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Africa and the Slave Trade

Arabs and their Muslim allies were the first to make use of large numbers of sub-Saharan black Africans. They developed a long-distance slave trade, which began in the seventh century and lasted into the twentieth. It delivered many millions of Africans across the Sahara Desert, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean to North Africa, the Mediterranean, and Persian Gulf. Although over a much longer period of time and comprising far more females, the number of Africans exported via these trans-Saharan or Indian Ocean slave trades probably equaled, or even outmatched, those of its transatlantic counterpart. The preexistence of these export trades facilitated Atlantic trade: systems of slave marketing were already in place. So numerous were black Africans at certain times and in certain places that they were able to launch massive slave revolts—in 869, for instance, in what is now southern Iraq, where the so-called Zanj (who came from the Swahili Coast and lands further north) worked in large gangs draining marshlands. While the Quran and Islamic law were essentially color-blind and while Muslims enslaved many so-called "white" people, medieval Arabs came to associate the most degrading forms of labor with black slaves. The Arabic word for slave, Tommy Bahama reversible sweater/LG,NEW Veja V-10 Suede Logo Womens US 9 EU 40 Low Top Sneaker Natural Babe,

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The Atlantic Slave System

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As slavery underwent a resurgence in southern Europe, it gradually disappeared from the northwestern part of the continent. Economic changes help to explain this development, but perhaps more important were cultural constraints. Over the course of the Middle Ages, Christians always committed awful atrocities on each other, but increasingly they avoided enslaving one another. Apparently, a sense of unity had emerged in Christian Europe that effectively barred the enslavement of those deemed fellow Europeans. Christianity's long struggle with Islam no doubt played a major role in this development. That from 1500 to 1800 Muslims enslaved well over a million Western Europeans, many of whom were subsequently ransomed and celebrated as symbols of freedom, was a major element in the growing sense that Europeans should never be slaves. Nevertheless, these so-called free labor nations would develop some of the harshest slave regimes in the Americas. As David Brion Davis puts it, "it is an astonishing paradox that the first nations in the world to free themselves of chattel slavery—such nations as England, France, Holland, and even the Scandinavian states—became leaders during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in supporting plantation colonies based on African slave labor." He likens this divide to a primitive Mason-Dixon line, "drawn somewhere in the Atlantic, separating free soil master-states from tainted slave soil dependencies" (8).

This paradox illumines the unpredictability of events in the Americas. No European nation embarked on New World ventures with the intention of enslaving anyone. They had no blueprint but rather proceeded haphazardly and pragmatically. Their first resort was to forced Indian labor (the encomiendaMichael Kors phone wallet/wristlet,

Consequently, Europeans faced a huge labor shortage. The Ottoman Turkish empire blocked access to Black Sea or Baltic captives. European nations no longer enslaved Christian prisoners of war. Some dreamers talked of enslaving the poor or other marginal groups, but the practical and principled problems of reviving European slavery were considerable. Another expedient was the transportation of convicts, but their numbers were never sufficient. Temporary bondage—indentured servitude—was the most obvious and most widely used other option, particularly in the early years, but servants, if they survived, eventually became free, and in any case most servants would not travel to the areas where most labor was needed. Thus, almost by default, African slaves proved by far the best available labor supply. Consequently, from 1500 to 1820 almost 9 million African slaves left for the New World, compared to less than 3 million whites. In terms of migration, the New World was more black than white (10).

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New World slavery's other most distinctive aspect was its highly commercial character. While it is true that plantations—that is, large agricultural enterprises, managed for profit, producing a crop for export, with a hierarchically stratified labor organization—existed outside the New World, they reached their apogee there. The economies of scale, the expansion in unit size, the almost exclusive use of black slaves, a highly regimented and commodified labor force, and a system of close management all raised profit levels significantly. Such a productive system placed enormous demands on its laborers. As early as the 1630s a visitor to a Jesuit-owned sugar plantation in Brazil vividly described the unbearable horror of what had transpired: "People the color of the very night, working briskly and moaning at the same time without a moment of peace or rest, whoever sees all the confused and noisy machinery and apparatus of this Babylon, even if they have seen Mt. Etna and Vesuvius will say that this indeed is the image of Hell" (13).

