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Africa and the Slave Trade

Arabs and their Muslim allies were the first to make use of large numbers of sub-Saharan black Africans. They developed a long-distance slave trade, which began in the seventh century and lasted into the twentieth. It delivered many millions of Africans across the Sahara Desert, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean to North Africa, the Mediterranean, and Persian Gulf. Although over a much longer period of time and comprising far more females, the number of Africans exported via these trans-Saharan or Indian Ocean slave trades probably equaled, or even outmatched, those of its transatlantic counterpart. The preexistence of these export trades facilitated Atlantic trade: systems of slave marketing were already in place. So numerous were black Africans at certain times and in certain places that they were able to launch massive slave revolts—in 869, for instance, in what is now southern Iraq, where the so-called Zanj (who came from the Swahili Coast and lands further north) worked in large gangs draining marshlands. While the Quran and Islamic law were essentially color-blind and while Muslims enslaved many so-called "white" people, medieval Arabs came to associate the most degrading forms of labor with black slaves. The Arabic word for slave, Nike Air Waterproof Boots,Levi’s Original Trucker Jacket (small),

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The Atlantic Slave System

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As slavery underwent a resurgence in southern Europe, it gradually disappeared from the northwestern part of the continent. Economic changes help to explain this development, but perhaps more important were cultural constraints. Over the course of the Middle Ages, Christians always committed awful atrocities on each other, but increasingly they avoided enslaving one another. Apparently, a sense of unity had emerged in Christian Europe that effectively barred the enslavement of those deemed fellow Europeans. Christianity's long struggle with Islam no doubt played a major role in this development. That from 1500 to 1800 Muslims enslaved well over a million Western Europeans, many of whom were subsequently ransomed and celebrated as symbols of freedom, was a major element in the growing sense that Europeans should never be slaves. Nevertheless, these so-called free labor nations would develop some of the harshest slave regimes in the Americas. As David Brion Davis puts it, "it is an astonishing paradox that the first nations in the world to free themselves of chattel slavery—such nations as England, France, Holland, and even the Scandinavian states—became leaders during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in supporting plantation colonies based on African slave labor." He likens this divide to a primitive Mason-Dixon line, "drawn somewhere in the Atlantic, separating free soil master-states from tainted slave soil dependencies" (8).

This paradox illumines the unpredictability of events in the Americas. No European nation embarked on New World ventures with the intention of enslaving anyone. They had no blueprint but rather proceeded haphazardly and pragmatically. Their first resort was to forced Indian labor (the encomiendaMikoh - Animal Print Bikini Set,

Consequently, Europeans faced a huge labor shortage. The Ottoman Turkish empire blocked access to Black Sea or Baltic captives. European nations no longer enslaved Christian prisoners of war. Some dreamers talked of enslaving the poor or other marginal groups, but the practical and principled problems of reviving European slavery were considerable. Another expedient was the transportation of convicts, but their numbers were never sufficient. Temporary bondage—indentured servitude—was the most obvious and most widely used other option, particularly in the early years, but servants, if they survived, eventually became free, and in any case most servants would not travel to the areas where most labor was needed. Thus, almost by default, African slaves proved by far the best available labor supply. Consequently, from 1500 to 1820 almost 9 million African slaves left for the New World, compared to less than 3 million whites. In terms of migration, the New World was more black than white (10).

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New World slavery's other most distinctive aspect was its highly commercial character. While it is true that plantations—that is, large agricultural enterprises, managed for profit, producing a crop for export, with a hierarchically stratified labor organization—existed outside the New World, they reached their apogee there. The economies of scale, the expansion in unit size, the almost exclusive use of black slaves, a highly regimented and commodified labor force, and a system of close management all raised profit levels significantly. Such a productive system placed enormous demands on its laborers. As early as the 1630s a visitor to a Jesuit-owned sugar plantation in Brazil vividly described the unbearable horror of what had transpired: "People the color of the very night, working briskly and moaning at the same time without a moment of peace or rest, whoever sees all the confused and noisy machinery and apparatus of this Babylon, even if they have seen Mt. Etna and Vesuvius will say that this indeed is the image of Hell" (13).

