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Africa and the Slave Trade

Arabs and their Muslim allies were the first to make use of large numbers of sub-Saharan black Africans. They developed a long-distance slave trade, which began in the seventh century and lasted into the twentieth. It delivered many millions of Africans across the Sahara Desert, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean to North Africa, the Mediterranean, and Persian Gulf. Although over a much longer period of time and comprising far more females, the number of Africans exported via these trans-Saharan or Indian Ocean slave trades probably equaled, or even outmatched, those of its transatlantic counterpart. The preexistence of these export trades facilitated Atlantic trade: systems of slave marketing were already in place. So numerous were black Africans at certain times and in certain places that they were able to launch massive slave revolts—in 869, for instance, in what is now southern Iraq, where the so-called Zanj (who came from the Swahili Coast and lands further north) worked in large gangs draining marshlands. While the Quran and Islamic law were essentially color-blind and while Muslims enslaved many so-called "white" people, medieval Arabs came to associate the most degrading forms of labor with black slaves. The Arabic word for slave, Bardot tan BRONTE front split pencil skirt 10/L,Girls sperry top-sider shoes,

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The Atlantic Slave System

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As slavery underwent a resurgence in southern Europe, it gradually disappeared from the northwestern part of the continent. Economic changes help to explain this development, but perhaps more important were cultural constraints. Over the course of the Middle Ages, Christians always committed awful atrocities on each other, but increasingly they avoided enslaving one another. Apparently, a sense of unity had emerged in Christian Europe that effectively barred the enslavement of those deemed fellow Europeans. Christianity's long struggle with Islam no doubt played a major role in this development. That from 1500 to 1800 Muslims enslaved well over a million Western Europeans, many of whom were subsequently ransomed and celebrated as symbols of freedom, was a major element in the growing sense that Europeans should never be slaves. Nevertheless, these so-called free labor nations would develop some of the harshest slave regimes in the Americas. As David Brion Davis puts it, "it is an astonishing paradox that the first nations in the world to free themselves of chattel slavery—such nations as England, France, Holland, and even the Scandinavian states—became leaders during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in supporting plantation colonies based on African slave labor." He likens this divide to a primitive Mason-Dixon line, "drawn somewhere in the Atlantic, separating free soil master-states from tainted slave soil dependencies" (8).

This paradox illumines the unpredictability of events in the Americas. No European nation embarked on New World ventures with the intention of enslaving anyone. They had no blueprint but rather proceeded haphazardly and pragmatically. Their first resort was to forced Indian labor (the encomiendaVINCE. Light Cream Cargo Style Ankle Trousers 100% Lyocell,

Consequently, Europeans faced a huge labor shortage. The Ottoman Turkish empire blocked access to Black Sea or Baltic captives. European nations no longer enslaved Christian prisoners of war. Some dreamers talked of enslaving the poor or other marginal groups, but the practical and principled problems of reviving European slavery were considerable. Another expedient was the transportation of convicts, but their numbers were never sufficient. Temporary bondage—indentured servitude—was the most obvious and most widely used other option, particularly in the early years, but servants, if they survived, eventually became free, and in any case most servants would not travel to the areas where most labor was needed. Thus, almost by default, African slaves proved by far the best available labor supply. Consequently, from 1500 to 1820 almost 9 million African slaves left for the New World, compared to less than 3 million whites. In terms of migration, the New World was more black than white (10).

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New World slavery's other most distinctive aspect was its highly commercial character. While it is true that plantations—that is, large agricultural enterprises, managed for profit, producing a crop for export, with a hierarchically stratified labor organization—existed outside the New World, they reached their apogee there. The economies of scale, the expansion in unit size, the almost exclusive use of black slaves, a highly regimented and commodified labor force, and a system of close management all raised profit levels significantly. Such a productive system placed enormous demands on its laborers. As early as the 1630s a visitor to a Jesuit-owned sugar plantation in Brazil vividly described the unbearable horror of what had transpired: "People the color of the very night, working briskly and moaning at the same time without a moment of peace or rest, whoever sees all the confused and noisy machinery and apparatus of this Babylon, even if they have seen Mt. Etna and Vesuvius will say that this indeed is the image of Hell" (13).

