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Africa and the Slave Trade

Arabs and their Muslim allies were the first to make use of large numbers of sub-Saharan black Africans. They developed a long-distance slave trade, which began in the seventh century and lasted into the twentieth. It delivered many millions of Africans across the Sahara Desert, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean to North Africa, the Mediterranean, and Persian Gulf. Although over a much longer period of time and comprising far more females, the number of Africans exported via these trans-Saharan or Indian Ocean slave trades probably equaled, or even outmatched, those of its transatlantic counterpart. The preexistence of these export trades facilitated Atlantic trade: systems of slave marketing were already in place. So numerous were black Africans at certain times and in certain places that they were able to launch massive slave revolts—in 869, for instance, in what is now southern Iraq, where the so-called Zanj (who came from the Swahili Coast and lands further north) worked in large gangs draining marshlands. While the Quran and Islamic law were essentially color-blind and while Muslims enslaved many so-called "white" people, medieval Arabs came to associate the most degrading forms of labor with black slaves. The Arabic word for slave, NY&C Waverly V-Neck Sweater - Argyle, aqua/white/gray, large,NWT Theory Bobble Po Bering Sweater Dark Navy L,

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The Atlantic Slave System

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As slavery underwent a resurgence in southern Europe, it gradually disappeared from the northwestern part of the continent. Economic changes help to explain this development, but perhaps more important were cultural constraints. Over the course of the Middle Ages, Christians always committed awful atrocities on each other, but increasingly they avoided enslaving one another. Apparently, a sense of unity had emerged in Christian Europe that effectively barred the enslavement of those deemed fellow Europeans. Christianity's long struggle with Islam no doubt played a major role in this development. That from 1500 to 1800 Muslims enslaved well over a million Western Europeans, many of whom were subsequently ransomed and celebrated as symbols of freedom, was a major element in the growing sense that Europeans should never be slaves. Nevertheless, these so-called free labor nations would develop some of the harshest slave regimes in the Americas. As David Brion Davis puts it, "it is an astonishing paradox that the first nations in the world to free themselves of chattel slavery—such nations as England, France, Holland, and even the Scandinavian states—became leaders during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in supporting plantation colonies based on African slave labor." He likens this divide to a primitive Mason-Dixon line, "drawn somewhere in the Atlantic, separating free soil master-states from tainted slave soil dependencies" (8).

This paradox illumines the unpredictability of events in the Americas. No European nation embarked on New World ventures with the intention of enslaving anyone. They had no blueprint but rather proceeded haphazardly and pragmatically. Their first resort was to forced Indian labor (the encomiendaHouse of Harlow bangle bracelet NEW,

Consequently, Europeans faced a huge labor shortage. The Ottoman Turkish empire blocked access to Black Sea or Baltic captives. European nations no longer enslaved Christian prisoners of war. Some dreamers talked of enslaving the poor or other marginal groups, but the practical and principled problems of reviving European slavery were considerable. Another expedient was the transportation of convicts, but their numbers were never sufficient. Temporary bondage—indentured servitude—was the most obvious and most widely used other option, particularly in the early years, but servants, if they survived, eventually became free, and in any case most servants would not travel to the areas where most labor was needed. Thus, almost by default, African slaves proved by far the best available labor supply. Consequently, from 1500 to 1820 almost 9 million African slaves left for the New World, compared to less than 3 million whites. In terms of migration, the New World was more black than white (10).

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New World slavery's other most distinctive aspect was its highly commercial character. While it is true that plantations—that is, large agricultural enterprises, managed for profit, producing a crop for export, with a hierarchically stratified labor organization—existed outside the New World, they reached their apogee there. The economies of scale, the expansion in unit size, the almost exclusive use of black slaves, a highly regimented and commodified labor force, and a system of close management all raised profit levels significantly. Such a productive system placed enormous demands on its laborers. As early as the 1630s a visitor to a Jesuit-owned sugar plantation in Brazil vividly described the unbearable horror of what had transpired: "People the color of the very night, working briskly and moaning at the same time without a moment of peace or rest, whoever sees all the confused and noisy machinery and apparatus of this Babylon, even if they have seen Mt. Etna and Vesuvius will say that this indeed is the image of Hell" (13).

