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Africa and the Slave Trade

Arabs and their Muslim allies were the first to make use of large numbers of sub-Saharan black Africans. They developed a long-distance slave trade, which began in the seventh century and lasted into the twentieth. It delivered many millions of Africans across the Sahara Desert, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean to North Africa, the Mediterranean, and Persian Gulf. Although over a much longer period of time and comprising far more females, the number of Africans exported via these trans-Saharan or Indian Ocean slave trades probably equaled, or even outmatched, those of its transatlantic counterpart. The preexistence of these export trades facilitated Atlantic trade: systems of slave marketing were already in place. So numerous were black Africans at certain times and in certain places that they were able to launch massive slave revolts—in 869, for instance, in what is now southern Iraq, where the so-called Zanj (who came from the Swahili Coast and lands further north) worked in large gangs draining marshlands. While the Quran and Islamic law were essentially color-blind and while Muslims enslaved many so-called "white" people, medieval Arabs came to associate the most degrading forms of labor with black slaves. The Arabic word for slave, SET active sport bras,Maison Jules Cardigan,

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The Atlantic Slave System


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As slavery underwent a resurgence in southern Europe, it gradually disappeared from the northwestern part of the continent. Economic changes help to explain this development, but perhaps more important were cultural constraints. Over the course of the Middle Ages, Christians always committed awful atrocities on each other, but increasingly they avoided enslaving one another. Apparently, a sense of unity had emerged in Christian Europe that effectively barred the enslavement of those deemed fellow Europeans. Christianity's long struggle with Islam no doubt played a major role in this development. That from 1500 to 1800 Muslims enslaved well over a million Western Europeans, many of whom were subsequently ransomed and celebrated as symbols of freedom, was a major element in the growing sense that Europeans should never be slaves. Nevertheless, these so-called free labor nations would develop some of the harshest slave regimes in the Americas. As David Brion Davis puts it, "it is an astonishing paradox that the first nations in the world to free themselves of chattel slavery—such nations as England, France, Holland, and even the Scandinavian states—became leaders during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in supporting plantation colonies based on African slave labor." He likens this divide to a primitive Mason-Dixon line, "drawn somewhere in the Atlantic, separating free soil master-states from tainted slave soil dependencies" (8).

This paradox illumines the unpredictability of events in the Americas. No European nation embarked on New World ventures with the intention of enslaving anyone. They had no blueprint but rather proceeded haphazardly and pragmatically. Their first resort was to forced Indian labor (the encomiendaKancan Kurvy ultra high rise ankle skinny size 28,

Consequently, Europeans faced a huge labor shortage. The Ottoman Turkish empire blocked access to Black Sea or Baltic captives. European nations no longer enslaved Christian prisoners of war. Some dreamers talked of enslaving the poor or other marginal groups, but the practical and principled problems of reviving European slavery were considerable. Another expedient was the transportation of convicts, but their numbers were never sufficient. Temporary bondage—indentured servitude—was the most obvious and most widely used other option, particularly in the early years, but servants, if they survived, eventually became free, and in any case most servants would not travel to the areas where most labor was needed. Thus, almost by default, African slaves proved by far the best available labor supply. Consequently, from 1500 to 1820 almost 9 million African slaves left for the New World, compared to less than 3 million whites. In terms of migration, the New World was more black than white (10).

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New World slavery's other most distinctive aspect was its highly commercial character. While it is true that plantations—that is, large agricultural enterprises, managed for profit, producing a crop for export, with a hierarchically stratified labor organization—existed outside the New World, they reached their apogee there. The economies of scale, the expansion in unit size, the almost exclusive use of black slaves, a highly regimented and commodified labor force, and a system of close management all raised profit levels significantly. Such a productive system placed enormous demands on its laborers. As early as the 1630s a visitor to a Jesuit-owned sugar plantation in Brazil vividly described the unbearable horror of what had transpired: "People the color of the very night, working briskly and moaning at the same time without a moment of peace or rest, whoever sees all the confused and noisy machinery and apparatus of this Babylon, even if they have seen Mt. Etna and Vesuvius will say that this indeed is the image of Hell" (13).

