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Africa and the Slave Trade

Arabs and their Muslim allies were the first to make use of large numbers of sub-Saharan black Africans. They developed a long-distance slave trade, which began in the seventh century and lasted into the twentieth. It delivered many millions of Africans across the Sahara Desert, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean to North Africa, the Mediterranean, and Persian Gulf. Although over a much longer period of time and comprising far more females, the number of Africans exported via these trans-Saharan or Indian Ocean slave trades probably equaled, or even outmatched, those of its transatlantic counterpart. The preexistence of these export trades facilitated Atlantic trade: systems of slave marketing were already in place. So numerous were black Africans at certain times and in certain places that they were able to launch massive slave revolts—in 869, for instance, in what is now southern Iraq, where the so-called Zanj (who came from the Swahili Coast and lands further north) worked in large gangs draining marshlands. While the Quran and Islamic law were essentially color-blind and while Muslims enslaved many so-called "white" people, medieval Arabs came to associate the most degrading forms of labor with black slaves. The Arabic word for slave, NWT Calvin Klein Black Gold Studs Dress Size 10,Mizuno Wave Lightening z3 volleyball shoes,

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The Atlantic Slave System

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As slavery underwent a resurgence in southern Europe, it gradually disappeared from the northwestern part of the continent. Economic changes help to explain this development, but perhaps more important were cultural constraints. Over the course of the Middle Ages, Christians always committed awful atrocities on each other, but increasingly they avoided enslaving one another. Apparently, a sense of unity had emerged in Christian Europe that effectively barred the enslavement of those deemed fellow Europeans. Christianity's long struggle with Islam no doubt played a major role in this development. That from 1500 to 1800 Muslims enslaved well over a million Western Europeans, many of whom were subsequently ransomed and celebrated as symbols of freedom, was a major element in the growing sense that Europeans should never be slaves. Nevertheless, these so-called free labor nations would develop some of the harshest slave regimes in the Americas. As David Brion Davis puts it, "it is an astonishing paradox that the first nations in the world to free themselves of chattel slavery—such nations as England, France, Holland, and even the Scandinavian states—became leaders during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in supporting plantation colonies based on African slave labor." He likens this divide to a primitive Mason-Dixon line, "drawn somewhere in the Atlantic, separating free soil master-states from tainted slave soil dependencies" (8).

This paradox illumines the unpredictability of events in the Americas. No European nation embarked on New World ventures with the intention of enslaving anyone. They had no blueprint but rather proceeded haphazardly and pragmatically. Their first resort was to forced Indian labor (the encomienda18K Gold Blue Opal Topaz Zircon Flower Earrings GF,

Consequently, Europeans faced a huge labor shortage. The Ottoman Turkish empire blocked access to Black Sea or Baltic captives. European nations no longer enslaved Christian prisoners of war. Some dreamers talked of enslaving the poor or other marginal groups, but the practical and principled problems of reviving European slavery were considerable. Another expedient was the transportation of convicts, but their numbers were never sufficient. Temporary bondage—indentured servitude—was the most obvious and most widely used other option, particularly in the early years, but servants, if they survived, eventually became free, and in any case most servants would not travel to the areas where most labor was needed. Thus, almost by default, African slaves proved by far the best available labor supply. Consequently, from 1500 to 1820 almost 9 million African slaves left for the New World, compared to less than 3 million whites. In terms of migration, the New World was more black than white (10).

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New World slavery's other most distinctive aspect was its highly commercial character. While it is true that plantations—that is, large agricultural enterprises, managed for profit, producing a crop for export, with a hierarchically stratified labor organization—existed outside the New World, they reached their apogee there. The economies of scale, the expansion in unit size, the almost exclusive use of black slaves, a highly regimented and commodified labor force, and a system of close management all raised profit levels significantly. Such a productive system placed enormous demands on its laborers. As early as the 1630s a visitor to a Jesuit-owned sugar plantation in Brazil vividly described the unbearable horror of what had transpired: "People the color of the very night, working briskly and moaning at the same time without a moment of peace or rest, whoever sees all the confused and noisy machinery and apparatus of this Babylon, even if they have seen Mt. Etna and Vesuvius will say that this indeed is the image of Hell" (13).