Patterns of New World Slavery

Variations over time and space existed within New World slavery. Three stand out. First, although all New World regions imported more African men than women (thereby in part explaining the harshness of New World slavery because of the policing problems associated with large gangs of men), over time the gender ratio among New World slaves became increasingly balanced. In that regard, the North American slave population is most notable, because, as its number of slave women increased the most rapidly, so it became one of the few self-reproducing slave populations in world history. This early and rapid natural increase explains why North America received such a small percentage of the overall transatlantic slave trade—about 5 percent. Second, North America was also distinctive in being much less tolerant of racial intermixture than Latin America or the Caribbean. Once again demography—particularly the ratio of white men to white women (more balanced in North America than in Latin America and the Caribbean) and the availability of black women—was a crucial part of the explanation, but also important were the role of the Church and cultural mores, based as much in Old World patterns of racial coexistence or segregation. The Spanish had mixed with Muslims for centuries; the English had created a Pale in their settlement of Ireland. Only in North America did the extremely arbitrary concept of "Negro"—denoting anyone with allegedly visible African ancestry—assume such a marked stigma. Third, the chances of gaining freedom varied from one society to the next. Except for the period surrounding the American Revolution, the North American colonies, and later the states, imposed the severest restrictions on the chances of a slave becoming free. Again, demography—the proportions of whites and blacks in the population—has some explanatory power as do economic and cultural forces (14).

North American slavery itself was hardly of a piece. The range encompasses New England's intimate "family slavery"; the Mid-Atlantic's mixed forms of slavery and servitude; the Chesapeake's patriarchal, small plantation, mixed farming and tobacco, heavily native-born form of slavery; and the low country's impersonal, large plantation, rice and indigo, more heavily African system of slavery. In addition, various borderland forms existed: from a fluid world of interracial alliances in the Lower Mississippi Valley to a flexible one of fugitives and ex-slaves in Spanish Florida to one in which Indian slaves were transformed from symbols of alliance into commodities of exchange in French Canada (15).

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  1. Vintage Gold bracelet/bangle 14kt* w beautiful etching,The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-bellum South (New York: Knopf, 1956).

  2. Nike React Infinity Pro Golf Shoes Mens Size 9.5,International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, ed. David L. Sills and Robert King Merton (New York: Macmillan, 1968), 14: 307-13; Finley, Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology, reprint (Hammondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980), 9, 96, 102, 111, 113-14; Keith Hopkins, Coach flats size 7.5B,Frye woman’s tan boots,Vintage 80s Screen Stars Walter Payton T-Shirt, 138 (1993): 3-27; Keith Bradley, Slavery and Society at RomeLittle white Dress,Nursery room, bedroom, or playroom. Handmade and embroidered. Machine washable,Melie Bianco Designer Doctor Square Satchel Handbag RARE,The Problem of Slavery in Western CultureNEW Heavy Steel Mermaid Trident Seafood Company Cannery Row Monterey Metal Sign,Can’t use where I live because it’s too warm!,Bogner High Waisted Stirrup Ski Pants Navy Size M,

  3. Ralph A. Austen, "The Trans-Saharan Slave Trade: A Tentative Census," Madison Marcus Lace Top Size Large,, ed. Henry A. Gemery and Jan S. Hogendorn (New York: Academic Press, 1979), 23-76; Austen, "The Mediterranean Islamic Slave Trade out of Africa: A Tentative Census," Rumba Sports Watch / Black,Navy North Jacket with Hood,Encyclopedia of Africa South of the SaharaAir Force One,International Journal of African Historical Studies 10 (1977): 443-61; Alexandre Popovic, The Revolt of African Slaves in Iraq in the IIIrd-IXth CenturyZacapa rum Liquor logo T-shirt,Michael Kors gray scarf,Merino Wool J.Crew Tie Front Sweater,Womens shoulder bag, (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998); Shaun E. Marmon, ed., free people oversized black sweater in size medium, (Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener, 1998); Minra Tora and John Edward Philips, eds., Slave Elites in the Middle East and Africa: A Comparative StudySteve Madden Landyn Plaid Backpack in Red,The African Diaspora in the Mediterranean Lands of Islambridesmaid dress,Slavery on the Frontiers of IslamSage The Label Bodysuit Keyhole Black Small,

  4. Suzanne Miers and Igor Kopytoff, eds., Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological PerspectivesJACK ROGERS PEACH DRESS WITH BOW,Michael Kors limited teal colored, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990); John Thornton, Michael kors authentic rust brown wallet,Red Draped Cross-Front Blouse Top,Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in AfricaPoly brand ring,

  5. Kut from The Kloth white denim jacket,Archivum latinitatis medii aeviSarah Coventry Light Of The East Brooch Mosaic,L'Esclavage dans l'Europe médiévale, vol. 1, Pénisule Ibérique—France (Bruges: De Tempel, 1955); vol. 2, Italie, Colonies Italiennes du Levant, Levant Latin, Empire Bysantin (Ghent: 1977); and Verlinden, The Beginnings of Modern Colonization: Eleven Essays with an IntroductionLace up Boots,Slavery and Society in Medieval ScandinaviaUgg Gray Slippers,Ugh fluff yeah slippers youth size 6, fits women’s 7-7.5, (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 1995); Steven Epstein, Speaking of Slavery: Color, Ethnicity, and Human Bondage in Italy (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2001); and Sally McKee, "Inherited Status and Slavery in Late Medieval Italy and Venetian Crete," 7 for all Mankind jeans,B. Makowsky "Giamma" Black Suede Leather Purse,

  6. Naked Wardrobe White Bodysuit XS,Lululemon Refine Crop Legging Heathered Black / Black size 6, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982); Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440-1870 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997), 21-24, 48-86.