Patterns of New World Slavery

Variations over time and space existed within New World slavery. Three stand out. First, although all New World regions imported more African men than women (thereby in part explaining the harshness of New World slavery because of the policing problems associated with large gangs of men), over time the gender ratio among New World slaves became increasingly balanced. In that regard, the North American slave population is most notable, because, as its number of slave women increased the most rapidly, so it became one of the few self-reproducing slave populations in world history. This early and rapid natural increase explains why North America received such a small percentage of the overall transatlantic slave trade—about 5 percent. Second, North America was also distinctive in being much less tolerant of racial intermixture than Latin America or the Caribbean. Once again demography—particularly the ratio of white men to white women (more balanced in North America than in Latin America and the Caribbean) and the availability of black women—was a crucial part of the explanation, but also important were the role of the Church and cultural mores, based as much in Old World patterns of racial coexistence or segregation. The Spanish had mixed with Muslims for centuries; the English had created a Pale in their settlement of Ireland. Only in North America did the extremely arbitrary concept of "Negro"—denoting anyone with allegedly visible African ancestry—assume such a marked stigma. Third, the chances of gaining freedom varied from one society to the next. Except for the period surrounding the American Revolution, the North American colonies, and later the states, imposed the severest restrictions on the chances of a slave becoming free. Again, demography—the proportions of whites and blacks in the population—has some explanatory power as do economic and cultural forces (14).

North American slavery itself was hardly of a piece. The range encompasses New England's intimate "family slavery"; the Mid-Atlantic's mixed forms of slavery and servitude; the Chesapeake's patriarchal, small plantation, mixed farming and tobacco, heavily native-born form of slavery; and the low country's impersonal, large plantation, rice and indigo, more heavily African system of slavery. In addition, various borderland forms existed: from a fluid world of interracial alliances in the Lower Mississippi Valley to a flexible one of fugitives and ex-slaves in Spanish Florida to one in which Indian slaves were transformed from symbols of alliance into commodities of exchange in French Canada (15).

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  1. ALEMBIKA wide leg grey knit lantern leg pat,The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-bellum South (New York: Knopf, 1956).

  2. 18k Diamond Yellow Gold Wedding Band,International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, ed. David L. Sills and Robert King Merton (New York: Macmillan, 1968), 14: 307-13; Finley, Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology, reprint (Hammondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980), 9, 96, 102, 111, 113-14; Keith Hopkins, Vintage Reversible Outdoor Hunting Vest,Steve Madden rookie bootie,Express Forest Green Cable Knit Cowl Neck Half Sleeve Sweater XS, 138 (1993): 3-27; Keith Bradley, Slavery and Society at RomePink Heavily Sequenced Dress !!!!,Athleta Gramercy Track Trouser Pants,Taryn Rose Zahara Weatherproof Black Ankle Boots Size 8.5,The Problem of Slavery in Western CultureNew Ed Hardy Love is a gamble. Pray for surf. Player. Swim sz 31 trunks Y2K,Adidas Men’s Seeley Skateboarding Casual Sneakers Size 10.5,1.00 Carat Natural Diamond Sizeable Eternity Ring,

  3. Ralph A. Austen, "The Trans-Saharan Slave Trade: A Tentative Census," Rubellite 1.61ct Solid 14K White Gold Ring,, ed. Henry A. Gemery and Jan S. Hogendorn (New York: Academic Press, 1979), 23-76; Austen, "The Mediterranean Islamic Slave Trade out of Africa: A Tentative Census," Kundan stone earrings,Kate Spade Pershing Street Poppy Green Coin Purse,Encyclopedia of Africa South of the Saharahobo coach purse,International Journal of African Historical Studies 10 (1977): 443-61; Alexandre Popovic, The Revolt of African Slaves in Iraq in the IIIrd-IXth CenturySea New York Navy Lace Bell Sleeve Blouse,Womens brown ugg boots size 8,Swarovski Chandelier Earrings,Sherri Hill pink sequin prom/formal dress size 0, (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998); Shaun E. Marmon, ed., rosewater remi Peplum Top, (Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener, 1998); Minra Tora and John Edward Philips, eds., Slave Elites in the Middle East and Africa: A Comparative StudyEileen Fisher Petite High Waisted Straight Pants,The African Diaspora in the Mediterranean Lands of IslamSigned Dixie Chicks Autographed Shirt Concert Tour,Slavery on the Frontiers of IslamNEW BALANCE 409 MEN'S SHOES,

  4. Suzanne Miers and Igor Kopytoff, eds., Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological PerspectivesFaithfull The Brand Maisy Linen Floral Short Sleeve Button-Up Boxy Shirt,Vintage COACH No. 081-5808 leather crossbody, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990); John Thornton, ETON Contemporary Fit Dress Shirt Navy Stripe Long Sleeve Button Mens 39 / 15.5,Lilly Pulitzer Skipper Cropped Popover S Small,Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in AfricaNew Madewell Tall High Rise Slim Straight Jeans Glynn Wash 27T Roadtripper,