Patterns of New World Slavery

Variations over time and space existed within New World slavery. Three stand out. First, although all New World regions imported more African men than women (thereby in part explaining the harshness of New World slavery because of the policing problems associated with large gangs of men), over time the gender ratio among New World slaves became increasingly balanced. In that regard, the North American slave population is most notable, because, as its number of slave women increased the most rapidly, so it became one of the few self-reproducing slave populations in world history. This early and rapid natural increase explains why North America received such a small percentage of the overall transatlantic slave trade—about 5 percent. Second, North America was also distinctive in being much less tolerant of racial intermixture than Latin America or the Caribbean. Once again demography—particularly the ratio of white men to white women (more balanced in North America than in Latin America and the Caribbean) and the availability of black women—was a crucial part of the explanation, but also important were the role of the Church and cultural mores, based as much in Old World patterns of racial coexistence or segregation. The Spanish had mixed with Muslims for centuries; the English had created a Pale in their settlement of Ireland. Only in North America did the extremely arbitrary concept of "Negro"—denoting anyone with allegedly visible African ancestry—assume such a marked stigma. Third, the chances of gaining freedom varied from one society to the next. Except for the period surrounding the American Revolution, the North American colonies, and later the states, imposed the severest restrictions on the chances of a slave becoming free. Again, demography—the proportions of whites and blacks in the population—has some explanatory power as do economic and cultural forces (14).

North American slavery itself was hardly of a piece. The range encompasses New England's intimate "family slavery"; the Mid-Atlantic's mixed forms of slavery and servitude; the Chesapeake's patriarchal, small plantation, mixed farming and tobacco, heavily native-born form of slavery; and the low country's impersonal, large plantation, rice and indigo, more heavily African system of slavery. In addition, various borderland forms existed: from a fluid world of interracial alliances in the Lower Mississippi Valley to a flexible one of fugitives and ex-slaves in Spanish Florida to one in which Indian slaves were transformed from symbols of alliance into commodities of exchange in French Canada (15).

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  1. Loy and Ford Sequin Skirt size 2,The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-bellum South (New York: Knopf, 1956).

  2. 70s Blue and Gold Letterman Wool Cardigan,International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, ed. David L. Sills and Robert King Merton (New York: Macmillan, 1968), 14: 307-13; Finley, Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology, reprint (Hammondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980), 9, 96, 102, 111, 113-14; Keith Hopkins, TORRID Barely Boot Jeans Size 18,rag & bone new Yuri Boxing shorts silk spruce quilted XS,Authentic LOUIS VUITTON VAVIN GM HAND TOTE BAG SD0042 PURSE MONOGRAM CANVAS, 138 (1993): 3-27; Keith Bradley, Slavery and Society at RomeReformation Black Sigmund Dress size 6,KAT VON D XO VINYL OBSESSIONS LIPSTICK SET,One shoulder flowy asymmetrical maxi,The Problem of Slavery in Western CultureEILEEN FISHER Charco Bias Knitted Wool Creep Skirt,Rae Dunn Melamine Delish Set of 3 Bowls,- Mustard blazer work jacket business professional,

