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Africa and the Slave Trade

Arabs and their Muslim allies were the first to make use of large numbers of sub-Saharan black Africans. They developed a long-distance slave trade, which began in the seventh century and lasted into the twentieth. It delivered many millions of Africans across the Sahara Desert, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean to North Africa, the Mediterranean, and Persian Gulf. Although over a much longer period of time and comprising far more females, the number of Africans exported via these trans-Saharan or Indian Ocean slave trades probably equaled, or even outmatched, those of its transatlantic counterpart. The preexistence of these export trades facilitated Atlantic trade: systems of slave marketing were already in place. So numerous were black Africans at certain times and in certain places that they were able to launch massive slave revolts—in 869, for instance, in what is now southern Iraq, where the so-called Zanj (who came from the Swahili Coast and lands further north) worked in large gangs draining marshlands. While the Quran and Islamic law were essentially color-blind and while Muslims enslaved many so-called "white" people, medieval Arabs came to associate the most degrading forms of labor with black slaves. The Arabic word for slave, NAVY Evening Prom Party A-Line Dress AC 477 A-Line,Whiting Sterling Footed Blown Glass Gravy Boat,

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The Atlantic Slave System

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As slavery underwent a resurgence in southern Europe, it gradually disappeared from the northwestern part of the continent. Economic changes help to explain this development, but perhaps more important were cultural constraints. Over the course of the Middle Ages, Christians always committed awful atrocities on each other, but increasingly they avoided enslaving one another. Apparently, a sense of unity had emerged in Christian Europe that effectively barred the enslavement of those deemed fellow Europeans. Christianity's long struggle with Islam no doubt played a major role in this development. That from 1500 to 1800 Muslims enslaved well over a million Western Europeans, many of whom were subsequently ransomed and celebrated as symbols of freedom, was a major element in the growing sense that Europeans should never be slaves. Nevertheless, these so-called free labor nations would develop some of the harshest slave regimes in the Americas. As David Brion Davis puts it, "it is an astonishing paradox that the first nations in the world to free themselves of chattel slavery—such nations as England, France, Holland, and even the Scandinavian states—became leaders during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in supporting plantation colonies based on African slave labor." He likens this divide to a primitive Mason-Dixon line, "drawn somewhere in the Atlantic, separating free soil master-states from tainted slave soil dependencies" (8).

This paradox illumines the unpredictability of events in the Americas. No European nation embarked on New World ventures with the intention of enslaving anyone. They had no blueprint but rather proceeded haphazardly and pragmatically. Their first resort was to forced Indian labor (the encomiendaCONVERSE RUN STAR X FAITH CONNEXION LOW TOP METALIC SILVER,

Consequently, Europeans faced a huge labor shortage. The Ottoman Turkish empire blocked access to Black Sea or Baltic captives. European nations no longer enslaved Christian prisoners of war. Some dreamers talked of enslaving the poor or other marginal groups, but the practical and principled problems of reviving European slavery were considerable. Another expedient was the transportation of convicts, but their numbers were never sufficient. Temporary bondage—indentured servitude—was the most obvious and most widely used other option, particularly in the early years, but servants, if they survived, eventually became free, and in any case most servants would not travel to the areas where most labor was needed. Thus, almost by default, African slaves proved by far the best available labor supply. Consequently, from 1500 to 1820 almost 9 million African slaves left for the New World, compared to less than 3 million whites. In terms of migration, the New World was more black than white (10).

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New World slavery's other most distinctive aspect was its highly commercial character. While it is true that plantations—that is, large agricultural enterprises, managed for profit, producing a crop for export, with a hierarchically stratified labor organization—existed outside the New World, they reached their apogee there. The economies of scale, the expansion in unit size, the almost exclusive use of black slaves, a highly regimented and commodified labor force, and a system of close management all raised profit levels significantly. Such a productive system placed enormous demands on its laborers. As early as the 1630s a visitor to a Jesuit-owned sugar plantation in Brazil vividly described the unbearable horror of what had transpired: "People the color of the very night, working briskly and moaning at the same time without a moment of peace or rest, whoever sees all the confused and noisy machinery and apparatus of this Babylon, even if they have seen Mt. Etna and Vesuvius will say that this indeed is the image of Hell" (13).