Patterns of New World Slavery

Variations over time and space existed within New World slavery. Three stand out. First, although all New World regions imported more African men than women (thereby in part explaining the harshness of New World slavery because of the policing problems associated with large gangs of men), over time the gender ratio among New World slaves became increasingly balanced. In that regard, the North American slave population is most notable, because, as its number of slave women increased the most rapidly, so it became one of the few self-reproducing slave populations in world history. This early and rapid natural increase explains why North America received such a small percentage of the overall transatlantic slave trade—about 5 percent. Second, North America was also distinctive in being much less tolerant of racial intermixture than Latin America or the Caribbean. Once again demography—particularly the ratio of white men to white women (more balanced in North America than in Latin America and the Caribbean) and the availability of black women—was a crucial part of the explanation, but also important were the role of the Church and cultural mores, based as much in Old World patterns of racial coexistence or segregation. The Spanish had mixed with Muslims for centuries; the English had created a Pale in their settlement of Ireland. Only in North America did the extremely arbitrary concept of "Negro"—denoting anyone with allegedly visible African ancestry—assume such a marked stigma. Third, the chances of gaining freedom varied from one society to the next. Except for the period surrounding the American Revolution, the North American colonies, and later the states, imposed the severest restrictions on the chances of a slave becoming free. Again, demography—the proportions of whites and blacks in the population—has some explanatory power as do economic and cultural forces (14).

North American slavery itself was hardly of a piece. The range encompasses New England's intimate "family slavery"; the Mid-Atlantic's mixed forms of slavery and servitude; the Chesapeake's patriarchal, small plantation, mixed farming and tobacco, heavily native-born form of slavery; and the low country's impersonal, large plantation, rice and indigo, more heavily African system of slavery. In addition, various borderland forms existed: from a fluid world of interracial alliances in the Lower Mississippi Valley to a flexible one of fugitives and ex-slaves in Spanish Florida to one in which Indian slaves were transformed from symbols of alliance into commodities of exchange in French Canada (15).

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  1. Nwt knotted twist tan nude Farfetch Westerly bikini XS,The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-bellum South (New York: Knopf, 1956).

  2. The Game Vtg Florida State Seminoles Zip Up Parka,International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, ed. David L. Sills and Robert King Merton (New York: Macmillan, 1968), 14: 307-13; Finley, Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology, reprint (Hammondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980), 9, 96, 102, 111, 113-14; Keith Hopkins, Johnnie-o shorts,Heart Button Shoulder Lace Bralette,TOD's Leather Loafer, 138 (1993): 3-27; Keith Bradley, Slavery and Society at RomeKeyhole Back Lace Bralette,Polo Ralph Lauren Men's Windbreaker Jacket,Well Worn Flats Birdies “The Starling” Black Velvet (vegan) Women's Flat sz 7,The Problem of Slavery in Western CultureBeautiful formal blue and white dress,Brand New With Tags Vineyard Vines Long Sleeve Shirt,EUC BCBG Maxaria cocktail dress,

  3. Ralph A. Austen, "The Trans-Saharan Slave Trade: A Tentative Census," NWT Calvin Klein Windbreaker Jacket New With Tags,, ed. Henry A. Gemery and Jan S. Hogendorn (New York: Academic Press, 1979), 23-76; Austen, "The Mediterranean Islamic Slave Trade out of Africa: A Tentative Census," Rl cute little heels,Ralph Lauren Short Set,Encyclopedia of Africa South of the SaharaRAFA AVOCADO SWIM SHORTS XL,International Journal of African Historical Studies 10 (1977): 443-61; Alexandre Popovic, The Revolt of African Slaves in Iraq in the IIIrd-IXth CenturyBrand New Women’s Tomberlands,Black Co Ord Gingham Bandeau Top and Shorts - Small,MIMI brand MILK WHITE TOP %100 cotton/waterproof black skirt,Athleta one piece swimsuit high neck XS 32B/C, (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998); Shaun E. Marmon, ed., NWT. Mens. Ten thousand foundation short. No liner. 7” inseam. In black., (Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener, 1998); Minra Tora and John Edward Philips, eds., Slave Elites in the Middle East and Africa: A Comparative StudyLarge Tan and Red STL Cardinals Heavy Windbreaker,The African Diaspora in the Mediterranean Lands of IslamGorgeous Authentic Valentino Dress! ❤️,Slavery on the Frontiers of IslamMulti color Sapphire ring,

  4. Suzanne Miers and Igor Kopytoff, eds., Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological PerspectivesSize 9 Black Cole Haan Suede Mules,Anthropologie Eberjey Gisele Pajama Set Size Medium - New with Tag, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990); John Thornton, Vintage high football jacket,OFF THE SHOULDER PARTY PROM LONG DRESS AC824 AQUA,Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in AfricaLouis Vuitton Bandeaus,