  3. Ralph A. Austen, "The Trans-Saharan Slave Trade: A Tentative Census," Express Editor Barely Bootcut Stretch Pants NWT 4S/4C NEW Trousers Workwear,, ed. Henry A. Gemery and Jan S. Hogendorn (New York: Academic Press, 1979), 23-76; Austen, "The Mediterranean Islamic Slave Trade out of Africa: A Tentative Census," Lafayette 148 Powder Blue Jacket &Skirt Set Size 8,Ralph Lauren Denim & Supply Mens Bootcut Leg Jeans Size 38x32 Acid Wash,Encyclopedia of Africa South of the SaharaLaundry Shelli Segal Dress Little Black Cocktail,International Journal of African Historical Studies 10 (1977): 443-61; Alexandre Popovic, The Revolt of African Slaves in Iraq in the IIIrd-IXth CenturyDeca Paris Wool Flower Applique Skirt 2,Boys Calvin Klein linen beige dress blazer,Wrangler 936DEN Cowboy Cut Slim Fit Denim Jeans Men's See Pics For Measurements,DÔEN Darby Dress, (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998); Shaun E. Marmon, ed., Navy check blazer, (Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener, 1998); Minra Tora and John Edward Philips, eds., Slave Elites in the Middle East and Africa: A Comparative StudyNisolo Everyday Chelsea Boot Brandy Size 8,The African Diaspora in the Mediterranean Lands of IslamA good Lock good space and a cross body bag,Slavery on the Frontiers of IslamKut From the Kloth Leopard Cheetah Animal Print Cardigan Sweater Top,

  4. Suzanne Miers and Igor Kopytoff, eds., Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological PerspectivesStuart Weitzman Black leather platform booties,PICADILLY Black Purple Sequin Detailed Blazer Top, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990); John Thornton, Lilly Pulitzer Tate Skirt in Breakwater Blue,Fuchsia Fair Isle Sweater,Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in AfricaNWT Shining Stars Pink Poodle Collectible Stuffed Animal,

  5. NEW***Convertible Hobo in White,Archivum latinitatis medii aeviDenizen by Levi’s shaping bootcut jeans 18,L'Esclavage dans l'Europe médiévale, vol. 1, Pénisule Ibérique—France (Bruges: De Tempel, 1955); vol. 2, Italie, Colonies Italiennes du Levant, Levant Latin, Empire Bysantin (Ghent: 1977); and Verlinden, The Beginnings of Modern Colonization: Eleven Essays with an IntroductionNew Anthropologie lace Top,Slavery and Society in Medieval ScandinaviaEmily Rust Lightweight fully Lined SkirtSuit Jacket- Skirt - Brand New Sz 8,Sorel Women's Emelie Chelsea Black Short Boot Waterproof Size 6, (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 1995); Steven Epstein, Speaking of Slavery: Color, Ethnicity, and Human Bondage in Italy (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2001); and Sally McKee, "Inherited Status and Slavery in Late Medieval Italy and Venetian Crete," ZARA Bermuda Shorts with Belt,Red fox light wash flare jeans size 11,

  6. MAC 4-Pc. Shiny Pretty Things Mini Lipsticks,NWT Russ Shining Stars Collectible Stuffed Animal Honey Bear, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982); Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440-1870 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997), 21-24, 48-86.

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  8. June Maxi Dress in color soft beige chiffon,American Historical ReviewReal freshwater pearl necklace with 14k gold clasp,Calvin Klein Jeans Sweater Zucchini Color Women L, (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003), 14; Robert C. Davis, Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500-1800 (Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave MacMillan, 2003). For more on the development of freedom and slavery, see David Eltis, The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), and Sue Peabody, There Are No Slaves in France: The Political Culture of Race and Slavery in the Ancien RégimeBanana Republic Gray Business Blazer Sz 8 Petite,

  9. Bianca Nygard Brown tan knit cardigan sweater Sz L,The Early Spanish MainCHICO’S Floral Print boho Zipper front Stretch Blazer cardigan,‍♀️Little Twin Stars × Sanrio Stardust Lip Mouse Pair !, (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1992); William L. Sherman, Forced Native Labor in Sixteenth-Century Central AmericaNWT Cynthia Steffe corduroy bermuda sailor shorts,Barefoot Dreams || Bamboo Chic Lite Calypso Cardigan,FRYE Erin Chelsea Elastic Ankle Boot,The Indian Slave Trade: The Rise of the English Empire in the American South, 1670-1717Authentic Chanel Medallion Caviar tote bag,Sas cozy double strap snake print sandals 10.5 w,, ed. Elizabeth Mancke and Carole Shammas (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005), 75-121. For a recent discussion of Indian population decline, see David S. Jones, "Virgin Soils Revisited," TSE PURE CASHMERE CARDIGAN,, 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 703-42.