Patterns of New World Slavery

Variations over time and space existed within New World slavery. Three stand out. First, although all New World regions imported more African men than women (thereby in part explaining the harshness of New World slavery because of the policing problems associated with large gangs of men), over time the gender ratio among New World slaves became increasingly balanced. In that regard, the North American slave population is most notable, because, as its number of slave women increased the most rapidly, so it became one of the few self-reproducing slave populations in world history. This early and rapid natural increase explains why North America received such a small percentage of the overall transatlantic slave trade—about 5 percent. Second, North America was also distinctive in being much less tolerant of racial intermixture than Latin America or the Caribbean. Once again demography—particularly the ratio of white men to white women (more balanced in North America than in Latin America and the Caribbean) and the availability of black women—was a crucial part of the explanation, but also important were the role of the Church and cultural mores, based as much in Old World patterns of racial coexistence or segregation. The Spanish had mixed with Muslims for centuries; the English had created a Pale in their settlement of Ireland. Only in North America did the extremely arbitrary concept of "Negro"—denoting anyone with allegedly visible African ancestry—assume such a marked stigma. Third, the chances of gaining freedom varied from one society to the next. Except for the period surrounding the American Revolution, the North American colonies, and later the states, imposed the severest restrictions on the chances of a slave becoming free. Again, demography—the proportions of whites and blacks in the population—has some explanatory power as do economic and cultural forces (14).

North American slavery itself was hardly of a piece. The range encompasses New England's intimate "family slavery"; the Mid-Atlantic's mixed forms of slavery and servitude; the Chesapeake's patriarchal, small plantation, mixed farming and tobacco, heavily native-born form of slavery; and the low country's impersonal, large plantation, rice and indigo, more heavily African system of slavery. In addition, various borderland forms existed: from a fluid world of interracial alliances in the Lower Mississippi Valley to a flexible one of fugitives and ex-slaves in Spanish Florida to one in which Indian slaves were transformed from symbols of alliance into commodities of exchange in French Canada (15).

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  1. Chico's Caba Slim Leg Dress Pants Sz 0.5/S/6 Short,The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-bellum South (New York: Knopf, 1956).

  2. Kate Spade Cuff bracelet,International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, ed. David L. Sills and Robert King Merton (New York: Macmillan, 1968), 14: 307-13; Finley, Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology, reprint (Hammondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980), 9, 96, 102, 111, 113-14; Keith Hopkins, Knix cozzzy crew sweater,This is and hand made body suit for baby girl. Very cute and comfortable.,NWT See by Chloe ruffled georgette mini dress, 138 (1993): 3-27; Keith Bradley, Slavery and Society at RomeEUC Royal Haeger Leaf Console Bowl,J. Crew Wool Blue Cafe Capri Pant Size 0,Ernestine Salerno Italy Art Pottery Whale/Fish.,The Problem of Slavery in Western CultureLike New Tory Burch Metallic Tote!!!,NEW Banana Republic Sloan Fit Navy Pants,Name brand clothing,

  3. Ralph A. Austen, "The Trans-Saharan Slave Trade: A Tentative Census," Saint blazer dress. House of CB best seller. In original box. Ready to ship,, ed. Henry A. Gemery and Jan S. Hogendorn (New York: Academic Press, 1979), 23-76; Austen, "The Mediterranean Islamic Slave Trade out of Africa: A Tentative Census," Tory Burch Navy Blue Tweed Pencil Skirt With Metallic Threading,Gap Cargo Jogger w/ Gapflex,Encyclopedia of Africa South of the SaharaBlack Minnetonka boots,International Journal of African Historical Studies 10 (1977): 443-61; Alexandre Popovic, The Revolt of African Slaves in Iraq in the IIIrd-IXth CenturyVintage LUSTER China Roses pink Green Set 2 Candlestick Holders 40s 50s,0-3 baby boy clothes,freshly picked mini sole,Carhartt Distressed cargo pants men’s 36x32, (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998); Shaun E. Marmon, ed., Lulu Avenue Bracelets 3 total New, (Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener, 1998); Minra Tora and John Edward Philips, eds., Slave Elites in the Middle East and Africa: A Comparative StudyWool Ann Taylor Loft Herringbone Teal Skirt Sz 16,The African Diaspora in the Mediterranean Lands of IslamAuthentic MCM BAG NO PUCH INCLUDING,Slavery on the Frontiers of IslamHand Knit Boho Shrug OOAK Recycled Japanese Noro Yarn,

  4. Suzanne Miers and Igor Kopytoff, eds., Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological PerspectivesLali + Layla Mermaid Bikini Set,BCBGMAXAZRIA METALLIC PENCIL BANDAGE SKIRT SZXS, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990); John Thornton, Marc by Marc Jacobs Candy turnlock bracelet,Kuhl Carpenter Pants Ribbed Khaki Tan Pants 38x30,Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in AfricaWoman Sand Castle S/P 2pc Swimwear Bikini Top & Bottom Blue/Pink w/pads NWT,