Patterns of New World Slavery

Variations over time and space existed within New World slavery. Three stand out. First, although all New World regions imported more African men than women (thereby in part explaining the harshness of New World slavery because of the policing problems associated with large gangs of men), over time the gender ratio among New World slaves became increasingly balanced. In that regard, the North American slave population is most notable, because, as its number of slave women increased the most rapidly, so it became one of the few self-reproducing slave populations in world history. This early and rapid natural increase explains why North America received such a small percentage of the overall transatlantic slave trade—about 5 percent. Second, North America was also distinctive in being much less tolerant of racial intermixture than Latin America or the Caribbean. Once again demography—particularly the ratio of white men to white women (more balanced in North America than in Latin America and the Caribbean) and the availability of black women—was a crucial part of the explanation, but also important were the role of the Church and cultural mores, based as much in Old World patterns of racial coexistence or segregation. The Spanish had mixed with Muslims for centuries; the English had created a Pale in their settlement of Ireland. Only in North America did the extremely arbitrary concept of "Negro"—denoting anyone with allegedly visible African ancestry—assume such a marked stigma. Third, the chances of gaining freedom varied from one society to the next. Except for the period surrounding the American Revolution, the North American colonies, and later the states, imposed the severest restrictions on the chances of a slave becoming free. Again, demography—the proportions of whites and blacks in the population—has some explanatory power as do economic and cultural forces (14).

North American slavery itself was hardly of a piece. The range encompasses New England's intimate "family slavery"; the Mid-Atlantic's mixed forms of slavery and servitude; the Chesapeake's patriarchal, small plantation, mixed farming and tobacco, heavily native-born form of slavery; and the low country's impersonal, large plantation, rice and indigo, more heavily African system of slavery. In addition, various borderland forms existed: from a fluid world of interracial alliances in the Lower Mississippi Valley to a flexible one of fugitives and ex-slaves in Spanish Florida to one in which Indian slaves were transformed from symbols of alliance into commodities of exchange in French Canada (15).

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  1. Doublju Dusty Rose Lounge Jumpsuit,The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-bellum South (New York: Knopf, 1956).

  2. Current/Elliott High-Rise Skinny Ankle Jeans Pink,International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, ed. David L. Sills and Robert King Merton (New York: Macmillan, 1968), 14: 307-13; Finley, Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology, reprint (Hammondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980), 9, 96, 102, 111, 113-14; Keith Hopkins, BCBGMaxAzria Coral Cutout Formal Dress /Perfect for wedding / prom / gala,Authentic CHANEL CC Quilted Bag Motif Brooch Pin Gold Corsage 26,Lineamaglia Alpaca Blend Fringe Cardigan Jacket wool sweater black white hook M, 138 (1993): 3-27; Keith Bradley, Slavery and Society at RomeFree People Bodysuit Top Intimately Chiffon Floral Print Black Small Women Lace,The English Sports Shop Bermuda Men's Multicolor Crew Neck Pullover Sweater SZ M,Unique true vintage 80-s Reel Legends Performance,The Problem of Slavery in Western CultureLACOSTE BLUE FACE & SILVER BAND W/ ORANGE TINTS. LACOSTE MENS WATCH NWT,NEW Nike SHOX Turbo Snakeskin University Ice Blue,Pastry Sparkly Silver/Gray Size 6.5 EUC,

  3. Ralph A. Austen, "The Trans-Saharan Slave Trade: A Tentative Census," Lululemon Speed Up Short *2.5" - Size 6 - Heather Lux Multi Black,, ed. Henry A. Gemery and Jan S. Hogendorn (New York: Academic Press, 1979), 23-76; Austen, "The Mediterranean Islamic Slave Trade out of Africa: A Tentative Census," montgomery ward leather jacket IPC0279,Vintage Neiman-Marcus Red Plaid Button-Up Shirt,Encyclopedia of Africa South of the Saharaabercrombie & fitch flannel !,International Journal of African Historical Studies 10 (1977): 443-61; Alexandre Popovic, The Revolt of African Slaves in Iraq in the IIIrd-IXth CenturyStella McCartney Loop Lace-Up Sneakers Size 36,2 Pair Womens, Sz 2, ATHLETA Board/ Hiking/ Swim Shorts.,Kate Spade Blue Fit and Flare,J Slides NYC Harling Zip Platform Sneaker In White Leather, (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998); Shaun E. Marmon, ed., Polo Sport Hi Tech Ralph Lauren 90s Vintage Red Windbreaker Zip Bomber Jacket, (Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener, 1998); Minra Tora and John Edward Philips, eds., Slave Elites in the Middle East and Africa: A Comparative StudyMen’s lightweight pink sweater XL,The African Diaspora in the Mediterranean Lands of IslamNike Womens Air Max 270 React ENG Sneakers Shoes Pink CK2595 001 Low Top 6 M New,Slavery on the Frontiers of IslamBillabong Flannel (plaid) Mens XL,