  10. David Galenson, White Servitude in Colonial America: An Economic AnalysisMadewell Eastbrook Turtleneck Cross-Back Sweater in Cotton-Merino Yarn,2 LEFT! Furry boxy cut colorblock cardigan,Cynthia Rowley Floral Open Front Blazer Jacket,William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 58 (January 2001): 17-46. Two good microhistories of the transatlantic slave trade are Robert Harms, Madewell Hickory Turtleneck Sweater, NWT!,Navy and black double breasted blaZer,The Two Princes of Calabar: An Eighteenth-Century Atlantic Odyssey (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004).

  11. David Eltis and William G. Clarence-Smith, "White Servitude," Lululemon Free To Be Tank Raspberry Glo Light,Jeffrey Campbell Grey Sevenzero Platform Sandal,Madewell Plus Velvet Silk Blend Ruffle-Edge Skirt, (London: Longman, 1996); Stanley L. Engerman, ed., Terms of Labor: Slavery, Serfdom, and Free Labor (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1999); and Bush, Fendi loafers w/platform like new condition, (Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2000).

  12. Frank M. Snowden Jr., Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1970); Snowden, Eloquii Brocade Pants,FLY LONDON Luxe Anthracite Alvito Black Booties Size 40 Size 9- 9.5,The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2004); Jean Devisse and Michel Mollat, eds., The Image of the Black in Western Art, vol. 2, Tommy Hilfiger Boys sport coat 12 or 14,LAUNDRY SILK SKIRT,Images of the Medieval PeasantL.A Hearts Cardigan Sweater Womens One Size Open Up Knit,Pierre Hardy Ombré Pony Hair Pumps,CALVIN KLEIN Lined Blazer Sz S Orig 5!,White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812Brian Atwood Maniac Pump,Race: The History of an Idea in the West (Washington, D.C.: The Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1996); the essays in "Constructing Race: Differentiating Peoples in the Early Modern World," William and Mary QuarterlyKleancolor Femme Lipsticks Set of 4,The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2003). The best account is David Brion Davis, "The Origins of Anti-Black Racism in the New World," chap. 3 in Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World SlaveryExclusively Misook black high rise trousers M,

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  14. Frank Tannenbaum, Slave and Citizen: The Negro in the AmericasSterling silver lemon turquoise necklace,Neither Black Nor White: Slavery and Race Relations in Brazil and the United States (New York: Macmillan, 1971).

  15. Brand New Luna Norte Set of 2 Druzy Quartz 14K Gold Plated Brass Necklaces,Black Yankees: The Development of an Afro-American Subculture in Eighteenth-Century New England (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988); Graham Russell Hodges, Root and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1613-1863SALEJuicy Couture leather hobo bag,Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry60's Vintage Fashion Rite coat&bonnet 3T,Joe's Jeans Rocker Boot Cut Jeans,28 Diamonds Circle 14k White Gold Pendant,LAmade Long Sleeve Striped Hooded Long Sleeve Top,14K White Gold Pendant Leaf Design with Small CZ,William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser., 60 (October 2003): 777-808. To this list might be added other forms of aboriginal slavery: see Theda Perdue, Lucky Brand long-sleeve red shirt, (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1979); William A. Starna and Ralph Watkins, "Northern Iroquoian Slavery," Lululemon down mini skirt size 4 red, 38 (Winter 1991): 34-57; and Leland Donald, Aboriginal Slavery on the Northwest Coast of North America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).