  5. New NOGU Supreme Kismet Links Bracelet,Archivum latinitatis medii aeviZADIG & VOLTAIRE FUTURE SNEAKERS,L'Esclavage dans l'Europe médiévale, vol. 1, Pénisule Ibérique—France (Bruges: De Tempel, 1955); vol. 2, Italie, Colonies Italiennes du Levant, Levant Latin, Empire Bysantin (Ghent: 1977); and Verlinden, The Beginnings of Modern Colonization: Eleven Essays with an IntroductionGold Link & Faux Tortiseshell Chain Link Bracelet,Slavery and Society in Medieval ScandinaviaMen’s (or women’s) zipper sweater,Patagonia cropped pants for women, (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 1995); Steven Epstein, Speaking of Slavery: Color, Ethnicity, and Human Bondage in Italy (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2001); and Sally McKee, "Inherited Status and Slavery in Late Medieval Italy and Venetian Crete," Ripzone Core Black Pants Cargo Snow Snowboarding Skiing Waterproof Men Size M Z,Dickies Men's Regular Straight Stretch Twill Cargo -,

  6. Michael Kors Sandrine Luggage Tote,Rhythm white bikini, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982); Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440-1870 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997), 21-24, 48-86.

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  8. Girls boat shoes by Reel legends,American Historical ReviewGothic London Pottery Coffee Pot with Griffin Head Spout,Alex and Ani Dumbo Bracelet, (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003), 14; Robert C. Davis, Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500-1800 (Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave MacMillan, 2003). For more on the development of freedom and slavery, see David Eltis, The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), and Sue Peabody, There Are No Slaves in France: The Political Culture of Race and Slavery in the Ancien RégimeBurberry children’s one piece size 6mo gray,

  9. Boy’s moccasins,The Early Spanish MainGirls Cienta espadrilles,Minnetonka Girls 3 Layer Fringe Boot, (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1992); William L. Sherman, Forced Native Labor in Sixteenth-Century Central AmericaBetsey Johnson faux fur pink horse show diamond,Baby girls onesie,John Galt Blue Checkered Trouser Crop Pants,The Indian Slave Trade: The Rise of the English Empire in the American South, 1670-1717*HP⭐️*NWT Columbia Silver Ridge Cargo Shorts,44,Neher Art Pottery Left Hand Warmer Mug Cup Blue,, ed. Elizabeth Mancke and Carole Shammas (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005), 75-121. For a recent discussion of Indian population decline, see David S. Jones, "Virgin Soils Revisited," Talbots overlay lace pencil skirt 16,, 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 703-42.

  10. David Galenson, White Servitude in Colonial America: An Economic AnalysisJORDAN 6 RINGS GYM RED/BLACK-WHITE,Roller rabbit pink hathi onesie with receiving blanket set,Rip curl bathing suit,William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 58 (January 2001): 17-46. Two good microhistories of the transatlantic slave trade are Robert Harms, SHOW ME YOUR MUMU Jolie Rustic Mauve Shift Dress M,Multi size posh peanut Mara romper,The Two Princes of Calabar: An Eighteenth-Century Atlantic Odyssey (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004).

  11. David Eltis and William G. Clarence-Smith, "White Servitude," Lucky Brand Bikini Bottom Blue Green Tie Dye S New,True Religion Men's Ss Palm Tree Photo Print Tee in Black,Kloud9 Jean jacket, (London: Longman, 1996); Stanley L. Engerman, ed., Terms of Labor: Slavery, Serfdom, and Free Labor (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1999); and Bush, Brighton bead and silver bracelet. Colorful. Length 7.5, (Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2000).

  12. Frank M. Snowden Jr., Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1970); Snowden, Freshly Picked Slate Moccasins - Size 3,Triangl Kate Marina Sparkle Bikini,The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2004); Jean Devisse and Michel Mollat, eds., The Image of the Black in Western Art, vol. 2, Men’s XL Grey jacket,TALBOTS WOMAN ankle pants 24W,Images of the Medieval PeasantPosh peanut James Henley romper,Issa de’ Mar Bikini Set,5.11 Tactical Men's 40x30 Beige Long Cargo Pants Ripstop Hiking Camping,White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-18123.1 Phillip Lim 31 hour satchel medium BNWOT,Race: The History of an Idea in the West (Washington, D.C.: The Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1996); the essays in "Constructing Race: Differentiating Peoples in the Early Modern World," William and Mary QuarterlyJ CREW | Tassel Bracelet,The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2003). The best account is David Brion Davis, "The Origins of Anti-Black Racism in the New World," chap. 3 in Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World SlaveryJ. Crew Remi Trouser Pants in Gingham Print with Ankle Buttons,

  13. Tory Burch Robinson Triangle Tote in Night Sky,Posh peanut Mateo romper, (New York: Norton, 1989); Schwartz, ed., Woman’s Nike Air Max 97,, 3.

  14. Frank Tannenbaum, Slave and Citizen: The Negro in the AmericasTalavera Mexican Ceramic Bowls Floral Colorful Folk Art Signed T Ruth Pottery,Neither Black Nor White: Slavery and Race Relations in Brazil and the United States (New York: Macmillan, 1971).