  5. R&J Couture Bell Sleeve Denim Jacket NWT,Archivum latinitatis medii aevi100% authentic Chanel scarf,L'Esclavage dans l'Europe médiévale, vol. 1, Pénisule Ibérique—France (Bruges: De Tempel, 1955); vol. 2, Italie, Colonies Italiennes du Levant, Levant Latin, Empire Bysantin (Ghent: 1977); and Verlinden, The Beginnings of Modern Colonization: Eleven Essays with an IntroductionCinderella Divine BD109 Off-Shoulder Wrapped Bodice Mauve Evening Gown Size S,Slavery and Society in Medieval ScandinaviaMake me an offer, don’t be offended if countered.,Charles Klein black leather jacket size S, (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 1995); Steven Epstein, Speaking of Slavery: Color, Ethnicity, and Human Bondage in Italy (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2001); and Sally McKee, "Inherited Status and Slavery in Late Medieval Italy and Venetian Crete," Vintage Roebuck denim trucker jacket,For Love & Lemons Mon Cheri Ruffle Cherry Bikini,

  6. Bebe One Piece Swim Suit,Sorel waterproof fur boots, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982); Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440-1870 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997), 21-24, 48-86.

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  8. NEW Burberry Buckle Quilted Leather Flats,American Historical ReviewHugo Boss Running Shorts,Martha Stewart Christmas Tree Skirt Burlap Mini Tree Skirt, (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003), 14; Robert C. Davis, Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500-1800 (Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave MacMillan, 2003). For more on the development of freedom and slavery, see David Eltis, The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), and Sue Peabody, There Are No Slaves in France: The Political Culture of Race and Slavery in the Ancien RégimeHigh Waisted Tie Front Cutout One Piece Swimsuit,

  9. LAST ONE!! SKIMS Cotton Rib leggings,The Early Spanish MainKut from the Kloth Jeans dark wash boyfriend cut 24W NWOT factory distressed,Leather Ugg clog boots, (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1992); William L. Sherman, Forced Native Labor in Sixteenth-Century Central AmericaJordan Retro 4’s Green Glow in EUC,Donni Navy Terry Bralette and Shorts Set,Hurley: Distressed Skinny Jean,The Indian Slave Trade: The Rise of the English Empire in the American South, 1670-1717Dolce & Gabbana Men's Beige 100% Wool Distressed Look V-Neck Vest,NWT Zara Oversized Blazer,, ed. Elizabeth Mancke and Carole Shammas (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005), 75-121. For a recent discussion of Indian population decline, see David S. Jones, "Virgin Soils Revisited," Dooney&Bourke tan leather trim pink monogram canvas tote + matching wallet,, 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 703-42.

  10. David Galenson, White Servitude in Colonial America: An Economic AnalysisNew England Revolution MLS Adidas Aeroready Authentic Soccer Shorts Size M NEW,BURBERRY Heritage Half Mega Check Cashmere Scarf,7For All Mankind Animal Print Black Skinny Jeans,William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 58 (January 2001): 17-46. Two good microhistories of the transatlantic slave trade are Robert Harms, Two Piece Mini Prom Homecoming Dress Beaded Taffeta Formal Evening Gown,Say yes to the prom 2 piece formal,The Two Princes of Calabar: An Eighteenth-Century Atlantic Odyssey (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004).

  11. David Eltis and William G. Clarence-Smith, "White Servitude," NWT. Zara Quilted Flat Knee-High Quilted Puffer Boots,Sorel black mid calf boots,Noiri Silk Pajama Top in Poppy. Brand new w/tags. So Small, (London: Longman, 1996); Stanley L. Engerman, ed., Terms of Labor: Slavery, Serfdom, and Free Labor (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1999); and Bush, BEAUTIFUL VINTAGE 14K white GOLD.1CT Diamond ring, (Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2000).

  12. Frank M. Snowden Jr., Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1970); Snowden, Jcrew downtown field jacket size S,Olivia* High Waist Stripe Tie Knot Swimsuit,The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2004); Jean Devisse and Michel Mollat, eds., The Image of the Black in Western Art, vol. 2, ISO Reformation Juliette dress size 2,Men Adidas sweat shorts size XL with tags,Images of the Medieval PeasantUgg boots Unlined Ugg Boots Size 5 Sand Floral Ugg,Vintage Tiffany Evening Gown/Prom Dress Size 10,700 yeezy authentic! SOLDDDDD,White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812Used once or twice in very good condition no damage smoke free home.,Race: The History of an Idea in the West (Washington, D.C.: The Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1996); the essays in "Constructing Race: Differentiating Peoples in the Early Modern World," William and Mary QuarterlyBrown New Balance Windbreaker Jacket Zip Up,The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2003). The best account is David Brion Davis, "The Origins of Anti-Black Racism in the New World," chap. 3 in Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World SlaveryLulu’s prom dress, women’s size xs,

  13. AG The Tomboy Crop Relaxed Straight Jeans,white rewind brand jeans size 13., (New York: Norton, 1989); Schwartz, ed., Vintage East West Acid Wash Denim Fringe Jacket,, 3.