  4. Suzanne Miers and Igor Kopytoff, eds., Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological PerspectivesEmbellished midi skirt,WOODEN SHIPS Paola Buendia Pumpkin Spice Mohair Blend Open Front Cardigan, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990); John Thornton, O'connell's Tattersall Cotton Check Shirt Spring,NEW WITH TAGS - Birdy Grey Christina Dress,Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in AfricaStella McCartney Boston ‘White Golden Butter’,

  5. MENS AX PULLOVER SWEATER IN XS SLIM,Archivum latinitatis medii aeviFor Love and Lemons Casbah 3 Tier Stone Earrings + Storage Pouch, NWT,L'Esclavage dans l'Europe médiévale, vol. 1, Pénisule Ibérique—France (Bruges: De Tempel, 1955); vol. 2, Italie, Colonies Italiennes du Levant, Levant Latin, Empire Bysantin (Ghent: 1977); and Verlinden, The Beginnings of Modern Colonization: Eleven Essays with an IntroductionNWT Black Floral Lace Cocktail Dress,Slavery and Society in Medieval ScandinaviaTrue vintage PACO jeans International heavy cotton jean shirt Sz M,Vintage Carol Michael’s Shirt, (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 1995); Steven Epstein, Speaking of Slavery: Color, Ethnicity, and Human Bondage in Italy (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2001); and Sally McKee, "Inherited Status and Slavery in Late Medieval Italy and Venetian Crete," Alice + Olivia 100% lambskin red leather shawl collar asymmetric zip moto jacket,Oscar De La Renta Vintage Designer Boucle Tweed Tailor Lined Career Blazer,

  6. Anthropologie Maeve Merit Paisley Silk Tunic Top,Kate Spade hot pink vail dress, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982); Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440-1870 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997), 21-24, 48-86.

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  10. David Galenson, White Servitude in Colonial America: An Economic AnalysisNordstrom | Two-Tier Cathedral Wedding Veil | OS,Boys New Balance Fresh Foam Crag running shoe,Ariat pro series mens button down shirt XL plaid western cowboy,William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 58 (January 2001): 17-46. Two good microhistories of the transatlantic slave trade are Robert Harms, Weddington Way Lilac Chiffon Bridesmaid Dress,Calvin Klein Performance Relaxed Bell-Sleeve Tunic,The Two Princes of Calabar: An Eighteenth-Century Atlantic Odyssey (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004).

  11. David Eltis and William G. Clarence-Smith, "White Servitude," Formal white pearl bodice dress,Pier one tray,David Taylor plus size sweater, (London: Longman, 1996); Stanley L. Engerman, ed., Terms of Labor: Slavery, Serfdom, and Free Labor (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1999); and Bush, Keith Haring Members Only Artwork Bomber Jacket Black Light Men’s Size Large New, (Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2000).

  12. Frank M. Snowden Jr., Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1970); Snowden, GYMSHARK SEAMLESS SHORTS,Free People Back To Basics Floral Black Wrap Tunic Top,The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2004); Jean Devisse and Michel Mollat, eds., The Image of the Black in Western Art, vol. 2, Allure Bridals - wedding dress,SAS FUNK AGUA DOT WOMENS TRIPAD COMFORT SHOE Size 7,Images of the Medieval PeasantNike Air Max Plus Size 7C,DOLCE & GABBANA 2016 Fall Black Wool "Bon Ton" Button Detail Baby Doll Dress,Zara Backless Neoprene Bodysuit,White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812Blue men’s 100% cotton sweater, L,Race: The History of an Idea in the West (Washington, D.C.: The Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1996); the essays in "Constructing Race: Differentiating Peoples in the Early Modern World," William and Mary QuarterlyInstant pot duonova 7 in 1 8 qt,The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2003). The best account is David Brion Davis, "The Origins of Anti-Black Racism in the New World," chap. 3 in Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World SlaveryBugatchi® Men's Short Sleeve Luxury Shirt,

  13. Boho burnt orange split thigh belted cami jumpsuit,Various prints some numbered limited Jose Montanes Spanish artist, (New York: Norton, 1989); Schwartz, ed., Levi’s Slim Fit Jean Shirt,, 3.