  5. Mesh Urban Outfitters top,Archivum latinitatis medii aeviBurberry Belted Cotton Wax Jacket,L'Esclavage dans l'Europe médiévale, vol. 1, Pénisule Ibérique—France (Bruges: De Tempel, 1955); vol. 2, Italie, Colonies Italiennes du Levant, Levant Latin, Empire Bysantin (Ghent: 1977); and Verlinden, The Beginnings of Modern Colonization: Eleven Essays with an IntroductionCOPY - Ralph Lauren - Rossalyn II Rain Boot,Slavery and Society in Medieval ScandinaviaMerrell Black Suede & Sherling Lining Clogs,Charter Club Petite Sateen Metallic Rivets Skort, (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 1995); Steven Epstein, Speaking of Slavery: Color, Ethnicity, and Human Bondage in Italy (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2001); and Sally McKee, "Inherited Status and Slavery in Late Medieval Italy and Venetian Crete," faithful the brand linen green pants,Mom distressed high rise jeans ASOS,

  6. Calypso St. Barth Maeve Linen Top,Kate Spade Black Rima Laurel Crossbody Purse, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982); Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440-1870 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997), 21-24, 48-86.

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  8. Vintage Cabelas Leather Camouflage Hunting Belt Waist Pants Belt,American Historical ReviewLODIS LEATHER PASSPORT HOLDER CAMEL NWT,Jared Lang Sz M Mens Dress Shirt Navy Blue Jacquard, (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003), 14; Robert C. Davis, Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500-1800 (Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave MacMillan, 2003). For more on the development of freedom and slavery, see David Eltis, The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), and Sue Peabody, There Are No Slaves in France: The Political Culture of Race and Slavery in the Ancien RégimePearl iZumi X-Road Fuel v5 Mens 11.5,

  9. African Indians Style Throw Pillow Covers NEW,The Early Spanish MainGuerlain L’Or radiance pure gold makeup base,Sunflower Throw Pillow Covers 18 x 18 Inch, (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1992); William L. Sherman, Forced Native Labor in Sixteenth-Century Central AmericaJansport Digital Backpack,Womens Helly Hansen Westport Long Rain Jacket Graphite Blue Size Large L,Lilly Pulitzer Pallazo pant NWOT,The Indian Slave Trade: The Rise of the English Empire in the American South, 1670-1717Jcrew Men’s Stitched edge Belt Dark Caramel,PINK VS MIDNIGHT TROPICAL LOGO HOODED SWEATSHIRT,, ed. Elizabeth Mancke and Carole Shammas (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005), 75-121. For a recent discussion of Indian population decline, see David S. Jones, "Virgin Soils Revisited," Vintage 70s Sears and Roebuck Sherpa Lined Dark Denim Vest Western Rockabilly,, 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 703-42.

  10. David Galenson, White Servitude in Colonial America: An Economic Analysisnwt TORI RICHARD Mens Swim Trunks Shorts Swimwear Blue size 36 black white blue,Vintage handmade patchwork farmhouse country cottage core quilt 85 x 70,Nordstrom men’s quarter zip cashmere sweater XL,William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 58 (January 2001): 17-46. Two good microhistories of the transatlantic slave trade are Robert Harms, Kate Spade flap phone crossbody,Taryn Rose black suede flat mules,The Two Princes of Calabar: An Eighteenth-Century Atlantic Odyssey (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004).

  11. David Eltis and William G. Clarence-Smith, "White Servitude," Boiyi boho ethnic rainbow fabric tote bag NWT,Vintage LL BEAN Flannel Lined Jeans womens 14 high waisted rise blue made USA,Anthropologie Pilcro The Wanderer Utility Pants size 28 new with tag, (London: Longman, 1996); Stanley L. Engerman, ed., Terms of Labor: Slavery, Serfdom, and Free Labor (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1999); and Bush, Pendleton Womens L Tartan Plaid Virgin Wool Long-Sleeve Shirt, (Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2000).

  12. Frank M. Snowden Jr., Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1970); Snowden, Sorel Campsneak Slip On Sneakers Brown Size 8.5,Peter Millar Skort Size M UPF 50 + Orange Skirt Shorts Stretch NWOT,The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2004); Jean Devisse and Michel Mollat, eds., The Image of the Black in Western Art, vol. 2, Vintage handmade boho patchwork quilt,Women's LL Bean Brown Bean boots size 8m with soul inserts made in the USA,Images of the Medieval PeasantDooney and Bourke gray brown leather bag,Figs Livingston Basic Scrub Pants Navy Size XXL,Adidas Forest Grove Sneakers,White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812Burberry Shark Print Cotton Top,Race: The History of an Idea in the West (Washington, D.C.: The Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1996); the essays in "Constructing Race: Differentiating Peoples in the Early Modern World," William and Mary QuarterlyIconic Vintage Karl Lagerfeld Necklace,The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2003). The best account is David Brion Davis, "The Origins of Anti-Black Racism in the New World," chap. 3 in Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World SlaveryShow Me Your Mumu Blue Lace Bam Bam Bells,

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  14. Frank Tannenbaum, Slave and Citizen: The Negro in the AmericasVintage hobo,Neither Black Nor White: Slavery and Race Relations in Brazil and the United States (New York: Macmillan, 1971).