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Sources

  • Vintage Diane von Furstenberg Pink Slip Dress S,The Making of New World Slavery: From the Baroque to the Modern, 1492-1800Jeffree Star lot of 3 items. Lip scrub, lip ammunition, velour liquid lip. NEW,
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  • ML Monique Lhuillier Crossneck Pleated Dress,Children of God's Fire: A Documentary History of Black Slavery in BrazilAquatalia Fuoco Suede Waterproof Booties,
  • Davis, David Brion. Stillwater Supply Funnel-neck Sweater,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003. The first short essay in the volume is a superb introduction to the origins of New World slavery, but it should be complemented by a number of other books by this great historian of New World slavery. I particularly recommend his J. Peterman Wool Herringbone Trousers,Boy’s Sport Coat,
  • Davis, Robert C. Hayley Paige Platinum/Dusty Blue Size 10 Dress,G-Star Raw Correctline Sweater Womens BLUE White Stripe Cardigan Size Large XL,
  • 14K Rose Gold Twist Box with Bar Chain ~1.1mm 24",A Historical Guide to World Slavery. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. A useful reference work that covers most regions where slavery was important, together with topical examinations of the subject.
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  • Finley, M. I. Kensington Home 1 Single Valance Curtain Linen Look Blue Brown Wooden Beads,. Reprint. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983, 1980. An exploration of the emergence, functioning, and decline of the slave societies of classical Greece and classical Italy, with comparisons to New World slavery, by the greatest historian of ancient slavery.
  • Fredrickson, George M. Racism: A Short HistoryMichael Kors slim puffer coat,
  • Amazing mauve chenille knit hi-low cardigan,NWOT Tory Burch Elizabeth 40MM Round Toe Pumps 8. Contains about 1,000 pictorial images of slavery in Africa and the Americas, arranged thematically.
  • Junior 16yrs Regular Navy suit,Toaster and teapot salt and pepper set,. New York: Hill and Wang, 1993. A good general account by a historian alert to comparative history.
  • Maggy London Vintage 1990s Metallic Blazer 14,Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. A good survey of slavery and the evolution of racial prejudice in the Islamic world.
  • Miers, Suzanne, and Igor Kopytoff, eds. Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977. The long introduction on slavery as an "institution of marginality" is a classic, and many of the individual essays on particular regions and groups are stimulating.
  • Miller, Joseph. C., ed. Slavery and Slaving in World History: A Bibliography, 1900-1996. 2 vols. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1999. The most comprehensive work of its kind. Annual updates are available in the journal Tiered organic cotton mini skirt in Liberty® Meadow Song floral,. The entire bibliography is being prepared for Internet access as a searchable database by the Virginia Center for Digital History at the University of Virginia.
  • Morgan, Philip D. "African Americans." In A Companion to Colonial America14K Gold Filled Black Onyx Zircon Hoop Earrings CZ,
  • Patterson, Orlando. Rock & Republic 36X32 Embroidered Flap Pocket Boot Cut Distressed,. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982. The best general survey of slave systems in 66 societies, written by a sociologist.
  • Vapormax worn once, bought them a size to big,VERA WANG Women’s Floral Long Sleeve Top Size XS,. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1985. A useful account that focuses on slavery in medieval Europe, the world of Islam, and the rise of the Atlantic slave system.
  • Thornton, John. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1800Studio 33 canvas beach bag,

Philip D. Morgan is the Sydney and Ruth Lapidus Professor in the American Revolutionary Era at Princeton University. He is the author of Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998) and coeditor (with Sean Hawkins) of Black Experience and the Empire: The Oxford History of the British Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004). He would like to acknowledge in particular the assistance of David Brion Davis, who generously sent him two early chapters from his forthcoming manuscript, "Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of New World Slavery."

Authored by

  • Philip D. Morgan
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    Princeton, New Jersey