Patterns of New World Slavery

Variations over time and space existed within New World slavery. Three stand out. First, although all New World regions imported more African men than women (thereby in part explaining the harshness of New World slavery because of the policing problems associated with large gangs of men), over time the gender ratio among New World slaves became increasingly balanced. In that regard, the North American slave population is most notable, because, as its number of slave women increased the most rapidly, so it became one of the few self-reproducing slave populations in world history. This early and rapid natural increase explains why North America received such a small percentage of the overall transatlantic slave trade—about 5 percent. Second, North America was also distinctive in being much less tolerant of racial intermixture than Latin America or the Caribbean. Once again demography—particularly the ratio of white men to white women (more balanced in North America than in Latin America and the Caribbean) and the availability of black women—was a crucial part of the explanation, but also important were the role of the Church and cultural mores, based as much in Old World patterns of racial coexistence or segregation. The Spanish had mixed with Muslims for centuries; the English had created a Pale in their settlement of Ireland. Only in North America did the extremely arbitrary concept of "Negro"—denoting anyone with allegedly visible African ancestry—assume such a marked stigma. Third, the chances of gaining freedom varied from one society to the next. Except for the period surrounding the American Revolution, the North American colonies, and later the states, imposed the severest restrictions on the chances of a slave becoming free. Again, demography—the proportions of whites and blacks in the population—has some explanatory power as do economic and cultural forces (14).

North American slavery itself was hardly of a piece. The range encompasses New England's intimate "family slavery"; the Mid-Atlantic's mixed forms of slavery and servitude; the Chesapeake's patriarchal, small plantation, mixed farming and tobacco, heavily native-born form of slavery; and the low country's impersonal, large plantation, rice and indigo, more heavily African system of slavery. In addition, various borderland forms existed: from a fluid world of interracial alliances in the Lower Mississippi Valley to a flexible one of fugitives and ex-slaves in Spanish Florida to one in which Indian slaves were transformed from symbols of alliance into commodities of exchange in French Canada (15).

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  1. Jose Ever 4 in 1 Volumizing Hot Brusn,The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-bellum South (New York: Knopf, 1956).

  2. Ann Taylor Tweed Racer Stripe Blazer NWT,International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, ed. David L. Sills and Robert King Merton (New York: Macmillan, 1968), 14: 307-13; Finley, Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology, reprint (Hammondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980), 9, 96, 102, 111, 113-14; Keith Hopkins, Vlone pop smoke shirt,Emerald and silver drop earrings!,Vintage 50’s Handy Hannah Hair Dryer Model 995-C, 138 (1993): 3-27; Keith Bradley, Slavery and Society at RomeCOPY - Nike Pro with pockets,Nike release NWOB Adorable fun shoe!!!,Is a Jacaru hat,The Problem of Slavery in Western CultureAdidas Superstar Black Reflective Sneakers Men's 5 Women's 6 - NIB,Crocs Child Size 12 Girls Pink Mid Calf Suede Boots Tassels 203751 Lodgepoint,Run The World Goggle Captain Hat,

  3. Ralph A. Austen, "The Trans-Saharan Slave Trade: A Tentative Census," SHOW ME YOUR MUMU DRESS AVA MAXI STEEL BLUE CHIFFON DEEP V SIZE S,, ed. Henry A. Gemery and Jan S. Hogendorn (New York: Academic Press, 1979), 23-76; Austen, "The Mediterranean Islamic Slave Trade out of Africa: A Tentative Census," Entire lot of Harley Davidson collector men’s t’s xl,Adriana Papell Evening women 2 bandage beaded cocktail maxi dress elastic,Encyclopedia of Africa South of the SaharaISO: Huxbaby Metallic Burger Tee and Pants,International Journal of African Historical Studies 10 (1977): 443-61; Alexandre Popovic, The Revolt of African Slaves in Iraq in the IIIrd-IXth CenturyCeleste Cocktail Dress,Lucky Brand Navy Floral Square neck Top Large NWT,.75 CZ in 14k Pure Yellow Stud Earrings,Tiara (Pearls and Diamonds), (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998); Shaun E. Marmon, ed., Levis 550 Blue Jeans, (Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener, 1998); Minra Tora and John Edward Philips, eds., Slave Elites in the Middle East and Africa: A Comparative StudyBrown Brand New Male Leather Portfolio Bag.,The African Diaspora in the Mediterranean Lands of IslamNaked wardrobe bodysuit,Slavery on the Frontiers of IslamRae Dunn I believe in celebrating large canister,