  15. FRAME Denim Le Beau Crop Blanc Drive Rips (White) Straight Leg Jeans,Black Yankees: The Development of an Afro-American Subculture in Eighteenth-Century New England (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988); Graham Russell Hodges, Root and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1613-1863Winter Chelsea boots with the fur,Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and LowcountrySam&Lavi Off-Shoulder bamboo print Top blouse S,Mens Supra sneakers,Aigner Leather Hobo Shoulder Bag Fringe Purse,Figs Livingston Basic Scrub Pants Size Medium Tall Navy Blue,Low rise Hawaiian print swim shorts 2010s,William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 777-808. To this list might be added other forms of aboriginal slavery: see Theda Perdue, Tory Burch full size black leather wallet with full zipper and inside zipper., (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1979); William A. Starna and Ralph Watkins, "Northern Iroquoian Slavery," M.i.h. Cult Midrise Straight Grey Convert Jeans 28, 38 (Winter 1991): 34-57; and Leland Donald, Aboriginal Slavery on the Northwest Coast of North America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).

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  • Davis, David Brion. Anthropologie Angel of the North Cabled Boucle Gray Cowl Neck Sweater S,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003. The first short essay in the volume is a superb introduction to the origins of New World slavery, but it should be complemented by a number of other books by this great historian of New World slavery. I particularly recommend his SHIRTAPORTER sz 6 100% poly NWOT silky star print wide leg pant elastic hi-waist,Longaberger Woven Memories Basket 2001,
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  • Skechers Men’s Memory Fit Trail Sport Shoe,A Historical Guide to World Slavery. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. A useful reference work that covers most regions where slavery was important, together with topical examinations of the subject.
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  • Finley, M. I. AG Adriano Goldschmied The Harper Essential Straight Jean Size 26,. Reprint. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980. An exploration of the emergence, functioning, and decline of the slave societies of classical Greece and classical Italy, with comparisons to New World slavery, by the greatest historian of ancient slavery.
  • Fredrickson, George M. Racism: A Short HistoryThe North Face Zoomie Jacket,
  • Great Bay Home Quilt Set Includes 2 Shams New!,WILDFOX Under The Sun Floral Sweater Tropical Summer Flowers Floral Yellow Pink. Contains about 1,000 pictorial images of slavery in Africa and the Americas, arranged thematically.
  • Rag&Bone Oda Sheer Stripe Top Black Mesh Perforate,Columbia Women's Minx Mid II Waterproof Omni-Heat Size 4,. New York: Hill and Wang, 1993. A good general account by a historian alert to comparative history.
  • The Cory Mule in Snake Embossed Leather AH704,Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. A good survey of slavery and the evolution of racial prejudice in the Islamic world.
  • Miers, Suzanne, and Igor Kopytoff, eds. Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977. The long introduction on slavery as an "institution of marginality" is a classic, and many of the individual essays on particular regions and groups are stimulating.
  • Miller, Joseph. C., ed. Slavery and Slaving in World History: A Bibliography, 1900-1996. 2 vols. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1999. The most comprehensive work of its kind. Annual updates are available in the journal Bugachi womens button down orange top,. The entire bibliography is being prepared for Internet access as a searchable database by the Virginia Center for Digital History at the University of Virginia.
  • Morgan, Philip D. "African Americans." In A Companion to Colonial AmericaZadig & Voltaire Kayak Camo Print Military Jacket,
  • Patterson, Orlando. Mary Kay primer,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982. The best general survey of slave systems in 66 societies, written by a sociologist.
  • Y2K black suede jacket,Tory Burch hot pink polo shirt S,. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1985. A useful account that focuses on slavery in medieval Europe, the world of Islam, and the rise of the Atlantic slave system.
  • Thornton, John. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1800John Varvatos Star USA Men's Malibu Swim Short Abstract Print Navy Blue 36W,

Philip D. Morgan is the Sydney and Ruth Lapidus Professor in the American Revolutionary Era at Princeton University. He is the author of Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998) and coeditor (with Sean Hawkins) of Black Experience and the Empire: The Oxford History of the British Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004). He would like to acknowledge in particular the assistance of David Brion Davis, who generously sent him two early chapters from his forthcoming manuscript, "Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World Slavery."

Authored by

  • Philip D. Morgan
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    Princeton, New Jersey