italian Cuban link necklace,Lip gloss plumping !!!!,Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in AfricaDodo Bar Or Women’s Dress Blue Cream Large Cotton Pom Pom Bow,

  5. Halston Heritage Maxi Dress Open Skirt Size 4 NWT,Archivum latinitatis medii aeviHarbor Bay Size 50x34 Khaki Dress Pants New NWT,L'Esclavage dans l'Europe médiévale, vol. 1, Pénisule Ibérique—France (Bruges: De Tempel, 1955); vol. 2, Italie, Colonies Italiennes du Levant, Levant Latin, Empire Bysantin (Ghent: 1977); and Verlinden, The Beginnings of Modern Colonization: Eleven Essays with an IntroductionAbercrombie & Fitch XS Black Mini Dress Tunic top White floral embroidery Vneck,Slavery and Society in Medieval ScandinaviaNWT Chervo Sports Gatarele Golf Short 5 retail!,victoria’s secret cross body bag, (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 1995); Steven Epstein, Speaking of Slavery: Color, Ethnicity, and Human Bondage in Italy (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2001); and Sally McKee, "Inherited Status and Slavery in Late Medieval Italy and Venetian Crete," Athleta Speedlight Tank Top Spring Mint Large,Red V-neck jumpsuit spaghetti strap beach coverup M,

  6. Magenta Sleeveless Turtleneck,Free People Women's Jumpsuit Size Medium Black Ivory Checkered Plaid Boho, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982); Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440-1870 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997), 21-24, 48-86.

  7. Felipe Fernández-Armesto, ELSA PERETTI Diamonds by the Yard® Pendant,Free People Thermal Top White,Eyelet broderie anglaise embroidered long puff sleeves white maxi dress,Tommy Hilfiger Womens Plus Metallic Striped Top 1X,BANANA REPUBLIC Black Peplum Mid Calf Length Dress,Custom thermos stainless steel,Kylie Matte liquid lip kit in Ulta Beauty, (San Francisco: Mellen Research University Press, 1992).

  8. Eileen Fisher Knit Cardigan PL,American Historical ReviewNWT Altar’d State Navy White Knit Dress Size Small,AIR MAX 97 SE 'PARTICLE BEIGE' - Size 7, (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003), 14; Robert C. Davis, Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500-1800 (Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave MacMillan, 2003). For more on the development of freedom and slavery, see David Eltis, The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), and Sue Peabody, There Are No Slaves in France: The Political Culture of Race and Slavery in the Ancien RégimeParini Ceramic 3-piece Canister Set,

  9. ANTHROPOLOGIE ALDOMARTINS Graphic Lightweight Front Button Sweater Top Size,The Early Spanish MainTadashi Shoji Textured Lace Mermaid Gown Blue Womens Plus 16,Zoeva Lipgloss, (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1992); William L. Sherman, Forced Native Labor in Sixteenth-Century Central AmericaBarefoot Dreams sweater cardigan,Tiffany Hardware Sterling Silver Graduated Ball,❣️ZARA Black Lace Pouf Dress❣️,The Indian Slave Trade: The Rise of the English Empire in the American South, 1670-1717Vintage Ty Beanie Baby Daisy the Cow RARE with Tag Errors,ANDREA JOVINE,, ed. Elizabeth Mancke and Carole Shammas (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005), 75-121. For a recent discussion of Indian population decline, see David S. Jones, "Virgin Soils Revisited," SOL ANGELES Stop and Smell the Rose Graphic Tee,, 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 703-42.

  10. David Galenson, White Servitude in Colonial America: An Economic AnalysisBarefoot Dreams ombré cardigan sweater,Joie half sleeve black and grey striped sweater XS,Brand New - Lived-in Slim Khaki Pants,William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 58 (January 2001): 17-46. Two good microhistories of the transatlantic slave trade are Robert Harms, For Love & Lemons Buttercup Rhea Pointelle Cropped V-neck Button Down Cardigan,Old Trend Sweet Lotus Leather Bucket Bag,The Two Princes of Calabar: An Eighteenth-Century Atlantic Odyssey (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004).

  11. David Eltis and William G. Clarence-Smith, "White Servitude," Cabi flannel,Men’s Khaki Banana Republic Dress Pant size 32x32,Green Tea Hooded Jacket Floral Coconut Girl Beach, (London: Longman, 1996); Stanley L. Engerman, ed., Terms of Labor: Slavery, Serfdom, and Free Labor (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1999); and Bush, NWT FRAME Le Vintage Distressed Denim Shorts, (Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2000).

  12. Frank M. Snowden Jr., Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1970); Snowden, Olivaceous halter wide leg jumpsuit,100% authentic Vetements sneakers,The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2004); Jean Devisse and Michel Mollat, eds., The Image of the Black in Western Art, vol. 2, Set of 2 Bombay Kids tie top mesh window sheers.,Tupperware set (#3,4,5,6) 4 pc with blue lids.,Images of the Medieval PeasantSaks Fifth Avenue Green Pea Coat Blazer Coat Jacket Fall Winter Wool,Vineyard Vines NWT White Happy Holidays Whale Santa Hat Adult Long Sleeve Top,Emilio Pucci Summer heeled Sandals,White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812Barely worn. Little scuff on toe of shoe,Race: The History of an Idea in the West (Washington, D.C.: The Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1996); the essays in "Constructing Race: Differentiating Peoples in the Early Modern World," William and Mary QuarterlyCable & Gauge Ribbed Purple Cardigan,The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2003). The best account is David Brion Davis, "The Origins of Anti-Black Racism in the New World," chap. 3 in Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World SlaveryNEW Pottery Barn PB Teen Classic Steel 1.25" Curtain Rods 28-48” Brushed Nickel,

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  14. Frank Tannenbaum, Slave and Citizen: The Negro in the AmericasNWT MAMALICIOUS Maternity Overalls Ruffle Frill Shoulder Navy Medium,Neither Black Nor White: Slavery and Race Relations in Brazil and the United States (New York: Macmillan, 1971).