  15. Columbia Mens Omni-Shade Long Sleeve Button Down Fishing Hiking Shirt Size Large,Black Yankees: The Development of an Afro-American Subculture in Eighteenth-Century New England (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988); Graham Russell Hodges, Root and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1613-1863Brighton silver hinged bracelet,Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountryvintage rhinestone stretch bracelet NWT,Authentic Luis Vuitton tote back 100%,Toddler hard sole moccasins,3 pair khaki Wrangler cargo pants relaxed fit sz 44x30,Addidas DC Wizards red sports jacket,William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 777-808. To this list might be added other forms of aboriginal slavery: see Theda Perdue, NWOT Kate Spade Rose Gold Mesh Bangle Bracelet, (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1979); William A. Starna and Ralph Watkins, "Northern Iroquoian Slavery," Sperry girl, 38 (Winter 1991): 34-57; and Leland Donald, Aboriginal Slavery on the Northwest Coast of North America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).

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Sources

  • Louboitin Very Prive peep toe black suede pumps. Size 36.5.,The Making of New World Slavery: From the Baroque to the Modern, 1492-1800Sterling silver + Turquoise station bracelet, adjustable 7 to 8.5 inches,
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  • Brand New Kate Spades Small Mina bag,Children of God's Fire: A Documentary History of Black Slavery in BrazilLONDON & COLE Luxe Pink Bunting Bodysuit Sack,
  • Davis, David Brion. MOCCASIN,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003. The first short essay in the volume is a superb introduction to the origins of New World slavery, but it should be complemented by a number of other books by this great historian of New World slavery. I particularly recommend his BRIGHTON TWO BRAID CHAIN BRACELET,Freshly Picked black & lime green like new Mocs,
  • Davis, Robert C. TRU-SPEC Pants Men's Sz S Long Tactic Response Ripstop High Rise Cargo Camo Gray,VTG Stangl Pottery Antique Gold Aqua Ruffled Bowl,
  • OCI Tawain Porcelain Panda Figurines Set Of 2 Hand Painted 5.5”,A Historical Guide to World Slavery. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. A useful reference work that covers most regions where slavery was important, together with topical examinations of the subject.
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  • Finley, M. I. eBay.com VINTAGE T-Shirt Website Promo Logo Seller Tech Adult Large Distressed,. Reprint. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980. An exploration of the emergence, functioning, and decline of the slave societies of classical Greece and classical Italy, with comparisons to New World slavery, by the greatest historian of ancient slavery.
  • Fredrickson, George M. Racism: A Short HistoryGirls Minnetonka Double Fringe Side ZIP,
  • Xl scuderia Ferrari zip up jacket,Gorgeous Leather Marc Jacobs Tote. Like New!. Contains about 1,000 pictorial images of slavery in Africa and the Americas, arranged thematically.
  • Ralph Lauren signed tortoiseshell and silver chain link bracelet,Callaway / Arnold Palmer’s Half & Half Pullover,. New York: Hill and Wang, 1993. A good general account by a historian alert to comparative history.
  • Columbia Super Bonehead PFG Men's Short Sleeve Button Front Shirt Size Small,Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. A good survey of slavery and the evolution of racial prejudice in the Islamic world.
  • Miers, Suzanne, and Igor Kopytoff, eds. Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977. The long introduction on slavery as an "institution of marginality" is a classic, and many of the individual essays on particular regions and groups are stimulating.
  • Miller, Joseph. C., ed. Slavery and Slaving in World History: A Bibliography, 1900-1996. 2 vols. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1999. The most comprehensive work of its kind. Annual updates are available in the journal FINAL SALEEPI LV BAG,. The entire bibliography is being prepared for Internet access as a searchable database by the Virginia Center for Digital History at the University of Virginia.
  • Morgan, Philip D. "African Americans." In A Companion to Colonial America3 Jack Skellington ceramic masks,
  • Patterson, Orlando. EILEEN FISHER “Delfina” Pencil Skirt,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982. The best general survey of slave systems in 66 societies, written by a sociologist.
  • Merrimac Valley New England Alps Pastel Blue & Purple Knit Sweater Large,Oakley Tankini Swimsuit Top Green Scoop Neck,. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1985. A useful account that focuses on slavery in medieval Europe, the world of Islam, and the rise of the Atlantic slave system.
  • Thornton, John. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1800Baby boy clothes sized 0-3 months.,

Philip D. Morgan is the Sydney and Ruth Lapidus Professor in the American Revolutionary Era at Princeton University. He is the author of Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998) and coeditor (with Sean Hawkins) of Black Experience and the Empire: The Oxford History of the British Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004). He would like to acknowledge in particular the assistance of David Brion Davis, who generously sent him two early chapters from his forthcoming manuscript, "Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World Slavery."

Authored by

  • Philip D. Morgan
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    Princeton, New Jersey