  7. Felipe Fernández-Armesto, Taos Black Mary Jane shoes 9.5,RLX Ralph Lauren Cargo Pants Navy Blue Mens Size 4 Zipped Pockets Lightweight,BCBG Structured Clutch,The Golden Cocker EI By Veleryi.V,Ashoreshop Fall Winter 10 Hot Dresses,Vintage Polo Ralph Lauren crest Iconic,Byron Lars for Beauty Mark Green Snakeskin Skinny Pants | Size 8 | NWT, (San Francisco: Mellen Research University Press, 1992).

  8. Juicy Couture Gold Chain Link Charm Bracelet,American Historical ReviewJeffree Star Cosmetics Jeffree Star Black Tracksuit Jacket,VINTAGE NEW UNWORN cotton top, (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003), 14; Robert C. Davis, Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500-1800 (Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave MacMillan, 2003). For more on the development of freedom and slavery, see David Eltis, The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), and Sue Peabody, There Are No Slaves in France: The Political Culture of Race and Slavery in the Ancien RégimeBerek vintage Twinkle twinkle,

  9. Rain gear,The Early Spanish MainAdidas Mens Adilette Aqua Slides / Sandal Shoe,Coach red continental wallet, (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1992); William L. Sherman, Forced Native Labor in Sixteenth-Century Central AmericaSupreme t shirt,Saks Fifth Avenue Silk and Cashmere Jacket,Levi’s 505 straight leg jeans,The Indian Slave Trade: The Rise of the English Empire in the American South, 1670-1717Skechers Arch Fit Recon Sandro Mens Size 13 Suede Slip-On Sneakers Shoes 204410,Antique Sterling Silver Charm Bracelet c. 1960's,, ed. Elizabeth Mancke and Carole Shammas (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005), 75-121. For a recent discussion of Indian population decline, see David S. Jones, "Virgin Soils Revisited," COLE HAAN Black ANKLE BOOTS SIZE 9.5 waterproof,, 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 703-42.

  10. David Galenson, White Servitude in Colonial America: An Economic AnalysisPurple and black cow fur print clutch,Loungefly Edward Scissorhands Topiary Zip Around Wallet NEW,Skagen Denmark silver watch,William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 58 (January 2001): 17-46. Two good microhistories of the transatlantic slave trade are Robert Harms, Regency era styled purple cluster flower floral chain bracelet,BOC MINI BACKPACK with flowers.,The Two Princes of Calabar: An Eighteenth-Century Atlantic Odyssey (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004).

  11. David Eltis and William G. Clarence-Smith, "White Servitude," NWT GRAY HEINEKEN EST 1873 AMSTERDAM MEN’S FITTED TEE SIZE SMALL,Geckoman Men's Shoes,Engagement Flower Anillos Pure Round CZ Dainty Silver Plated Ring, L141, (London: Longman, 1996); Stanley L. Engerman, ed., Terms of Labor: Slavery, Serfdom, and Free Labor (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1999); and Bush, Princess Cut Dimond Ring 14k Gold-Quarter Karat, (Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2000).

  12. Frank M. Snowden Jr., Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1970); Snowden, Diane von Furstenbrrg dinner dress,New Queen Size Comforter, Decorative Pillow, and Pillow Cases Set.,The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2004); Jean Devisse and Michel Mollat, eds., The Image of the Black in Western Art, vol. 2, Pronovias weddding dress- Primael with sweetheart,DC Comics Batman Shirt & Jogger Pants Outfit Set,Images of the Medieval PeasantCOPY - Leopard Coach Bag,Walter Baker jumper,PAIGE | Shorts,White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812Wore only twice. One of the most comfortable dress shoes I’ve owned,Race: The History of an Idea in the West (Washington, D.C.: The Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1996); the essays in "Constructing Race: Differentiating Peoples in the Early Modern World," William and Mary QuarterlyAdidas women's shoes,The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2003). The best account is David Brion Davis, "The Origins of Anti-Black Racism in the New World," chap. 3 in Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World SlaveryAdrianna Papell Gown Art Nouveau Beading size 2,

  13. Ramy Paris Sleeveless dress,NWT ✨ Topshop Corduroy Pinafore Dress | Size 10, (New York: Norton, 1989); Schwartz, ed., Vintage Jeff Gordon Nascar T-Shirt Size M “Winning Is His Business” AOP 1999,, 3.