  15. Vibrant Abstract Floral Dress,Black Yankees: The Development of an Afro-American Subculture in Eighteenth-Century New England (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988); Graham Russell Hodges, Root and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1613-1863Chaser Arrow Heart Cozy Sweatshirt,Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and LowcountryKylie Highgloss,Mac cosmetics 602 chili Matte lipstick,Bonobos khaki Stretch Organic Cotton Chinos 32x32 LIKE NEW,Navy Bridesmaids Gown Sorella Vita brand size 6,Vintage Berebi gold plated clips, light weight,William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 777-808. To this list might be added other forms of aboriginal slavery: see Theda Perdue, Pottery Barn Teen PB Teen Classic Steel Window Curtain Rod .75 48-88" white, (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1979); William A. Starna and Ralph Watkins, "Northern Iroquoian Slavery," NWT Hummingbird Cascade Boho Bohemian Draped Open Cardigan Women's Size Large, 38 (Winter 1991): 34-57; and Leland Donald, Aboriginal Slavery on the Northwest Coast of North America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).

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Sources

  • Long White 3/4 Sleeve T&L Mu'umu'u,The Making of New World Slavery: From the Baroque to the Modern, 1492-1800Silver Tuesday Bootcut Flair 29 (30 X 32) Women's,
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  • CHICO'S Textured Sofia Cardigan Sweater,Children of God's Fire: A Documentary History of Black Slavery in BrazilAnthropologie | Sidella Floral Maxi Dress By Bhanuni,
  • Davis, David Brion. Set of 2 Bombay Kids curtain panels,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003. The first short essay in the volume is a superb introduction to the origins of New World slavery, but it should be complemented by a number of other books by this great historian of New World slavery. I particularly recommend his Barefoot Dreams ChicLite Calypso Drape Cardigan L/XL Waterfall Open Front Brown,Converse - Custom Platform Chucks!,
  • Davis, Robert C. Banana Republic Cardigan Alpaca Wool size Large,Kate Spade Black/Cream Shoulder Bag like new,
  • Marmot base layer,A Historical Guide to World Slavery. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. A useful reference work that covers most regions where slavery was important, together with topical examinations of the subject.
  • MinkPink Moonshine Striped Wrap Front Romper with Pockets Black & White Medium,The Rise of African Slavery in the AmericasAratta Silent Journey (Anthropologie) NWT Peach Knit Tank Top,
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  • Francesca’s Annabella Remi Mint Green Scallop Lace Skater Dress Small,Macmillan Encyclopedia of World SlaveryNew JCREW Beaded Crochet Statement Earrings in Red,
  • Finley, M. I. BCBG size 2 fire orange asymmetrical dress,. Reprint. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980. An exploration of the emergence, functioning, and decline of the slave societies of classical Greece and classical Italy, with comparisons to New World slavery, by the greatest historian of ancient slavery.
  • Fredrickson, George M. Racism: A Short HistoryNico Squishmallows,
  • DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLUTION // maxi butterfly,Joie Soft long sleeve lightweight knit. Contains about 1,000 pictorial images of slavery in Africa and the Americas, arranged thematically.
  • Tommy Hilfiger Womens Plus Metallic Stripe Sz 0X,Adidas superstar metallic gold,. New York: Hill and Wang, 1993. A good general account by a historian alert to comparative history.
  • 925 Sterling Silver Pink Diamond Oval Halo Elegant Stud Earrings,Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. A good survey of slavery and the evolution of racial prejudice in the Islamic world.
  • Miers, Suzanne, and Igor Kopytoff, eds. Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977. The long introduction on slavery as an "institution of marginality" is a classic, and many of the individual essays on particular regions and groups are stimulating.
  • Miller, Joseph. C., ed. Slavery and Slaving in World History: A Bibliography, 1900-1996. 2 vols. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1999. The most comprehensive work of its kind. Annual updates are available in the journal Boulder Good Night Moon Valentine’s Squad 2022 RARE Limit Edition Squishmallow,. The entire bibliography is being prepared for Internet access as a searchable database by the Virginia Center for Digital History at the University of Virginia.
  • Morgan, Philip D. "African Americans." In A Companion to Colonial AmericaHandmade Unique East African Silver/Green Drop Earrings,
  • Patterson, Orlando. Alo Yoga Motion Tank,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982. The best general survey of slave systems in 66 societies, written by a sociologist.
  • UNUSED DOLCE&GABBANA Fleur 2WAY Tote Bag BlackxMulticolore Canvas,Versace Virtus Snake Print Python Lether Multicolour Shoulder Tote Bag NWT 3100$,. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1985. A useful account that focuses on slavery in medieval Europe, the world of Islam, and the rise of the Atlantic slave system.
  • Thornton, John. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1800Vintage RARE Ty Beanie Baby Liszt the Lizard,

Philip D. Morgan is the Sydney and Ruth Lapidus Professor in the American Revolutionary Era at Princeton University. He is the author of Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998) and coeditor (with Sean Hawkins) of Black Experience and the Empire: The Oxford History of the British Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004). He would like to acknowledge in particular the assistance of David Brion Davis, who generously sent him two early chapters from his forthcoming manuscript, "Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World Slavery."

Authored by

  • Philip D. Morgan
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    Princeton, New Jersey