  14. Frank Tannenbaum, Slave and Citizen: The Negro in the AmericasBlack genuine leather belt with gold hardware,Neither Black Nor White: Slavery and Race Relations in Brazil and the United States (New York: Macmillan, 1971).

  15. Authentic CHANEL CC Quilted Bag Motif Brooch Pin Gold-Tone Corsage 94P,Black Yankees: The Development of an Afro-American Subculture in Eighteenth-Century New England (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988); Graham Russell Hodges, Root and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1613-1863Banjul dress,Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and LowcountryNike run 4.0,Paige Margot Ankle Jeans Super High Rise Ireland Dark Wash 25,SALE!!!! Herve Leger Pink Sequin M dress,Nike Air Jordan 1 Mid (GS) Gym Red Black White Youth 6 Women's 7.5,Coach Vintage Briefcase Black Leather,William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 777-808. To this list might be added other forms of aboriginal slavery: see Theda Perdue, New Layne Bryant Floral Tunic 22/24, (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1979); William A. Starna and Ralph Watkins, "Northern Iroquoian Slavery," Keith Haring x Members Only Artwork Bomber Jacket Black Light Size Medium New, 38 (Winter 1991): 34-57; and Leland Donald, Aboriginal Slavery on the Northwest Coast of North America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).

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  • Davis, David Brion. Jhane Barnes Men's Pure Cotton Designer Shirt,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003. The first short essay in the volume is a superb introduction to the origins of New World slavery, but it should be complemented by a number of other books by this great historian of New World slavery. I particularly recommend his CLUB MONACO Denim Chambray Button Down Tunic Tank,Postmark Stamp Beige Textured Raw Edge Top,
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  • Finley, M. I. Shein Printed Bodysuit Women's Medium Multicolor Balloon Sleeve Faux Wrap Top,. Reprint. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980. An exploration of the emergence, functioning, and decline of the slave societies of classical Greece and classical Italy, with comparisons to New World slavery, by the greatest historian of ancient slavery.
  • Fredrickson, George M. Racism: A Short HistoryAdrianna Papell Embellished Floral Gown Nude,
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  • J. Crew Secret Wash Organic Cotton Button Down,Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. A good survey of slavery and the evolution of racial prejudice in the Islamic world.
  • Miers, Suzanne, and Igor Kopytoff, eds. Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977. The long introduction on slavery as an "institution of marginality" is a classic, and many of the individual essays on particular regions and groups are stimulating.
  • Miller, Joseph. C., ed. Slavery and Slaving in World History: A Bibliography, 1900-1996. 2 vols. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1999. The most comprehensive work of its kind. Annual updates are available in the journal NIB Madewell sidewalk wavy low-top sneakers in leather and calf hair size 7.5,. The entire bibliography is being prepared for Internet access as a searchable database by the Virginia Center for Digital History at the University of Virginia.
  • Morgan, Philip D. "African Americans." In A Companion to Colonial AmericaUntuckit Men's Light Blue Luxury L/S Shirt,
  • Patterson, Orlando. Nasty Gal Bodysuit,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982. The best general survey of slave systems in 66 societies, written by a sociologist.
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  • Thornton, John. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1800Barabas Men's Casual Button Down Shirt,

Philip D. Morgan is the Sydney and Ruth Lapidus Professor in the American Revolutionary Era at Princeton University. He is the author of Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998) and coeditor (with Sean Hawkins) of Black Experience and the Empire: The Oxford History of the British Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004). He would like to acknowledge in particular the assistance of David Brion Davis, who generously sent him two early chapters from his forthcoming manuscript, "Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World Slavery."

Authored by

  • Philip D. Morgan
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