  14. Frank Tannenbaum, Slave and Citizen: The Negro in the AmericasNike Men's Victori One Shadow Slide Sandals from Finish Line,Neither Black Nor White: Slavery and Race Relations in Brazil and the United States (New York: Macmillan, 1971).

  15. Casio Watch for Ladies black color . A brand new,Black Yankees: The Development of an Afro-American Subculture in Eighteenth-Century New England (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988); Graham Russell Hodges, Root and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1613-1863NIKKY BIFOLD ZIPPER WALLET- HAILEE DREAMS BIG,Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and LowcountryLondon Plaid Magnetic Bracelet Set,Airmax 97 “Have a Nike day”,Polo shirts large red gray and gold,Girls floral swim suit,SPANX The Perfect Pant Ankle Backseam Skinny,William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 777-808. To this list might be added other forms of aboriginal slavery: see Theda Perdue, COLE HAAN TRINITY PYTHON PRINT SU05, (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1979); William A. Starna and Ralph Watkins, "Northern Iroquoian Slavery," Pam & Gela Microscuba Burgundy Pink Track Pants Size P, 38 (Winter 1991): 34-57; and Leland Donald, Aboriginal Slavery on the Northwest Coast of North America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).

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Sources

  • Burberry fabric tote,The Making of New World Slavery: From the Baroque to the Modern, 1492-1800Gorgeous Ruffle Dress Size M, perfect for Easter!,
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  • J. Crew | Ludlow Suit Jacket Italian Worsted Wool Blazer Jacket,Children of God's Fire: A Documentary History of Black Slavery in BrazilGuess Winter Jacket,
  • Davis, David Brion. Cupcakes & Cashmere Gazella Ultra Soft Sweater,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003. The first short essay in the volume is a superb introduction to the origins of New World slavery, but it should be complemented by a number of other books by this great historian of New World slavery. I particularly recommend his Polo Ralph Lauren vintage Cookie turtleneck Small,Lilly Pultizer Strapless Dress,
  • Davis, Robert C. John Varvatos Black wool blazer Sz 54,Micheal Kors Black Bag,
  • Vtg. Disney Pins~and~guardian angel pin,A Historical Guide to World Slavery. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. A useful reference work that covers most regions where slavery was important, together with topical examinations of the subject.
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  • Finley, M. I. Waverly King Comforter Set- shams, bedskirt, reversible, square pillow covers,. Reprint. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980. An exploration of the emergence, functioning, and decline of the slave societies of classical Greece and classical Italy, with comparisons to New World slavery, by the greatest historian of ancient slavery.
  • Fredrickson, George M. Racism: A Short HistoryAlex and Ani Rafaleian Silver Turtle Charity By Design Bracelet,
  • Lovely black and silver cocktail ring,Vintage 1990s High Waist Ankle Zipper Jeans. Contains about 1,000 pictorial images of slavery in Africa and the Americas, arranged thematically.
  • Oakley ski Glasses 2018 Olympic Brand,Purple Agate Crystal Bookend Pair - Geode Bookend - Boho Home Decor,. New York: Hill and Wang, 1993. A good general account by a historian alert to comparative history.
  • Monoreno blue lace cotton/poly top NWT,Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. A good survey of slavery and the evolution of racial prejudice in the Islamic world.
  • Miers, Suzanne, and Igor Kopytoff, eds. Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977. The long introduction on slavery as an "institution of marginality" is a classic, and many of the individual essays on particular regions and groups are stimulating.
  • Miller, Joseph. C., ed. Slavery and Slaving in World History: A Bibliography, 1900-1996. 2 vols. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1999. The most comprehensive work of its kind. Annual updates are available in the journal Eddie Bauer V-Neck A-Line Sweater,. The entire bibliography is being prepared for Internet access as a searchable database by the Virginia Center for Digital History at the University of Virginia.
  • Morgan, Philip D. "African Americans." In A Companion to Colonial America20"Rope Chain + 14K Gold Finish Initial G,
  • Patterson, Orlando. Kate spade Live colorfully green tunic top S,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982. The best general survey of slave systems in 66 societies, written by a sociologist.
  • Preppy/ Outdoorsy Stickers,Small RipCurl casual Cameron strapless dress,. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1985. A useful account that focuses on slavery in medieval Europe, the world of Islam, and the rise of the Atlantic slave system.
  • Thornton, John. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1800North Face Rain jacket,

Philip D. Morgan is the Sydney and Ruth Lapidus Professor in the American Revolutionary Era at Princeton University. He is the author of Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998) and coeditor (with Sean Hawkins) of Black Experience and the Empire: The Oxford History of the British Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004). He would like to acknowledge in particular the assistance of David Brion Davis, who generously sent him two early chapters from his forthcoming manuscript, "Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World Slavery."

Authored by

  • Philip D. Morgan
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