  4. Suzanne Miers and Igor Kopytoff, eds., Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological PerspectivesNew Alice + Olivia Liv chevron jacquard dress blue black size 8,NWT RHONE Swift charcoal tee, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990); John Thornton, Vintage Suicidal Tendencies t-shirt,Jacket S 80s Goth Punk Party Glam Pinup Mod Career Retro Cocktail Event Chic,Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in AfricaWomen’s Vionic Tide II Flip Flops,

  5. Levi’s Women’s 501 Taper Distressed Button Fly 100% Cotton Jeans SZ 29,Archivum latinitatis medii aeviStella McCartney 56mm Clubmaster Sunglasses,L'Esclavage dans l'Europe médiévale, vol. 1, Pénisule Ibérique—France (Bruges: De Tempel, 1955); vol. 2, Italie, Colonies Italiennes du Levant, Levant Latin, Empire Bysantin (Ghent: 1977); and Verlinden, The Beginnings of Modern Colonization: Eleven Essays with an IntroductionSonoma Blue Jeans,Slavery and Society in Medieval ScandinaviaTymo Ring Plus Ionic Straightener,✅Girls Nike FREE 5.0 Running shoes size 6.5Y, (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 1995); Steven Epstein, Speaking of Slavery: Color, Ethnicity, and Human Bondage in Italy (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2001); and Sally McKee, "Inherited Status and Slavery in Late Medieval Italy and Venetian Crete," Dress The Population. Tabitha Sequin Mini Dress,Vintage Steve Madden Leopard Ponyhair Sneakers,

  6. Grateful dead 2x,START SHOPPING HUGE SALES & DEALS!, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982); Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440-1870 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997), 21-24, 48-86.

  7. Felipe Fernández-Armesto, Show Me Your Mumu Zurich Front Knot Gown Sm,Girl Gang Goggle Captain Hat,Philosophy multi color Amazon Rainforest abstract tunic top Sml/Medium,Kmil Panama Hat,Easy Spirit Womens Tabata 7 Blue Denim Slingback Sport Sandals Shoes NWT,Cowgirl Western Hat,NWOT H&M PLAID BLAZER, (San Francisco: Mellen Research University Press, 1992).

  8. Rag & bone jeans size 27,American Historical ReviewLululemon Navy Blue 4" Hotty Hot Shorts - Size 2,10k Gold Chain Drop Earrings, (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003), 14; Robert C. Davis, Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500-1800 (Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave MacMillan, 2003). For more on the development of freedom and slavery, see David Eltis, The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), and Sue Peabody, There Are No Slaves in France: The Political Culture of Race and Slavery in the Ancien RégimeNWOT Armani Collezioni Silk Blend Cream Blazer SZ8,

  9. Richard Ginori. Galli Rossi Sugar Bowl w Cover,The Early Spanish MainAlice And Olivia Women's Tiered Ruffle Mini Short Purple 100% Silk Dress Size S,NEW 925 Sterling Silver Zodiac Bracelet-Aquarius, (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1992); William L. Sherman, Forced Native Labor in Sixteenth-Century Central AmericaVintage 80’s Pendleton Gray Wool Military Blazer,BOLLÉ HELMET,Porsche Design Tecflex Tshirt In XXL For Men. Pls refer to measurements.,The Indian Slave Trade: The Rise of the English Empire in the American South, 1670-1717Calista TrianglPro Heated Detailer Brush,PSG Paris Saint-Germain Soccer / Futbol Shirt,, ed. Elizabeth Mancke and Carole Shammas (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005), 75-121. For a recent discussion of Indian population decline, see David S. Jones, "Virgin Soils Revisited," BALLY Leather briefcase,, 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 703-42.