  14. Frank Tannenbaum, Slave and Citizen: The Negro in the AmericasAdidas Insley Jacket - Active,Neither Black Nor White: Slavery and Race Relations in Brazil and the United States (New York: Macmillan, 1971).

  15. Victoria’s Secret Bikini Peach Orange Halter LONG FRING Macramé Boho Swirl S,Black Yankees: The Development of an Afro-American Subculture in Eighteenth-Century New England (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988); Graham Russell Hodges, Root and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1613-1863Saddle Ring - Size 10 1/2,Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and LowcountryHigh Neck Racerback Lace Bralette,Nike Windbreaker Yellow Size Medium,{ Tory Burch } Minnie Ballet Multi Logo Tan Flats,Ferragamo silk men’s vest,Fiesta Formals Prom Dress,William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 777-808. To this list might be added other forms of aboriginal slavery: see Theda Perdue, Beautiful prom dress with open back, (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1979); William A. Starna and Ralph Watkins, "Northern Iroquoian Slavery," Microsuede Winter Boots NEW, 38 (Winter 1991): 34-57; and Leland Donald, Aboriginal Slavery on the Northwest Coast of North America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).

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Sources

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  • Davis, David Brion. NWT Prada Pleated Silk-Georgette Midi Dress,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003. The first short essay in the volume is a superb introduction to the origins of New World slavery, but it should be complemented by a number of other books by this great historian of New World slavery. I particularly recommend his Mens ETRO Wool and silk Vest,VTG Volkswagen Car Model T-shirt Mens XL Crew Neck Short Sleeve,
  • Davis, Robert C. Minkpink Free People Mowgli high cut V bikini S,LE CHATEAU: Men’s Vest,
  • Victoria’s Secret Bikini LONG FRINGE Paisley Macramé Crochet Ruched Itsy M/S,A Historical Guide to World Slavery. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. A useful reference work that covers most regions where slavery was important, together with topical examinations of the subject.
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  • Finley, M. I. LONGCHAMP,. Reprint. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980. An exploration of the emergence, functioning, and decline of the slave societies of classical Greece and classical Italy, with comparisons to New World slavery, by the greatest historian of ancient slavery.
  • Fredrickson, George M. Racism: A Short HistoryPrivate Party Pink Metallic Birthday Suit,
  • 10K white gold and diamond cast ring Retail 35,Missoni Zigzag Green Dress. Contains about 1,000 pictorial images of slavery in Africa and the Americas, arranged thematically.
  • Jordan 5 "Valentines Day",Miss Me Distressed Boyfriend Ankle Jeans,. New York: Hill and Wang, 1993. A good general account by a historian alert to comparative history.
  • Victoria's Secret bra NWT,Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. A good survey of slavery and the evolution of racial prejudice in the Islamic world.
  • Miers, Suzanne, and Igor Kopytoff, eds. Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977. The long introduction on slavery as an "institution of marginality" is a classic, and many of the individual essays on particular regions and groups are stimulating.
  • Miller, Joseph. C., ed. Slavery and Slaving in World History: A Bibliography, 1900-1996. 2 vols. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1999. The most comprehensive work of its kind. Annual updates are available in the journal Valentino Black Garavani Leather Ankle Wrap Ballerina Gladiator Flats,. The entire bibliography is being prepared for Internet access as a searchable database by the Virginia Center for Digital History at the University of Virginia.
  • Morgan, Philip D. "African Americans." In A Companion to Colonial AmericaMarc Fisher Fragni Snakeskin Emossed Mule,
  • Patterson, Orlando. Men’s gray TrueRock Sweatpants,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982. The best general survey of slave systems in 66 societies, written by a sociologist.
  • Anthropologie Corinne Lent Tigress Flannel Pajama Set Size M - New with Tags,DRAPER JAMES STRAW BAG BRAND NEW WITH TAGS,. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1985. A useful account that focuses on slavery in medieval Europe, the world of Islam, and the rise of the Atlantic slave system.
  • Thornton, John. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1800Sleepy Jones Marina pajama set for Intimately Free People NWT size S,

Philip D. Morgan is the Sydney and Ruth Lapidus Professor in the American Revolutionary Era at Princeton University. He is the author of Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998) and coeditor (with Sean Hawkins) of Black Experience and the Empire: The Oxford History of the British Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004). He would like to acknowledge in particular the assistance of David Brion Davis, who generously sent him two early chapters from his forthcoming manuscript, "Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World Slavery."

Authored by

  • Philip D. Morgan
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    Princeton, New Jersey