  10. David Galenson, White Servitude in Colonial America: An Economic AnalysisPaige Brigitte Slim Boyfriend Jeans 30 Folk Distressed,EUC- Vintage Era Vans,NWT Wayf Jeanette Longline Blazer In Pink Pastel,William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 58 (January 2001): 17-46. Two good microhistories of the transatlantic slave trade are Robert Harms, Soft Surroundings Santorini gauze pullover meadow green XSP,Sunglasses by mark bose,The Two Princes of Calabar: An Eighteenth-Century Atlantic Odyssey (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004).

  11. David Eltis and William G. Clarence-Smith, "White Servitude," Anne Klein Pink Taffy Open Front Blazer Jacket NWT,T3 Featherweight Compact Folding Hair Dryer,Current Elliott The Boyfriend Stretch Shredded Jean SZ 28, (London: Longman, 1996); Stanley L. Engerman, ed., Terms of Labor: Slavery, Serfdom, and Free Labor (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1999); and Bush, Show Me Your Mumu Kendall Maxi Dress in Wedding Cake Women's Size S, (Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2000).

  12. Frank M. Snowden Jr., Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1970); Snowden, Ecco Sneakers sz 7,T3 Singlepass 1” Straightener,The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2004); Jean Devisse and Michel Mollat, eds., The Image of the Black in Western Art, vol. 2, # BURBERRY SUNGLASSES BE4243-36388H-55,Like New LBD Bridesmaid Dress,Images of the Medieval PeasantAPL leopard black and white color way,FENDI eyeglasses FF0348-0086-50,Vintage KAWS x UNIQLO Tee size XS,White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812Brand new Timberland sneakers,Race: The History of an Idea in the West (Washington, D.C.: The Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1996); the essays in "Constructing Race: Differentiating Peoples in the Early Modern World," William and Mary QuarterlyHarley Davidson Jacket size XS NEW,The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2003). The best account is David Brion Davis, "The Origins of Anti-Black Racism in the New World," chap. 3 in Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World SlaveryMission wool-blend hat (beanie),

  13. Alex Evenings Petite Rosette Lace Sequin Short Sleeve A-Line Gown 212788,The Kooples Lace Blazer Black Size Small, (New York: Norton, 1989); Schwartz, ed., DIOR SUNGLASSES DIOR-SOREALRISE-QUM-KU-58,, 3.

  14. Frank Tannenbaum, Slave and Citizen: The Negro in the AmericasLilly Pulitzer Tillsbury shift true navy xl dress nwt blue new gorgeous,Neither Black Nor White: Slavery and Race Relations in Brazil and the United States (New York: Macmillan, 1971).

  15. Clarks Leather Lightweight Lexi Marigold Sandals,Black Yankees: The Development of an Afro-American Subculture in Eighteenth-Century New England (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988); Graham Russell Hodges, Root and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1613-1863Pretty in a Minute 1 inch Flat Iron,Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and LowcountryTommy Jeans t-shirt for men,Soft Surroundings Sequin Eyelet Tunic Top,Lucy Choi Strappy SANDALS,Christian Siriano Fine Jewelry , still in box!,Kate spade plum Satchel Crossbody,William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 777-808. To this list might be added other forms of aboriginal slavery: see Theda Perdue, Vintage Paramount Carowinds Jean button up OFFER!, (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1979); William A. Starna and Ralph Watkins, "Northern Iroquoian Slavery," Infant 4c Jordan’s . Wore once . Good condition, 38 (Winter 1991): 34-57; and Leland Donald, Aboriginal Slavery on the Northwest Coast of North America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).

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Sources

  • LOVERS & FRIENDS women's 0 Leah gown light blue wrap maxi dress,The Making of New World Slavery: From the Baroque to the Modern, 1492-1800H Halston Womens Soula Beige Vegan Leather Thong Flatform Sandals Shoes NWT,
  • Ted lapidus designed jeans paris,Signature by Levi Strauss Men's Relaxed Fit 34x36,Tumi Arrive Kennedy deluxe briefcase,
  • Youth Sz 4 Red Orbit Nike Air Max Speed Turf,Unchained Voices: An Anthology of Black Authors in the English-Speaking World of the Eighteenth CenturyL.L. Bean Insulated Waterproof lace up Snow/Rain boots size 5 (Big Kids),
  • NIKE LIVESTRONG logo black fitness shorts,Children of God's Fire: A Documentary History of Black Slavery in BrazilNEW Rare Women’s Nike Shoes Size 6.5 Presto Korea,
  • Davis, David Brion. Zara 1975 Distressed Boyfriend Jean SZ 4,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003. The first short essay in the volume is a superb introduction to the origins of New World slavery, but it should be complemented by a number of other books by this great historian of New World slavery. I particularly recommend his Free People Harvest Moon Felt Hat,Polo Ralph Lauren Linen Button Down,
  • Davis, Robert C. Merrell Hiking Shoes Chameleon Low Lace Leather Mesh Pink | Youth 2M Pre-owned,Frame Classic Black Single Button Velveteen Blazer Front Pockets Fully Lined,
  • Natural Marble & Granite Cutting/Charcuterie Boards. Perfect for all gatherings,A Historical Guide to World Slavery. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. A useful reference work that covers most regions where slavery was important, together with topical examinations of the subject.
  • Lucky Brand Sienna Cigarette Dark Blue Jeans Size 26,The Rise of African Slavery in the AmericasAuthentic Louis Vuitton Serviette Briefcase / Belt,
  • Lululemon size 4 scuba full zip hoodie — great condition hardly worn,Men’s Michael Kors leather watch,Cute vintage hat,
  • Hamburger/fries plates,Macmillan Encyclopedia of World SlaveryNike Dri Fit Shorts size small,
  • Finley, M. I. 90s Malibu Yellow T Shirt,. Reprint. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980. An exploration of the emergence, functioning, and decline of the slave societies of classical Greece and classical Italy, with comparisons to New World slavery, by the greatest historian of ancient slavery.
  • Fredrickson, George M. Racism: A Short HistoryVintage y2k Distressed Mecca Workwear Jeans,
  • Billionaire Boys Club - Gold Accent Tee,Soft Surroundings Standout Striped Black and White Sharkbite Hem Tunic Top S. Contains about 1,000 pictorial images of slavery in Africa and the Americas, arranged thematically.
  • Andre Barreau vintage women’s Black blazer, Size 8,NWT Rag And Bones Fit 3 Beach Plaid M,. New York: Hill and Wang, 1993. A good general account by a historian alert to comparative history.
  • Converse Chuck Taylor All Star Floral,Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. A good survey of slavery and the evolution of racial prejudice in the Islamic world.
  • Miers, Suzanne, and Igor Kopytoff, eds. Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977. The long introduction on slavery as an "institution of marginality" is a classic, and many of the individual essays on particular regions and groups are stimulating.
  • Miller, Joseph. C., ed. Slavery and Slaving in World History: A Bibliography, 1900-1996. 2 vols. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1999. The most comprehensive work of its kind. Annual updates are available in the journal ADIDAS LIMITED EDITION STAN SMITH W S75138,. The entire bibliography is being prepared for Internet access as a searchable database by the Virginia Center for Digital History at the University of Virginia.
  • Morgan, Philip D. "African Americans." In A Companion to Colonial AmericaLovers + Friends Vision bodysuit, snap front, L,
  • Patterson, Orlando. The Ultimate Cardinal Collector's Collection,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982. The best general survey of slave systems in 66 societies, written by a sociologist.
  • Jerome Lemars Men’s Watch,Woolrich John Rich & Bros Mens Button Shirt Indigo,. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1985. A useful account that focuses on slavery in medieval Europe, the world of Islam, and the rise of the Atlantic slave system.
  • Thornton, John. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1800Supreme You Still Suck 2016 tee,

Philip D. Morgan is the Sydney and Ruth Lapidus Professor in the American Revolutionary Era at Princeton University. He is the author of Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998) and coeditor (with Sean Hawkins) of Black Experience and the Empire: The Oxford History of the British Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004). He would like to acknowledge in particular the assistance of David Brion Davis, who generously sent him two early chapters from his forthcoming manuscript, "Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World Slavery."

Authored by

  • Philip D. Morgan
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    Princeton, New Jersey